Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (37)

Cough (36)

Pneumonia (26)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (9)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 192
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    INFERRED RESOLUTION THROUGH HERD IMMMUNITY OF FIRST COVID-19 WAVE IN MANAUS, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Authors: Thomas Prowse; Tara Purcell; Djane Clarys Baia-da-Silva; Vanderson Sampaio; Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro; James Wood; Ivo Mueller; Jodie McVernon; Marcus Lacerda; Joshua Ross; Arif Anwar; Rozainanee Mohd Zain; Kevin O. McNerney; Julie Chase; Chakkapong Burudpakdee; Jessica H. Lee; Sokratis A. Apostolidis; Alexander C. Huang; Divij Mathew; Oliva Kuthuru; Eileen C. Goodwin; Madison E. Weirick; Marcus J. Bolton; Claudia P. Arevalo; Andre Ramos; Cristina Jasen; Heather M. Giannini; Kurt DAndrea; - The UPenn COVID Processing Unit; Nuala J. Meyer; Edward M. Behrens; Hamid Bassiri; Scott E. Hensley; Sarah E. Henrickson; David T. Teachey; Michael Michael R. Betts; E. John Wherry

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.20201939 Date: 2020-09-27 Source: medRxiv

    As in many other settings, peak excess mortality preceded the officially reported `first wave' peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Manaus, Brazil, reflecting delayed case recognition and limited initial access to diagnostic testing. To avoid early information bias, we used detailed age TRANS and gender TRANS stratified death certificate and hospitalisation data to evaluate the epidemic's trajectory and infer the cause of its decline using a stochastic model. Our results are consistent with heterogenous transmission TRANS reducing over time due to the development of herd immunity. Relative to a baseline model that assumed homogenous mixing across Manaus, a model that permitted a small, self-isolated population fraction raised the estimated herd-immunity threshold from 28% to 30% and reduced the final attack rate TRANS from 86% to 65%. In the latter scenario, a substantial proportion of vulnerable, older individuals remained susceptible to infection. Given uncertainties regarding the distancing behaviours of population subgroups with different social and economic characteristics, and the duration of sterilising or transmission TRANS-modifying immunity in exposed individuals, we conclude that the potential for epidemic outbreaks remains, but that future waves of infection MESHD are likely to be much less pronounced than that already experienced.

    The Use of Psychoactive Substances in the Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic in Brazil

    Authors: Cesar Augusto Trinta Weber; Ingridi Teixeira Monteiro; Julia Medeiros Gehrke; Wagner Silva de Souza; Anna Brough; Stephen Owens

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.20194431 Date: 2020-09-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The protocols for mitigating the transmission TRANS of Covid-19 seem to be a trigger for the use of psychoactive substances, as an individual's adaptive response to support this new way of being in the world. Objective: To investigate the use of psychoactive substances in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. Method: A cross-sectional and prospective observational study, undertaken in a virtual environment. An online survey was developed and employed through Google Forms to collect data. The survey was made available to participants on social networks, Facebook@, Whatsapp@, and Instagram@, linked to the research group, during the period 06/15/2020 to 07/15/2020. 1,145 individuals participated in the research. Results: The average age TRANS of the participants was 37 years old. They were mostly female TRANS, white, Brazilians, with a higher education level, with occupations in the health field, and had religion. They either maintained their family income or suffered a small income decrease. Moreover, they informed that they were caring for social isolation. The most used substances before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic were alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, although the use of these substances decreased (P<0.001). Approximately 32% of the participants started using psychoactive substances in this period. Among them, most individuals started by their own initiative. Conclusions: For a better understanding of the pattern use of psychoactive substances during the Covid-19 pandemic and the adverse effects on human behavior and mental disorders MESHD, careful longitudinal studies must be developed, due to the great interest in the knowledge of adaptive responses when people's lives are at risk.

