Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (16)

Fever (15)

Pneumonia (9)

Fatigue (5)

Hypertension (5)


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    Epidemiology of COVID-19 vs. Influenza: Differential Failure of COVID-19 Mitigation among Hispanics

    Authors: William E Trick; Sheila Badri; Kruti Doshi; Huiyuan Zhang; Katayoun Rezai; Michael J Hoffman; Robert A Weinstein; Bhramar Mukherjee; Brockett Horne; Pooja Yesantharao; Bo Soo Kim; Broc Burke; Michael Montana; Michael Talcott; Bradford Winters; Margaret Frisella; Bradley Kushner; Justin Sacks; James Guest; Sung Hoon Kang; Julie Caffrey

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.21.20199018 Date: 2020-09-22 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: During the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, predominantly African-American or Hispanic communities were disproportionately impacted. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of COVID-19 among hospitalized Hispanic patients by comparing individual and census-tract level characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 to those diagnosed with influenza, another viral infection MESHD with respiratory transmission TRANS. We evaluated the temporal changes in epidemiology across race-ethnicity related to a shelter-in-place mandate. METHODS: We evaluated patients hospitalized at Cook County Health, the safety-net health system for the Chicago metropolitan area. Among self-identified hospitalized Hispanic patients, we compared those with influenza (2019-2020 influenza season) to COVID-19 infection MESHD during March 16, 2020 through May 11, 2020. We used multivariable analysis to identify differences in individual and census-tract level characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: Relative to non-Hispanic blacks and whites, COVID-19 rapidly increased among Hispanics during promotion of social-distancing policies. Whereas non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to be hospitalized for influenza, Hispanic patients predominated among COVID-19 infections (40% relative increase compared to influenza). In the comparative analysis of influenza and COVID-19, Hispanic patients with COVID-19 were more likely to reside in census tracts with higher proportions of residents with the following characteristics: Hispanic; no high school diploma; non-US citizen; limited English speaking ability; employed in manufacturing or construction; and, overcrowding. By multivariable analysis, Hispanic patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to those with influenza were more likely to be male TRANS (adjusted OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9) or obese MESHD (aOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.2), and to reside in a census tract with [≥]40% of residents without a high-school diploma (aOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8). CONCLUSIONS: The rapid and disproportionate increase in COVID-19 hospitalizations among Hispanics after the shelter-in-place mandate indicates that public health strategies were inadequate in protecting this population. In particular, those residing in neighborhoods with lower levels of educational attainment.

    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Karnataka State, South India: Transmission TRANS dynamics of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic TRANS infections

    Authors: Narendra Kumar; Shafeeq K S Hameed; Giridhara R Babu; Manjunatha M Venkataswamy; Prameela Dinesh; Prakash B G Kumar; Daisy A John; Anita Desai; Ravi Vasanthapuram; Jonathan Flint; Eleazar Eskin; Chongyuan Luo; Shangxin Yang; Omai B Garner; Yi Yin; Joshua S Bloom; Leonid Kruglyak; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.20196501 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In this report, we describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, specifically examining how the symptomatic persons drove the transmission TRANS in the state of Karnataka, India, during the lockdown phase. Methods: The study included all the cases reported from March 8 to May 31, 2020 in the state. Any person with history of international or domestic travel TRANS from high burden states, those presenting with Influenza-like or Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD and high-risk contacts of COVID19 cases, who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive were included. Detailed analysis based on contact TRANS tracing TRANS data available from line-list of the state surveillance unit was performed using cluster analysis software package. Findings: Amongst the 3404 COVID-19 positive cases, 3096 (91%) were asymptomatic TRANS while 308 (9%) were symptomatic. Majority of the asymptomatic TRANS cases were in the age TRANS range of 16-50 years while symptomatic cases were between 31-65 years. Most of those affected were males TRANS. Cluster analysis of 822 cases indicated that the secondary attack rate TRANS, size of the cluster (dispersion) and occurrence of overt clinical illness is significantly higher when the index case in a cluster was symptomatic compared to an asymptomatic TRANS. Interpretation: Our findings indicate that both asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases transmit the infection MESHD; however, the main driving force behind the spread of infection within the state was significantly higher from symptomatic cases. This has major implications for policies related to testing. Active search for symptomatic cases, subjecting them to testing and treatment should be prioritized for containing the spread of COVID-19.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

    Clinical Characteristics of Severe Covid Pneumonia HP: Exploring New Trends in ICU

    Authors: Aftab Akhtar; Sheher Bano; Ahtesham Iqbal; Moazma Ramzan; Aayesha Qadeer; Syed Waqar Hussain; Anam Saleem; Omair-ul-Haq Lodhi; Sana Zubair; Abdul Hameed kiani

