Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (34)

Fever (34)

Pneumonia (25)

Hypertension (18)

Fatigue (9)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 184
    records per page

    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Karnataka State, South India: Transmission TRANS dynamics of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic TRANS infections

    Authors: Narendra Kumar; Shafeeq K S Hameed; Giridhara R Babu; Manjunatha M Venkataswamy; Prameela Dinesh; Prakash B G Kumar; Daisy A John; Anita Desai; Ravi Vasanthapuram; Jonathan Flint; Eleazar Eskin; Chongyuan Luo; Shangxin Yang; Omai B Garner; Yi Yin; Joshua S Bloom; Leonid Kruglyak; Jason M Goldstein; Joel M Montgomery; Christina F Spiropoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.20196501 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In this report, we describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, specifically examining how the symptomatic persons drove the transmission TRANS in the state of Karnataka, India, during the lockdown phase. Methods: The study included all the cases reported from March 8 to May 31, 2020 in the state. Any person with history of international or domestic travel TRANS from high burden states, those presenting with Influenza-like or Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD and high-risk contacts of COVID19 cases, who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive were included. Detailed analysis based on contact TRANS tracing TRANS data available from line-list of the state surveillance unit was performed using cluster analysis software package. Findings: Amongst the 3404 COVID-19 positive cases, 3096 (91%) were asymptomatic TRANS while 308 (9%) were symptomatic. Majority of the asymptomatic TRANS cases were in the age TRANS range of 16-50 years while symptomatic cases were between 31-65 years. Most of those affected were males TRANS. Cluster analysis of 822 cases indicated that the secondary attack rate TRANS, size of the cluster (dispersion) and occurrence of overt clinical illness is significantly higher when the index case in a cluster was symptomatic compared to an asymptomatic TRANS. Interpretation: Our findings indicate that both asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases transmit the infection MESHD; however, the main driving force behind the spread of infection within the state was significantly higher from symptomatic cases. This has major implications for policies related to testing. Active search for symptomatic cases, subjecting them to testing and treatment should be prioritized for containing the spread of COVID-19.

    Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictive Value of COVID-19 Pneumonia HP: A Retrospective Study of 173 Patients in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Zhang; Jun Xue; Mi Yan; Jing Chen; Hai Liu; Shao-Bo Wang; Jian-Xing Luo; Fang Yang; Jian-Yuan Tang; Xiao-Yu Hu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a globally emerging infectious disease MESHD. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from Wuhan. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models.Results: 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever HP fever MESHD (67.6%) and cough HP (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age TRANS (OR: 3.420; 95%Cl: 1.415-8.266; P=0.006), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (OR: 0.143; 95%Cl: 0.033-0.611; P=0.009) and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (OR: 4.769; 95%Cl: 2.019-11.266; P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918; P=0.000). Older age TRANS (OR: 0.309; 95%Cl: 0.142-0.674; P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165; 95%Cl: 0.034-0.793; P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257; 95%Cl: 0.100-0.659; P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294; 95%Cl: 0.099-0.872; P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome; AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824; P=0.000).Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome.Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

    Face-masking, an acceptable protective measure against COVID-19: Findings of Ugandan high-risk groups

    Authors: Dickson Aruhomukama; Gerald Mboowa; David Musoke; Douglas Bulafu; Laura Sutton; Amanda Loban; Simon Waterhouse; Richard Simmonds; Carl Marincowitz; Jose Schutter; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20184325 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Face-masking could reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS. We assessed: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and practices towards COVID-19 and face-mask use among 644 high risk-individuals in Kampala, Uganda. In data analysis, descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, with a 95% confidence interval were considered. Adjusted-odds ratios were used to determine the magnitude of associations. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically-significant. Majority: 99.7% and 87.3% of the participants respectively had heard and believed that face-masks were protective against COVID-19, while 67.9% reported having received information on face-mask use. Males TRANS, food market vendors, those with no formal education, and those aged TRANS 24-33, 44-53 and 54-63 years were 0.58, 0.47, 0.25, 1.9, 2.12, and 3.39 times less likely to have received information about face-mask use respectively. Majority, 67.8% owned locally-made, non-medical face-masks, while 77.0% of face-mask owners believed that they knew the right procedure of wearing them. Those who had received information on face-mask use were 2.85 and 1.83 times more likely to own face-masks and to perceive them as protective. Food market vendors were 3.92 times more likely to re-use their face-masks. Our findings suggest that Ugandan high-risk groups have good knowledge, optimistic attitudes and perceptions, and relatively appropriate practices towards COVID-19.

    Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic and Pattern of Patient Care in Otorhinolaryngology Practice in a Tertiary Referral Centre

    Authors: Dr Kalpana Sharma; Dr Abhilasha Goswami; Dr Sarun S M

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aims-To study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on patient load in a tertiary care centre and the innovations and methods used to improve the safety of the healthcare workers, to provide adequate treatment in the department of Otorhinolaryngology.Materials and methods-This study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, at a tertiary care hospital centre in North-East India. This study included data collected from the patient registers maintained in our department, and included data over a 4-month period, from April, 2020 to July, 2020. Age TRANS, gender TRANS, place of residence, clinical diagnosis and the operative procedure performed were included in the data profile for analysis. The above-mentioned registers were also reviewed to retrieve details about the rate of admission during the study period in the previous year. Data was collected and represented, in both descriptive and tabular forms, after proper statistical analysis.Results-We found out that there is a drastic reduction in number of patients attending in our department of Otorhinolaryngology during this COVID-19 pandemic. Certain innovative methods for protecting healthcare workers from viral transmission TRANS were put into our practice based on the peer reviewed articles, from June,2020 and the rate of elective procedures and in-patient admissions were thus increased.Conclusion- Knowledge of new innovative methods in Otorhinolaryngology will help overcome the difficulties faced during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

    A world apart: levels and factors of excess mortality due to COVID-19 in care homes. The case of Wallonia - Belgium.

    Authors: Olivier J. Hardy; Dominique Dubourg; Mélanie Bourguignon; Simon Dellicour; Thierry Eggerickx; Marius Gilbert; Jean-Paul Sanderson; Aline Scohy; Eline Vandael; Jean-Michel Decroly; Josephine Soltani; Mehrsa Koukabi-Fradelizi; Jean Paul Beressi; Cecile Laureana; Jean Fran&ccedilois Prost; Livarek Bernard; Elisabet Leiva; Albert Ariza-Sole; Paolo D Dallaglio; Maria Quero; Antonio Soriano; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20183210 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 became pandemic in 2020 and causes higher mortality in males TRANS (M) than females TRANS (F) and among older people. In some countries, like Belgium, more than half of COVID-19 confirmed or suspected deaths occurring in spring 2020 concerned residents of care homes. The high incidence in this population is certainly linked to its peculiar age TRANS structure but could also result from its poorer general health condition and/or from a higher contamination through the staff of care homes, while protection equipment and testing capacity were initially limited. To address these issues, we used data from Wallonia (Belgium) to characterize the distribution of death rates among care home institutions, to compare the dynamics of deaths in and outside care homes, and to analyse how age TRANS and sex affected COVID-19 death rates inside and outside care homes. We also used annual death rates as a proxy for the health condition of each population. We found that: (1) COVID-19 death rate per institution varied widely from 0{per thousand} to 340{per thousand} (mean 43{per thousand}) and increased both with the size of the institution (number of beds) and with the importance of medical care provided. (2) 65% of COVID-19 deaths in Wallonia MESHD concerned residents of care homes where the outbreak started after but at a faster pace than the outbreak seen in the external population. (3) The impact of age TRANS on both annual and COVID-19 mortality closely follows exponential laws (i.e. Gompertz law) but mortality was much higher for the population living in care homes where the age TRANS effect was lower (mortality rate doubling every 20 years of age TRANS increment in care homes, 6 years outside them). (4) Both within and outside care homes, the ratio of M/F death rates was 1.6 for annual mortality but reached 2.0 for COVID-19 mortality, a ratio consistent among both confirmed and suspected COVID-19 deaths. (5) When reported to the annual death rate per sex and age TRANS, the COVID-19 relative mortality was little affected by age TRANS and reached 24% (M) and 18% (F) of their respective annual rate in nursing homes, while these percentages reduced to 10% (M) and 9% (F) in homes for elderly TRANS people (with less medical assistance), and to 5% (M) and 4% (F) outside of care homes. In conclusion, a c. 130x higher COVID-19 mortality rate found in care homes compared to the outside population can be attributed to the near multiplicative combination of: (1) a 11x higher mortality due to the old age TRANS of its residents, (2) a 3.8x higher mortality due to the low average health condition of its residents, and (3) probably a 3.5x higher infection rate (1.6x in homes for elderly TRANS people) due to the transmission TRANS by its staff, a problem more acute in large institutions. Our results highlight that nursing home residents should be treated as a very specific population, both for epidemiological studies and to take preventive measures, due to their extreme vulnerability to COVID-19.