    CHARACTERISTICS, MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOMES OF CRITICALLY ILL COVID-19 PATIENTS ADMITTED TO ICU IN HOSPITALS IN MESHD BANGLADESH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Authors: Ayan Saha; Mohammad Moinul Ahsan; Tarek-Ul Quader; Mohammad Umer Sharif Shohan; Sabekun Naher; Preya Dutta; Al-Shahriar Akash; H M Hamidullah Mehedi; A S M Arman Ullah Chowdhury; Hasanul Karim; Tazrina Rahman; Ayesha Parvin; Dilcia Sambrano; Yamitzel Zaldivar; Danilo Franco; Sandra Lopez Verges; Dexi Zhang; Fanjing Fan; Baojun Wang; Xavier Saez Llorens; Rodrigo DeAntonio; Ivonne Torres-Atencio; Eduardo Ortega-Barria; Rao Kosagisharaf; Ricardo Lleonart; Li Chong; Amador Goodridge; - COVID-19 SEROLOGY COLLABORATOR GROUP

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.20201285 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of critical COVID-19 cases and investigate risk factors including comorbidities and age TRANS in relation with the clinical aftermath of COVID-19 in critical cases in Bangladesh. Methods: In this retrospective study, epidemiological and clinical characteristics, complications, laboratory results, and clinical management of the patients were studied from data obtained from 168 individuals diagnosed with an advanced prognosis of COVID-19 admitted in two hospitals in Bangladesh. Results: Individuals in the study sample contracted COVID-19 through community transmission TRANS. 56.5% (n = 95) cases died in intensive care units (ICU) during the study period. The median age TRANS was 56 years and 79.2% (n=134) were male TRANS. Typical clinical manifestation included Acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) related complications (79.2%), fever HP fever MESHD (54.2%) and cough HP (25.6%) while diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (52.4%), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (41.1%) and heart diseases MESHD (16.7%) were the conventional comorbidities. Clinical outcomes were detrimental due to comorbidities rather than age TRANS and comorbid individuals over 50 were at more risk. In the sample, oxygen saturation was low (< 95% SpO2) in 135 patients (80.4%) and 158 (93.4%) patients received supplemental oxygen. Identical biochemical parameters were found in both deceased and surviving cases. Administration of antiviral drug Remdesivir and the glucocorticoid, Dexamethasone increased the proportion of surviving patients slightly. Conclusions: Susceptibility to developing critical illness MESHD due to COVID-19 was found more in comorbid males TRANS. These atypical patients require more clinical attention from the prospect of controlling mortality rate in Bangladesh.

    Predictors of Incident Viral Symptoms Ascertained in the Era of Covid-19

    Authors: Gregory Marcus; Jeffrey E Olgin; Noah Peyser; Eric Vittinghoff; Vivian Yang; Sean Joyce; Robert Avram; Geoffrey Tison; David Wen; Xochitl Butcher; Helena Eitel; Mark Pletcher; Dilcia Sambrano; Yamitzel Zaldivar; Danilo Franco; Sandra Lopez Verges; Dexi Zhang; Fanjing Fan; Baojun Wang; Xavier Saez Llorens; Rodrigo DeAntonio; Ivonne Torres-Atencio; Eduardo Ortega-Barria; Rao Kosagisharaf; Ricardo Lleonart; Li Chong; Amador Goodridge; - COVID-19 SEROLOGY COLLABORATOR GROUP