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In late December 2019, Covid-19 emerged as clusters of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD of unknown cause in a province of china, Wuhan. Etiological agent was identified as novel coronavirus that resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD and has zoonotic transmission TRANS. Covid pneumonia HP can remain asymptomatic TRANS, present as mild infection, severe HP infection, severe MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD or respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Diagnosis is based on rRT-PCR carried out on respiratory secretions. Covid related mortality exceeds 50% once patient requires ICU admission. Objective: To study the characteristics of ICU population admitted to ICU of Shifa International hospital.Results: we prospectively analysed 74 patients which included 43.3% females TRANS and 56.7% males TRANS. Commonest symptoms were shortness of breath MESHD (94.5%), fever HP fever MESHD (74.3%) and cough HP (74.3%). Most of our study population consisted of non-smokers (79.7%) and had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (59.4%) followed by diabetes MESHD (47.2%). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin combination is superior to hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline in reducing mortality (p=0.023) whereas Doxycycline alone resulted in increased mortality (p=0.009). Those who did not require antibiotics or required only narrow spectrum antibiotics had increased survival and reduced requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p=< 0.0001). in our study population, (44.9%) developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, 2.7% needed re-intubations 10.8% developed surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD and 2.7 % thromboembolic MESHD events despite full anticoagulation. ICU mortality was 41.8% and was higher in females TRANS (59.4%, p=0.008), those who had SOFA score > 3.5 at time of admission, raised D-Dimers > 931 ng/ml, NLR > 9.2. It was further high in those who required invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support (58.1% mortality p=< 0.001). ICU stay was more prolonged in those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who did not. (23 days vs 6 days, p=0.001). Mean plateau pressure was 19.6 ± 7.6; mean Driving pressures 14.4 ± 4.6; mean PaO2/FiO2 150.7 ± 73.9; mean SPO2/FiO2 173.9 ± 106.9; mean PEEP was 8.2 ±4.33.Conclusion: We concluded that severe covid pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD is common amongst males TRANS, non-smokers those who had comorbid. HCQ and azithromycin combination is superior to combination of HCQ and doxycycline or doxycycline alone and QT prolongation MESHD is a rare complication. Baseline NLR, APACHI II, SOFA, SAPS II, NUTRIC scores, D-Dimers, invasive ventilation and vasopressor support are important tools to predict ICU mortality. Invasive mechanical ventilation carries higher mortality and associated with more prolonged ICU stay. AKI is most common complication followed by shock HP and surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD. CRP, Ferritin levels has no impact on outcome.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection Reaches MESHD the Human Nervous System: How?

    Authors: Vladimir N. Uversky; Fatma Elrashdy; Abdullah Aljadawi; Syed Moasfar Ali; Rizwan Hasan Khan; Elrashdy M. Redwan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0696.v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source:

    Without protective and/or therapeutic agents the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading worldwide. It has surprising transmissibility TRANS potential, since it could infect MESHD all ages TRANS, gender TRANS, and human sectors. It attacks respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, hepatic, and endovascular systems and can reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) through known and unknown mechanisms. The reports on the neurological manifestations and complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are increasing exponentially. Herein, we enumerate seven candidate routes, which the mature or immature SARS-CoV-2 components could use to reach the CNS and PNS, utilizing the within-body crosstalk between organs. The majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients suffer from some neurological manifestations (e.g., confusion HP confusion MESHD, anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, and ageusia MESHD). It seems that although the mature virus did not reach the CNS or PNS of the majority of patients, its unassembled components and/or the accompanying immune-mediated responses may be responsible for the observed neurological symptoms. The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS. This means that the blood SERO-endothelial-barrier may be considered as the main route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system, with the barrier disruption being more logical than barrier permeability, as evidenced by postmortem analyses.

    Clinical features and inpatient trajectories of older inpatients with COVID-19: a retrospective observational study.

    Authors: Christopher N Osuafor; Catriona Davidson; Alistair J Mackett; Marie Goujon; Lelane Van Der Poel; Vince Taylor; Jacobus Preller; Robert J B Goudie; Victoria L Keevil

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A comprehensive description of the clinical characteristics, inpatient trajectory and relationship with frailty of older inpatients admitted with COVID-19 is essential in the management of older adults TRANS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and inpatient trajectory of older inpatients with confirmed COVID -19.Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of hospitalised older adults TRANS. Subjects include unscheduled medical admissions of older inpatients to a University Hospital with laboratory and clinically confirmed COVID-19. The primary outcome was death MESHD during the inpatient stay or within 14 days of discharge after a maximum follow up time of 45 days. The characteristics of the cohort were described in detail as a whole and by frailty status.Results: 214 patients were included in this study with a mean length of stay of 11 days (Range 6 to 18 days), of whom 140 (65.4%) patients were discharged and 74 (34.6%) patients died in hospital. 142 (66.4%) patients were frail with median Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score of 6. Frail patients were more likely to present with atypical symptoms including new or worsening confusion HP confusion MESHD compared to non-frail patients (20.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.001) and were more likely to die in hospital or within 14 days of discharge (66% vs 16%, p=0.001). Older age TRANS, being male TRANS, presenting with high illness acuity and high frailty were all independently associated with higher risk of death MESHD and a dose response association between higher frailty and higher mortality was observed.Conclusions: Older adult TRANS inpatients with COVID-19 infection MESHD are likely to present with atypical symptoms, experience delirium HP delirium MESHD and have a high mortality, especially if they are also living with frailty. Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing for COVID-19 in older and frail patients presenting to hospital as an emergency during periods when there is community transmission TRANS of COVID-19 and, when diagnosed, this should prompt early advanced care planning with the patient and family. 

