Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (6)

Fever (3)

Obesity (2)

Fatigue (2)

Anxiety (2)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    The Prevalence SERO and Clinical Significance of Presymptomatic COVID-19 Patients: How We Can be One Step Ahead in Mitigating a Deadly Pandemic

    Authors: Juen Kiem Tan; Dalleen Leong; Hemalatha Munusamy; Nor Hazwani Zenol Ariffin; Najma Kori; Rozita Hod; Petrick Periyasamy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-60558/v1 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission TRANS. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1-2 days prior to any symptom onset TRANS. Therefore, a large proportion of patients are actively spreading the disease TRANS unknowingly whilst undetected. However, lengthy lockdowns and isolation leads to a host of socioeconomic issues and are impractical. Conversely, there exists no study describing this group and their clinical significance despite their key role in disease transmission TRANS. As a result, we devised a study to look at the prevalence SERO of presymptomatic patients with COVID-19 and subsequently, identify early indicators of infection MESHD through demographic information, biochemical and radiological abnormalities which would allow early diagnosis and isolation. In addition, we will look into the clinical significance of this group and their outcome; if it differs from asymptomatic TRANS or symptomatic patients. Our analysis shows a higher proportion of presymptomatic patients with atypical symptoms like chest pain HP chest pain MESHD while symptomatic patients commonly present with respiratory symptoms like cough HP cough MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD. Besides that, there were more females TRANS presenting as presymptomatic patients and receiving treatment compared to males TRANS and this was found to be statistically significant. Otherwise, we were not able to identify other statistically significant markers suggesting a patient is presymptomatic. As we have little means of identifying these silent spreaders, it highlights further the importance of general measures implemented to stop COVID-19 transmission TRANS like social distancing, face mask, and widespread testing.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Among Symptom-Free Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Ryan T. Demmer; Angela Ulrich; Talia Wiggen; Ali Strickland; Brianna Naumchik; Shalini Kulasingam; Steven D. Stovitz; Clarisse Marotz; Pedro Belda-Ferre; Greg Humphrey; Peter De Hoff; Louise Laurent; Susan Kline; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166066 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Current evidence suggests that transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is possible among symptom-free individuals but limited data are available on this topic in healthcare workers (HCW). The quality and acceptability of self-collected nasopharyngeal swabs ( NPS MESHD) is unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and to assess the acceptability of self-collected NPS among HCW. Design: Cross-sectional convenience sample enrolled between April 20th and June 24th, 2020. We had >95% power to detect at least one positive test if the true underlying prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV2 was > 1%. Setting: The metropolitan area surrounding Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Participants: HCW free of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms were recruited. Exposures: Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics, household characteristics, personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and comorbidities. Outcomes: A participant self-collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was obtained. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was assessed via polymerase chain reaction. NPS discomfort was assessed on a scale of 1 (no discomfort) - 10 (extreme discomfort). NPS duration and depth into the nasopharynx, and willingness to perform future self-collections were assessed. Results: Among n=489 participants 80% were female TRANS and mean age TRANS+/-SD was 41+/-11. Participants reported being physicians (14%), nurse practitioners (8%), physicians assistants (4%), nurses (51%), medics (3%), or other which predominantly included laboratory technicians and administrative roles (22%). Exposure to a known/suspected COVID-19 case in the 14 days prior to enrollment was reported in 40% of participants. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any participant. The mean+/-SD discomfort level of the NPS was 4.5+/-2.0. 95% of participants reported that their self-swab was longer than or equal to the duration of patient swabs they had previously performed, and 89% reported the depth to be deeper than or equal to the depth of previous patient swabs. Over 95% of participants reported a willingness to repeat a self-collected NP swab in the future. Conclusions and Relevance: The point prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was likely very low in symptom-free Minnesota healthcare workers from April 20th and June 24th, 2020. Self-collected NP swabs are well-tolerated and a viable alternative to provider-collected swabs to preserve PPE.

    Phylogenomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from western India reveals unique linked mutations

    Authors: Dhiraj Paul; Kunal Jani; Janesh Kumar; Radha Chauhan; Vasudevan Seshadri; Girdhari Lal; Rajesh Karyakarte; Suvarna Joshi; Murlidhar Tambe; Sourav Sen; Santosh Karade; Kavita Bala Anand; Shelinder Pal Singh Shergill; Rajiv Mohan Gupta; Manoj Kumar Bhat; Arvind Sahu; Yogesh S Shouche

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.228460 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: bioRxiv

    India has become the third worst-hit nation by the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we investigated the molecular, phylogenomic, and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in western India, the most affected region of the country. A total of 90 genomes were sequenced. Four nucleotide variants, namely C241T, C3037T, C14408T (Pro4715Leu), and A23403G (Asp614Gly), located at 5UTR, Orf1a, Orf1b, and Spike protein regions of the genome, respectively, were predominant and ubiquitous (90%). Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed four distinct clusters, formed owing to different variants. The major cluster (cluster 4) is distinguished by mutations C313T, C5700A, G28881A are unique patterns and observed in 45% of samples. We thus report a newly emerging pattern of linked mutations. The predominance of these linked mutations suggests that they are likely a part of the viral fitness landscape. A novel and distinct pattern of mutations in the viral strains of each of the districts was observed. The Satara district viral strains showed mutations primarily at the 3' end of the genome, while Nashik district viral strains displayed mutations at the 5' end of the genome. Characterization of Pune strains showed that a novel variant has overtaken the other strains. Examination of the frequency of three mutations i.e., C313T, C5700A, G28881A in symptomatic versus asymptomatic TRANS patients indicated an increased occurrence in symptomatic cases, which is more prominent in females TRANS. The age TRANS-wise specific pattern of mutation is observed. Mutations C18877T, G20326A, G24794T, G25563T, G26152T, and C26735T are found in more than 30% study samples in the age group TRANS of 10-25. Intriguingly, these mutations are not detected in the higher age TRANS range 61-80. These findings portray the prevalence SERO of unique linked mutations in SARS-CoV-2 in western India and their prevalence SERO in symptomatic patients. ImportanceElucidation of the SARS-CoV-2 mutational landscape within a specific geographical location, and its relationship with age TRANS and symptoms, is essential to understand its local transmission TRANS dynamics and control. Here we present the first comprehensive study on genome and mutation pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 from the western part of India, the worst affected region by the pandemic. Our analysis revealed three unique linked mutations, which are prevalent in most of the sequences studied. These may serve as a molecular marker to track the spread of this viral variant to different places.

    Serial population based serosurvey of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in a low and high transmission TRANS area of Karachi, Pakistan

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar; Nadia Ansari; Mashal Amin; Farah Khalid; Aneeta Hotwani; Najeeb Rehman; Arjumand Rizvi; Arslan Memon; Zahoor Ahmed; Ashfaque Ahmed; Junaid Iqbal; Ali Faisal Saleem; Uzma Bashir Aamir; Daniel B Larremore; Bailey Fosdick; Fyezah Jehan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163451 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Pakistan is among the first low- and middle-income countries affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Monitoring progress through serial sero-surveys SERO, particularly at household level, in densely populated urban communities can provide insights in areas where testing is non-uniform. Methods Two serial cross-sectional household surveys were performed in April (phase 1) and June (phase 2) 2020 each in a low- (District Malir) and high- transmission TRANS (District East) area of Karachi, Pakistan. Household were selected using simple random sampling (Malir) and systematic random sampling (East). Individual participation rate from consented households was 82.3% (1000/1215 eligible) in phase 1 and 76.5% (1004/1312 eligible) in phase 2. All household members or their legal guardians answered questions related to symptoms of Covid-19 and provided blood SERO for testing with commercial Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO targeting combined IgG and IgM. Seroprevalence SERO estimates were computed for each area and time point independently. Given correlation among household seropositivity values, a Bayesian regression model accounting for household membership, age TRANS and gender TRANS was used to estimate seroprevalence SERO. These estimates by age TRANS and gender TRANS were then post-stratified to adjust for the demographic makeup of the respective district. The household conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS was estimated for each district and its confidence interval were obtained using a non-parametric bootstrap of households. Findings Post-stratified seroprevalence SERO was estimated to be 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) in low-and 0.4% (95% CI 0 - 1.3) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 1 and 8.7% (95% CI 5.1-13.1) in low- and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4 -21.7) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 2, with no consistent patterns between prevalence SERO rates for males TRANS and females TRANS. Conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD estimates (possible only for phase 2) were 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) in low- and 0.41(95% CI 0.28-0.52) in high- transmission TRANS areas. Of the 166 participants who tested positive, only 9(5.4%) gave a history of any symptoms. Interpretation A large increase in seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is seen, even in areas where transmission TRANS is reported to be low. Mostly the population is still seronegative. A large majority of seropositives do not report any symptoms. The probability that an individual in a household is infected, given that another household member is infected is high in both the areas. These results emphasise the need to enhance surveillance activities of COVID-19 especially in low- transmission TRANS sites and provide insights to risks of household transmission TRANS in tightly knit neighbourhoods in urban LMIC settings.