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.24.20197632 Date: 2020-09-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In the absence of universal testing, effective therapies, or vaccines, identifying risk factors for viral infection MESHD, particularly readily modifiable exposures and behaviors, is required to identify effective strategies against viral infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. Methods: We conducted a world-wide mobile application-based prospective cohort study available to English speaking adults TRANS with a smartphone. We collected self-reported characteristics, exposures, and behaviors, as well as smartphone-based geolocation data. Our main outcome was incident symptoms of viral infection MESHD, defined as fevers HP and chills HP plus one other symptom previously shown to occur with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, determined by daily surveys. Findings: Among 14, 335 participants residing in all 50 US states and 93 different countries followed for a median 21 days (IQR 10-26 days), 424 (3%) developed incident viral symptoms. In pooled multivariable logistic regression models, female TRANS biological sex (odds ration [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.39-2.20, p<0.001), anemia HP anemia MESHD (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.16-1.81, p=0.001), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08-1.68, p=0.007), cigarette smoking in the last 30 days (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.35-2.55, p<0.001), any viral symptoms among household members 6-12 days prior (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.67-2.55, p<0.001), and the maximum number of individuals the participant interacted with within 6 feet in the past 6-12 days (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25, p<0.001) were each associated with a higher risk of developing viral symptoms. Conversely, a higher subjective social status (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, p<0.001), at least weekly exercise (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.70, p<0.001), and sanitizing one's phone (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99, p=0.037) were each associated with a lower risk of developing viral symptoms. Interpretation: While several immutable characteristics were associated with the risk of developing viral symptoms, multiple immediately modifiable exposures and habits that influence risk were also observed, potentially identifying readily accessible strategies to mitigate risk in the Covid-19 era.

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices of COVID 19 among Medical Laboratory Professionals in Zambia

    Authors: Adon Chawe; Ruth L Mfune; Paul Syapiila; Sharon D Zimba; Pipina Vlahakis; Samson Mwale; Kapambwe Mwape; Memory C Kalolekesha; Misheck Chileshe; Joseph Mutale; Tobela Mudenda; Grace Manda; Victor Daka; Simon Leonard; Jean Feuillard; Vijay Tiwari; Jean Marc Tadie; Michel Cogne; Karin Tarte; Ulrich Rothbauer; Soumita Das; Pradipta Ghosh

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.22.20199240 Date: 2020-09-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 is a novel disease that has spread TRANS to nearly every country worldwide. Medical laboratory professionals are key in the fight against COVID-19 as they provide confirmatory diagnosis which is the main basis upon which cases are identified and clinical management instituted. Lack of knowledge, poor attitude and unsafe laboratory practices could have negative implications towards the control of COVID-19. We conducted a quick online questionnaire to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical laboratory personnel regarding COVID-19 in Zambia. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study among medical laboratory professionals in Zambia from 10th to 29th June, 2020. Data were collected using google forms and exported to SPSS version 23 for statistical analysis. Independent predictors of COVID-19 knowledge and practices were determined. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results: A total of 208 medical laboratory professionals participated in the study. There were more males TRANS (58.2%) than females TRANS. The majority of respondents had good knowledge (84.1%) and practice (75%) regarding COVID-19. Less than half (n=97, 46.6%) reported willingness to participate in a vaccination program. Predictors of good knowledge included; having a Bachelors degree (AOR: 5.0, CI: 1.15-23.9) and having prior COVID-19 related training (AOR: 8.83, CI: 2.03-38.4). Predictors of good practice included; having a masters or PhD qualification (AOR: 5.23, CI: 1.15-23.9) and having prior COVID-19 related training (AOR: 14.01, CI: 6.47-30.4). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that medical laboratory professionals in Zambia have good knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. However poor practices were observed There is need for continuous professional development (CPD) to ensure that medical laboratory professionals are well informed and aware of best practices to aid in curbing the pandemic. Key words: COVID-19, medical laboratory professions, knowledge, attitude, practice

    Epidemiology of COVID-19 vs. Influenza: Differential Failure of COVID-19 Mitigation among Hispanics

    Authors: William E Trick; Sheila Badri; Kruti Doshi; Huiyuan Zhang; Katayoun Rezai; Michael J Hoffman; Robert A Weinstein; Bhramar Mukherjee; Brockett Horne; Pooja Yesantharao; Bo Soo Kim; Broc Burke; Michael Montana; Michael Talcott; Bradford Winters; Margaret Frisella; Bradley Kushner; Justin Sacks; James Guest; Sung Hoon Kang; Julie Caffrey