    The Prevalence SERO and Clinical Significance of Presymptomatic COVID-19 Patients: How We Can be One Step Ahead in Mitigating a Deadly Pandemic

    Authors: Juen Kiem Tan; Dalleen Leong; Hemalatha Munusamy; Nor Hazwani Zenol Ariffin; Najma Kori; Rozita Hod; Petrick Periyasamy

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission TRANS. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1-2 days prior to any symptom onset TRANS. Therefore, a large proportion of patients are actively spreading the disease TRANS unknowingly whilst undetected. However, lengthy lockdowns and isolation leads to a host of socioeconomic issues and are impractical. Conversely, there exists no study describing this group and their clinical significance despite their key role in disease transmission TRANS. As a result, we devised a study to look at the prevalence SERO of presymptomatic patients with COVID-19 and subsequently, identify early indicators of infection MESHD through demographic information, biochemical and radiological abnormalities which would allow early diagnosis and isolation. In addition, we will look into the clinical significance of this group and their outcome; if it differs from asymptomatic TRANS or symptomatic patients. Our analysis shows a higher proportion of presymptomatic patients with atypical symptoms like chest pain HP chest pain MESHD while symptomatic patients commonly present with respiratory symptoms like cough HP cough MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD. Besides that, there were more females TRANS presenting as presymptomatic patients and receiving treatment compared to males TRANS and this was found to be statistically significant. Otherwise, we were not able to identify other statistically significant markers suggesting a patient is presymptomatic. As we have little means of identifying these silent spreaders, it highlights further the importance of general measures implemented to stop COVID-19 transmission TRANS like social distancing, face mask, and widespread testing.

    Transmission TRANS Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a Mid-size City of China

    Authors: Hongjun Zhao; Xiaoxiao Lu; Wenhui Lun; Tiegang Li; Boqi Rao; Dedong Wang; Di Wu; Fuman Qiu; Zhicong Yang; Lu Jiachun

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: An outbreak of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and then spread to other cities. It is very urgent to delineate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these affected patients. Methods: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19, we describe a case series of 473 patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wenzhou of China from January 27 to March 2, 2020.Results: The median age TRANS of all patients was 47.6 years, 48.4% of which were female TRANS. 33.8% of the patients had a history of residence in Wuhan. Fever HP Fever MESHD (71.7%) and cough HP (43.1%) were the most common symptoms. In addition, three kinds of unconventional cases were observed, namely 4.9% asymptomatic TRANS patients, 7.6% confirmed patients who had no link to Wuhan city but contact with individuals from Wuhan without any symptoms at the time of contact, and 12.9% confirmed patients who had an unknown source of transmission TRANS. We estimated that the basic reproductive number TRANS ( R0 TRANS) was 2.75 (95%CI: 2.37-3.23). The effective reproduction number TRANS (Rt) fluctuated within the range of 2.50 to 3.74 from January 11 to January 16 while gradually reached the peak of 3.74 on January 16. Rt gradually decreased after January 16 and decreased to 1.00 on January 30. Rt continually decreased and reached the lowest point (0.03) on February 21, 2020.Conclusion: Our findings presented the possibility of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS affected with SARS-CoV-2, and this phenomenon suggested that chances of uncontrollable transmission TRANS in the larger population might be higher than formerly estimated, and transmission TRANS by these three kinds of unconventional patients in Wenzhou may be an important characteristic of infection MESHD in other mid-sized cities in the world. This study evaluated the epidemic characteristics of Wenzhou after having cases imported from Hubei Province and the effects after adopting a series of strict prevention and control strategy. 

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic among dentists in Poland.

    Authors: Ewa Rusyan; Agnieszka Mielczarek; Agnieszka Kapała; Kamil Adamczyk; Robert Piec; Barbara Szykuła- Piec

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The early information on both the speed and high morbidity rate and, above all, mortality, triggered the symptoms of COVID-19-related panic and anxiety HP anxiety MESHD. Dentists were listed in the top five professions with the highest risk of transmission TRANS of the virus. The paper aimed to assess the level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD among dentists in Poland. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey questionnaire. The study used a tool developed by the team of Ahorsu et al. The COVID-19 Fear Scale (FCV-19S) translated into the Polish language. The online questionnaire was completed by 356 dentists. Results: In the studied population of dentists, the perceived level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD associated with COVID -19 should be considered relatively low. Both gender TRANS and work experience had no significant impact on their level. When the respondents had children TRANS, lived with the elderly TRANS, or looked after them the observed level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD was higher and physical symptoms such as sweating palms and increased heart rate occurred.Conclusion: Despite the high risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD, the tested low level of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD among dentists is a positive predictor of the appropriate level of medical services provided by this group of doctors. 

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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