    Comparison of viral levels in individuals with or without symptoms at time of COVID-19 testing among 32,480 residents and staff of nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Massachusetts.

    Authors: Niall J Lennon; Roby P Bhattacharyya; Michael J Mina; Heidi L Rehm; Deborah T Hung; Sandra Smole; Ann Woolley; Eric S Lander; Stacey B Gabriel

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20157792 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Transmission TRANS of COVID-19 from people without symptoms poses considerable challenges to public health containment measures. The distribution of viral loads in individuals with and without symptoms remains uncertain. Comprehensive cross-sectional screening of all individuals in a given setting provides an unbiased way to assess viral loads independent of symptoms, which informs transmission risks TRANS. COVID-19 cases initially peaked in Massachusetts in mid-April 2020 before declining through June, and congregate living facilities were particularly affected during this early surge. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a large public health-directed outbreak response initiative that involved comprehensive screening within nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Massachusetts to compare nasopharyngeal (NP) viral loads (as measured by RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) levels) in residents and staff to inform our ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with or without symptoms in the population. Methods Between April 9 and June 9, 2020, we tested NP swabs from 32,480 unique individuals comprising staff and residents of the majority of nursing homes and assisted living facilities in Massachusetts. Under the direction of the MA Department of Public Health (MDPH), symptomatology at the time of sampling and demographic information was provided by each facility for each individual to facilitate reporting to health officials. NP swabs were collected, RNA extracted, and SARS-CoV-2 testing performed using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results The nursing home and assisted living facilities resident cohort (N =16,966) was 65% female TRANS with a mean age TRANS of 82 years (SD 13 yrs). The staff cohort (N = 15,514) was 76% female TRANS with a median age TRANS of 45 (SD 15 yrs). A total 2654 residents (15.5%) and 624 staff (4.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. 12.7% of residents and 3.7% of staff without symptoms tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared to 53.1% of residents and 18.2% of staff with symptoms. Of the individuals who tested positive, 70.8% of residents and 92.4% of staff lacked symptoms at the time of testing. In aggregate, the distributions of Cts for viral probes used in the qRT-PCR assay were very similar, with a statistically but not meaningfully different mean ({triangleup}Ct 0.71 cycles, p = 0.006) and a similar range (12-38 cycles), between populations with and without symptoms over the entire time period, across all sub-categories examined ( age TRANS, race, ethnicity, sex, resident/staff). Importantly, the Ct mean values and range were indistinguishable between the populations by symptom class during the peak of the outbreak in Massachusetts, with a Ct gap appearing only later in the survey period, reaching >3 cycles (p [≤] 0.001) for facilities sampled during the last two weeks of the study. Conclusions In a large cohort of individuals screened for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR, we found strikingly similar distributions of viral load in patients with or without symptoms at the time of testing during the local peak of the epidemic; as the epidemic waned, individuals without symptoms at the time of testing had lower viral loads. The size of the study population, including both staff and residents spanning a wide range of ages TRANS, provides a comprehensive cross-sectional point prevalence SERO measurement of viral burden in a study spanning 2 months. Because the distributions of viral loads in infected individuals irrespective of symptomatology are very similar, existing testing modalities that have been validated for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in symptomatic patients should perform similarly in individuals without symptoms at the time of testing.