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.21.20199018 Date: 2020-09-22 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: During the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, predominantly African-American or Hispanic communities were disproportionately impacted. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of COVID-19 among hospitalized Hispanic patients by comparing individual and census-tract level characteristics of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 to those diagnosed with influenza, another viral infection MESHD with respiratory transmission TRANS. We evaluated the temporal changes in epidemiology across race-ethnicity related to a shelter-in-place mandate. METHODS: We evaluated patients hospitalized at Cook County Health, the safety-net health system for the Chicago metropolitan area. Among self-identified hospitalized Hispanic patients, we compared those with influenza (2019-2020 influenza season) to COVID-19 infection MESHD during March 16, 2020 through May 11, 2020. We used multivariable analysis to identify differences in individual and census-tract level characteristics between the two groups. RESULTS: Relative to non-Hispanic blacks and whites, COVID-19 rapidly increased among Hispanics during promotion of social-distancing policies. Whereas non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to be hospitalized for influenza, Hispanic patients predominated among COVID-19 infections (40% relative increase compared to influenza). In the comparative analysis of influenza and COVID-19, Hispanic patients with COVID-19 were more likely to reside in census tracts with higher proportions of residents with the following characteristics: Hispanic; no high school diploma; non-US citizen; limited English speaking ability; employed in manufacturing or construction; and, overcrowding. By multivariable analysis, Hispanic patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to those with influenza were more likely to be male TRANS (adjusted OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9) or obese MESHD (aOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.2), and to reside in a census tract with [≥]40% of residents without a high-school diploma (aOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8). CONCLUSIONS: The rapid and disproportionate increase in COVID-19 hospitalizations among Hispanics after the shelter-in-place mandate indicates that public health strategies were inadequate in protecting this population. In particular, those residing in neighborhoods with lower levels of educational attainment.

    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Karnataka State, South India: Transmission TRANS dynamics of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic TRANS infections

    Authors: Narendra Kumar; Shafeeq K S Hameed; Giridhara R Babu; Manjunatha M Venkataswamy; Prameela Dinesh; Prakash B G Kumar; Daisy A John; Anita Desai; Ravi Vasanthapuram; Jonathan Flint; Eleazar Eskin; Chongyuan Luo; Shangxin Yang; Omai B Garner; Yi Yin; Joshua S Bloom; Leonid Kruglyak; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.20196501 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In this report, we describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, specifically examining how the symptomatic persons drove the transmission TRANS in the state of Karnataka, India, during the lockdown phase. Methods: The study included all the cases reported from March 8 to May 31, 2020 in the state. Any person with history of international or domestic travel TRANS from high burden states, those presenting with Influenza-like or Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD and high-risk contacts of COVID19 cases, who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive were included. Detailed analysis based on contact TRANS tracing TRANS data available from line-list of the state surveillance unit was performed using cluster analysis software package. Findings: Amongst the 3404 COVID-19 positive cases, 3096 (91%) were asymptomatic TRANS while 308 (9%) were symptomatic. Majority of the asymptomatic TRANS cases were in the age TRANS range of 16-50 years while symptomatic cases were between 31-65 years. Most of those affected were males TRANS. Cluster analysis of 822 cases indicated that the secondary attack rate TRANS, size of the cluster (dispersion) and occurrence of overt clinical illness is significantly higher when the index case in a cluster was symptomatic compared to an asymptomatic TRANS. Interpretation: Our findings indicate that both asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases transmit the infection MESHD; however, the main driving force behind the spread of infection within the state was significantly higher from symptomatic cases. This has major implications for policies related to testing. Active search for symptomatic cases, subjecting them to testing and treatment should be prioritized for containing the spread of COVID-19.