    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: a comparison between Germany and the UK

    Authors: Franziska Knolle; Lisa Ronan; Graham K Murray; Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt; Rudi De Raedt; Eva Van den Bussche; Rajesh Jain; Sachee Tainwala Agrawal; Sandeep Juneja; Sofia Imad; Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam; Hongjie Yu; Lars I Eriksson; Anna Norrby-Teglund; Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren; Niklas K Bjorkstrom; Soo Aleman; Marcus Buggert; Jonas Klingstrom; Kristoffer Stralin; Johan K. Sandberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20182980 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    In March 2020 the SARS-CoV-2infection (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic. In response to its world-wide outbreak radical measures were taken by governments across the world including curfew, quarantine, travel TRANS bans, social distancing, work place and school closures, etc, to reduce the transmission TRANS of the virus. These measures led to dramatic social and economic changes for the general population, in addition to the fears and worries related to the disease and its contraction. First studies report the impact of the pandemic on mental well-being of the general population showing increased levels of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, stress and depression MESHD. In this study, we compare the impact of the pandemic on two European countries: the UK and Germany, which reported their first cases within a week. 241 residents of the UK and 541 residents of Germany filled in an online survey, including questions on COVID-19 exposure, impact on financial situation and work, substance and media consumption, self-reported mental and physical health, as well as including two clinical questionnaires, the general mental health Symptom Check List-27 (SCL-27) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. Data collection was completed between 27/04/20-31/05/20. We found distinct differences between the two countries. UK responders reported a stronger direct impact on their health, financial situation and their families. UK responders had higher clinical scores on the SCL-27, with a higher percentage being above cut-off. Interestingly, however, we found that German responders were less hopeful for an end of the pandemic and more concerned about their life-stability. Generally, we found that a younger age TRANS, being female TRANS, lower education, poorer mental and physical health before the pandemic, as well as more social media and substance consumption was associated with a higher clinical risk. As 25% of all responders report a subjective worsening of the general psychological symptoms and 20-50% of responders reaching the clinical cut-off for depressive MESHD, dysthymic and anxieties HP anxieties MESHD, future pandemics require a tailored intervention system to assist not only people vulnerable for mental health problems, but also large proportions of the general public.

    Clinical Characteristics of Severe Covid Pneumonia HP: Exploring New Trends in ICU

    Authors: Aftab Akhtar; Sheher Bano; Ahtesham Iqbal; Moazma Ramzan; Aayesha Qadeer; Syed Waqar Hussain; Anam Saleem; Omair-ul-Haq Lodhi; Sana Zubair; Abdul Hameed kiani

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In late December 2019, Covid-19 emerged as clusters of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD of unknown cause in a province of china, Wuhan. Etiological agent was identified as novel coronavirus that resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) MESHD and has zoonotic transmission TRANS. Covid pneumonia HP can remain asymptomatic TRANS, present as mild infection, severe HP infection, severe MESHD pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD or respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Diagnosis is based on rRT-PCR carried out on respiratory secretions. Covid related mortality exceeds 50% once patient requires ICU admission. Objective: To study the characteristics of ICU population admitted to ICU of Shifa International hospital.Results: we prospectively analysed 74 patients which included 43.3% females TRANS and 56.7% males TRANS. Commonest symptoms were shortness of breath MESHD (94.5%), fever HP fever MESHD (74.3%) and cough HP (74.3%). Most of our study population consisted of non-smokers (79.7%) and had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (59.4%) followed by diabetes MESHD (47.2%). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin combination is superior to hydroxychloroquine and doxycycline in reducing mortality (p=0.023) whereas Doxycycline alone resulted in increased mortality (p=0.009). Those who did not require antibiotics or required only narrow spectrum antibiotics had increased survival and reduced requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (p=< 0.0001). in our study population, (44.9%) developed acute kidney injury HP acute kidney injury MESHD, 2.7% needed re-intubations 10.8% developed surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD and 2.7 % thromboembolic MESHD events despite full anticoagulation. ICU mortality was 41.8% and was higher in females TRANS (59.4%, p=0.008), those who had SOFA score > 3.5 at time of admission, raised D-Dimers > 931 ng/ml, NLR > 9.2. It was further high in those who required invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support (58.1% mortality p=< 0.001). ICU stay was more prolonged in those requiring invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who did not. (23 days vs 6 days, p=0.001). Mean plateau pressure was 19.6 ± 7.6; mean Driving pressures 14.4 ± 4.6; mean PaO2/FiO2 150.7 ± 73.9; mean SPO2/FiO2 173.9 ± 106.9; mean PEEP was 8.2 ±4.33.Conclusion: We concluded that severe covid pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD is common amongst males TRANS, non-smokers those who had comorbid. HCQ and azithromycin combination is superior to combination of HCQ and doxycycline or doxycycline alone and QT prolongation MESHD is a rare complication. Baseline NLR, APACHI II, SOFA, SAPS II, NUTRIC scores, D-Dimers, invasive ventilation and vasopressor support are important tools to predict ICU mortality. Invasive mechanical ventilation carries higher mortality and associated with more prolonged ICU stay. AKI is most common complication followed by shock HP and surgical emphysema HP emphysema MESHD. CRP, Ferritin levels has no impact on outcome.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection Reaches MESHD the Human Nervous System: How?