    Prevalence SERO of mask wearing in northern Vermont in response to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Brian Beckage; Thomas E Buckley; Maegan E Beckage

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20158980 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    Information on prevalence SERO of face mask usage in response to SARS-CoV-2 is required to both model disease spread TRANS and to improve compliance with mask usage. We sought to (1) estimate the prevalence SERO of mask usage in northern Vermont and to (2) assess the effect of age TRANS and sex on mask usage. We monitored the entrances to businesses and visually assessed individuals age TRANS, sex, and mask usage from a distance. We collected 1004 observations from 16 May through 30 May 2020 as businesses began to reopen following an extended state-wide lockdown. We analyzed these data using Bayesian random effects logistic regression. 75.5% of individuals used a mask with significant effects of age TRANS and sex on mask usage. Females TRANS were more likely than males TRANS to wear masks (83.8%, n=488 vs.67.6%, n=516); the odds of mask usage in males TRANS were 53% of those for females TRANS. Elders were most likely to wear a mask (91.4%, n=209) followed by young adults TRANS (74.8%, n=246), middle- aged TRANS adults TRANS (70.7%, n=519) and children TRANS (53.3%, n=30). The odds of an elder wearing a mask were 16.7 times that of a child TRANS, while the odds for young adults TRANS and middle- aged TRANS adults TRANS were {approx}3 times greater than for a child TRANS. Highest mask usage was in elder females TRANS (96.3%, n=109) and lowest mask usage was in male TRANS children TRANS (43.8%, n=16). We found high prevalence SERO of mask usage overall, but also large differences in mask usage with age TRANS and sex. Females TRANS and elders had the highest use of face masks.

    Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Medical Interns Toward COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey, April-May 2020

    Authors: Sultan Fahad ALNohair; Ilias Mahmud; Fahad ALShehri; Rakan ALShuqayran; Manal ALBatanouni

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48682/v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a highly infectious, rapidly spreading disease TRANS without any proven vaccine or treatment. Poor knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) toward COIVD-19 prevention measures among healthcare workers may lead to further transmission TRANS of the disease. Lack of attention towards non-frontline healthcare workers may put them at higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD from undetected cases. Here, we evaluate medical interns’ KAP toward COVID-19 prevention measures in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey. We distributed a structured questionnaire to the medical interns through different social media. Data was collected between April and May 2020. We estimated the prevalence SERO of good KAP toward COVID-19 prevention measures. We did T-test or ANOVA to investigate the mean differences in KAP between socio-demographic groups. In addition, we did multivariable logistic regression analysis to investigate the socio-demographic determinants of good KAP.Results: Of the total 250 participants, 60% were males TRANS, 64% were aged TRANS between 20 and 25 years, and 90% was Saudi. 24% interns are relying on social media, newspaper, television or friends TRANS as primary source of COVID-19 information, while others are relying on formal sources like official websites of national and international bodies. Overall, the prevalence SERO of good knowledge, attitude and practices are 38% (95% CI: 32.2-44.2), 55.2% (48.9-61.3) and 24% (19.1-29.7), respectively. Graduating from government universities are associated with higher odds of good knowledge (aOR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.05-14.22) and positive attitude (aOR: 4.84; 95% CI: 1.28-18.23) than private or foreign universities. While, practicing in the west region-Mecca and Medina (aOR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.05-5.23); and the North region-Hail, Jouf, Tabuk & Northern borders (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.32-7.75) are associated to higher odds of moderate/good practice compared to practicing in the central region- Riyadh and Qassim.  Conclusions: Our findings reveal gaps in KAP among medical interns. Medical interns in Saudi Arabia are not deployed as front-line health worker to combat COVID-19. However, community transmission TRANS of COVID-19 make it critical to improve KAP of medical interns toward COVID-19 prevention measures. Repeated training to improve KAP and competency of the medical interns in this regard are warranted. 

    SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Rates of Children TRANS in Louisiana During the State Stay at Home Order.

    Authors: Monika L Dietrich; Elizabeth B Norton; Debra Elliott; Ashley R Smira; Julie A Rouelle; Nell G Bond; Karen Aime-Marcelin; Alisha Prystowsky; Rebecca Kemnitz; Arunava Sarma; Sarah Talia Himmelfarb; Neha Sharma; Addison E Stone; Randall Craver; Alyssa R Lindrose; Leslie A Smitley; Robert B Uddo; Leann Myers; Stacy S Drury; John S Schieffelin; James E Robinson; Kevin J Zwezdaryk

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20147884 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Children TRANS (less than 19 years) account for 20% of the US population but currently represent less than 2% of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Because infected children TRANS often have few or no symptoms and may not be tested, the extent of infection in children TRANS is poorly understood. METHODS During the March 18th-May 15th 2020 Louisiana Stay At Home Order, 1690 blood SERO samples from 812 individuals from a Childrens Hospital were tested for antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Demographics, COVID-19 testing, and clinical presentation abstracted from medical records were compared with local COVID-19 cases. RESULTS In total, 62 subjects (7.6%) were found to be seropositive. The median age TRANS was 11 years with 50.4% female TRANS. The presenting complaint of seropositive patients was chronic illness MESHD (43.5%). Only 18.2% had a previous positive COVID-19 PCR or antibody test SERO. Seropositivity was significantly associated with parish (counties), race, and residence in a low-income area. Importantly, seropositivity was linearly correlated with cumulative COVID-19 case number for all ages TRANS by parish. CONCLUSION In a large retrospective study, the seropositivity prevalence SERO for SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS in Louisiana during the mandated Stay At Home Order was 7.6%. Residence location, race, and lower socioeconomic factors were linked to more frequent seropositivity in children TRANS and correlated to regional COVID-19 case rates. Thus, a significant number of children TRANS in Louisiana had SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD that went undetected and unreported and may have contributed to virus transmission TRANS.

    Asymptomatic TRANS people with SARS-CoV-2 as unseen carriers TRANS of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Gopiram Syangtan; Shrijana Bista; Prabin Dawadi; Binod Rayamajhee; Lok Bahadur Shrestha; Reshma Tuladhar; Dev Raj Joshi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39512/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The asymptomatic TRANS patients with SARS-CoV-2 can act as an unseen carrier TRANS for magnifying the transmission TRANS of COVID-19.Aims This study was designed to appraise the burden of asymptomatic TRANS individuals and estimate their occurrence among different age groups TRANS and gender TRANS by reviewing the existing published data on asymptomatic TRANS people with COVID-19.Methods Three electronic databases: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science (WoS) were used to search studies as per the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and the search was limited to English language. The study population of this review includes asymptomatic TRANS individuals infected by COVID-19. All original articles which have reported cases of the COVID-19 patients with no symptoms until 31 April 2020 were included in the study. Random effects model was applied to analyze pooled data on the prevalence SERO of symptomless cases among total COVID-19 infected MESHD patients and also on different age groups TRANS and gender TRANS.Results In the meta-analysis of 16 studies, comprising 2,788 COVID-19 infected MESHD patients, the pooled prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS cases was 48.2% (95% CI, 30%-67%). Among the asymptomatic TRANS patients, 55.5% (95% CI, 43.6%-66.8%) were female TRANS and 49.6% (95% CI, 20.5%-79.1%) were children TRANS.Conclusion About half of the COVID-19 infected MESHD patients were asymptomatic TRANS cases. Children TRANS and females TRANS were more apparent to be asymptomatic TRANS patient of COVID-19 and could act as unseen carrier TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Symptom based screening only, might fail to identify all SARS-CoV-2 infections escalating MESHD the threat of global spread of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, mass surveillance system tracking asymptomatic TRANS cases is a pressing need of public health, paying special attention to female TRANS and young children TRANS, which could aid in prevention and containment of this unprecedented pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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