    Knowledge, attitude and practices related to COVID-19 among young Lebanese population

    Authors: Samer Sakr; Ali Ghaddar; Imtithal Sheet; Bassam Hamam

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-80033/v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: As the world faces the most serious and widespread pandemic in recent history, claiming nearly 700,000 lives and infecting close to 17 million individuals, controlling the spread of COVID-19 is still limited to efforts done by the general population implementing rules and restrictions passed by world governments and organizations. Awaiting the development of a cure or a vaccine, the best approach to fighting the spread of this disease TRANS is mostly preventative depending largely on individuals’ compliance. This study aims to test the KAP towards COVID-19 in Lebanon. Methods: A cross-sectional study of Lebanese population comprising of 1861 participants was used to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practices of individuals concerning COVID-19 in relationship to multiple variables such as age TRANS, gender TRANS, marital status, living area, education level, occupation in addition to their degree of worrying about this disease. Results: Our participants showed an overall appropriate knowledge (67.1%), positive attitude and practices that ranged from fair to very good, depending on its type, regarding COVID-19. When the components of KAP were analyzed with respect to variables, we found that levels of knowledge and practices positively correlated with people who were ever married, older, with higher degrees, worked in a healthcare field and with the degree of worry about getting COVID-19. Conclusions: In the absence of a vaccine, pandemics such as the current COVID-19 are best combatted by increasing public awareness leading to collective preventative practices. A key factor in this effort lies in creating a good environment that enhances people’s compliance with considerate pandemic behavioral rules in which governing bodies must be pivotal.  

    Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictive Value of COVID-19 Pneumonia HP: A Retrospective Study of 173 Patients in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Zhang; Jun Xue; Mi Yan; Jing Chen; Hai Liu; Shao-Bo Wang; Jian-Xing Luo; Fang Yang; Jian-Yuan Tang; Xiao-Yu Hu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76134/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a globally emerging infectious disease MESHD. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from Wuhan. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models.Results: 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever HP fever MESHD (67.6%) and cough HP (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age TRANS (OR: 3.420; 95%Cl: 1.415-8.266; P=0.006), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (OR: 0.143; 95%Cl: 0.033-0.611; P=0.009) and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (OR: 4.769; 95%Cl: 2.019-11.266; P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918; P=0.000). Older age TRANS (OR: 0.309; 95%Cl: 0.142-0.674; P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165; 95%Cl: 0.034-0.793; P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257; 95%Cl: 0.100-0.659; P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294; 95%Cl: 0.099-0.872; P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome; AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824; P=0.000).Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome.Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

    Face-masking, an acceptable protective measure against COVID-19: Findings of Ugandan high-risk groups

    Authors: Dickson Aruhomukama; Gerald Mboowa; David Musoke; Douglas Bulafu; Laura Sutton; Amanda Loban; Simon Waterhouse; Richard Simmonds; Carl Marincowitz; Jose Schutter; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20184325 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Face-masking could reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS. We assessed: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and practices towards COVID-19 and face-mask use among 644 high risk-individuals in Kampala, Uganda. In data analysis, descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, with a 95% confidence interval were considered. Adjusted-odds ratios were used to determine the magnitude of associations. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically-significant. Majority: 99.7% and 87.3% of the participants respectively had heard and believed that face-masks were protective against COVID-19, while 67.9% reported having received information on face-mask use. Males TRANS, food market vendors, those with no formal education, and those aged TRANS 24-33, 44-53 and 54-63 years were 0.58, 0.47, 0.25, 1.9, 2.12, and 3.39 times less likely to have received information about face-mask use respectively. Majority, 67.8% owned locally-made, non-medical face-masks, while 77.0% of face-mask owners believed that they knew the right procedure of wearing them. Those who had received information on face-mask use were 2.85 and 1.83 times more likely to own face-masks and to perceive them as protective. Food market vendors were 3.92 times more likely to re-use their face-masks. Our findings suggest that Ugandan high-risk groups have good knowledge, optimistic attitudes and perceptions, and relatively appropriate practices towards COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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