    Authors: Vladimir N. Uversky; Fatma Elrashdy; Abdullah Aljadawi; Syed Moasfar Ali; Rizwan Hasan Khan; Elrashdy M. Redwan

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0696.v1 Date: 2020-08-31 Source:

    Without protective and/or therapeutic agents the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading worldwide. It has surprising transmissibility TRANS potential, since it could infect MESHD all ages TRANS, gender TRANS, and human sectors. It attacks respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, hepatic, and endovascular systems and can reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) through known and unknown mechanisms. The reports on the neurological manifestations and complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are increasing exponentially. Herein, we enumerate seven candidate routes, which the mature or immature SARS-CoV-2 components could use to reach the CNS and PNS, utilizing the within-body crosstalk between organs. The majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients suffer from some neurological manifestations (e.g., confusion HP confusion MESHD, anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, and ageusia MESHD). It seems that although the mature virus did not reach the CNS or PNS of the majority of patients, its unassembled components and/or the accompanying immune-mediated responses may be responsible for the observed neurological symptoms. The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS. This means that the blood SERO-endothelial-barrier may be considered as the main route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system, with the barrier disruption being more logical than barrier permeability, as evidenced by postmortem analyses.

    "I felt what was happening in our country [USA] with race was so much scarier than the [COVID-19] virus." Black Lives Matter protesters’ beliefs and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Evelyn Arana-Chicas; Brooke D Jones; Francisco Cartujano-Barrera; Ana Paula Cupertino

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The killing of George Floyd triggered the Black Lives Matter protests against police brutality and social injustices in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. No research to date has assessed the COVID-19 prevention practices and beliefs of protesters. The purpose of this study was to assess COVID-19 prevention practices and beliefs of Black Lives Matter protesters in the USA. Methods: A pilot mixed methods study was employed. Participants completed a survey collecting data on their frequency in following COVID-19 recommended guidelines and answered open-ended interview questions to elucidate the results from the survey. Results: Twenty participants completed the study. Participants’ average age TRANS was 29 and most participants were female TRANS (80%) and black (75%). Most always or almost always properly wore their masks (50% and 25%, respectively) and washed their hands during a protest 2-3 times or more than 3 times (35% and 50%, respectively). Although all believed that COVID-19 testing is important (90%), most had never been tested (85%) and most did not self-quarantine for 14 days after protesting (95%). Moreover, most participants reported never or rarely following social distancing guidelines at a protest (25% and 30%, respectively) and most reported being Not at all or Slightly concerned about COVID-19 while at a protest (25% and 30%, respectively). Qualitative data highlighted the following themes: 1) Fighting for social justice, 2) Protesting being more important than COVID-19, 3) Unable to keep 6 ft distance, 4) Masks worn most of the time, 5) Protests sparked global movement, and 6) Increasing awareness of injustices. Conclusion: Although protesters believe that both the fight for social justice and taking precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic are important, they believe the fight for social justice is more important than the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they understand the importance of COVID-19 and try to practice the recommended guidelines to prevent its spread while protesting. These results make an important contribution for policies for controlling the spread of the disease TRANS, and also understanding human behavior of protesting for social justice during a pandemic.  

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
The web page can also be accessed via API.



MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

Export subcorpus as...

This service is developed in the project nfdi4health task force covid-19 which is a part of nfdi4health.

nfdi4health is one of the funded consortia of the National Research Data Infrastructure programme of the DFG.