Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Evaluating SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD and nucleocapsid proteins as targets for IgG antibody SERO detection in severe and mild COVID-19 cases using a Luminex bead-based assay

    Authors: Joachim Marien; Johan Michiels; Leo Heyndrickx; Karen Kerkhof; Nikki Foque; Marc-Alain Widdowson; Isabelle Desombere; Hilde Jansens; Marjan Van Esbroeck; Kevin K. Arien

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20161943 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Large-scale serosurveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) will only be possible if serological tests SERO are sufficiently reliable, rapid and inexpensive. Current assays are either labour-intensive and require specialised facilities (e.g. virus neutralization assays), or expensive with suboptimal specificity (e.g. commercial ELISAs SERO). Bead-based assays offer a cost-effective alternative and allow for multiplexing to test for antibodies SERO of other pathogens. Here, we compare the performance SERO of four antigens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in a panel of sera that includes both severe (n=40) and mild (n=52) cases, using a neutralization and a Luminex bead-based assay. While we show that neutralising antibody SERO levels are significantly lower in mild than in severe cases, we demonstrate that a combination of recombinant nucleocapsid protein (NP), receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the whole spike protein (S1S2) results in a highly sensitive (96%) and specific (99%) bead-based assay that can detect IgG antibodies SERO in both groups. Although S1-specific IgG levels correlate most strongly with neutralizing antibody SERO levels, they fall HP below the detection threshold in 10% of the cases in our Luminex assay. In conclusion, our data supports the use of RBD, NP and S1S2 for the development of SARS-CoV-2 serological bead-based assays. Finally, we argue that low antibody SERO levels in mild/ asymptomatic TRANS cases might complicate the epidemiological assessment of large-scale surveillance studies.

    Clinical utility of targeted SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to aid the diagnosis and management of suspected missed, late or post-COVID-19 infection syndromes: results from a pilot service

    Authors: Nicola Sweeney; Blair Merrick; Suzanne Pickering; Rui Pedro Galao; Alina Botgros; Harry D. Wilson; Adrian W. Signell; Gilberto Betancor; Mark Kia Ik Tan; John Ramble; Neophytos Kouphou; Sam Acors; Carl Graham; Jeffrey Seow; Eithne MacMahon; Stuart J. D. Neil; Michael H. Malim; Katie Doores; Sam Douthwaite; Rahul Batra; Gaia Nebbia; Jonathan D. Edgeworth

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150540 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Determine indications and clinical utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing in adults TRANS and children TRANS. Design: Prospective evaluation of initial three weeks of a daily Monday to Friday pilot SARS-CoV-2 serology service for patients. Setting: Early post 'first-wave' SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS period at single centre London teaching hospital that provides care to the local community, as well as regional and national referral pathways for specialist services. Participants: 110 (72 adults TRANS, 38 children TRANS, age TRANS range 0-83 years, 52.7% female TRANS (n=58)). Interventions: Patient serum SERO from vetted referrals tested on CE marked and internally validated lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) (SureScreen Diagnostics) detecting antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO spike proteins, with result and clinical interpretation provided to the direct care team. Main outcome measures: Performance SERO characteristics, source and nature of referrals, feasibility and clinical utility of the service, particularly the benefit for clinical decision-making. Results: The LFIA was deemed suitable for clinical advice and decision making following evaluation with 310 serum samples SERO from SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients and 300 pre-pandemic samples, giving a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 96.1% and 99.3% respectively. For the pilot, 115 referrals were received leading to 113 tests performed on 108 participants (sample not available for two participants); paediatrics (n=35), medicine (n=69), surgery (n=2) and general practice (n=2). 43.4% participants (n=49) had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. There were three main indications for serology; new acute presentations potentially triggered by recent COVID-19 infection e.g. PIMS-TS (n=26) and pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD (n=5), potential missed diagnoses in context of a recent compatible illness (n=40), and making infection control and immunosuppression treatment decisions in persistently SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR positive individuals (n=6). Conclusions: This study shows acceptable performance SERO characteristics, feasibility and clinical utility of a SARS-CoV-2 serology service using a rapid, inexpensive and portable assay for adults TRANS and children TRANS presenting with a range of clinical indications. Results correlated closely with a confirmatory in-house ELISA SERO. The study showed the benefit of introducing a serology service where there is a reasonable pre-test probability, and the result can be linked with clinical advice or intervention. Experience thus far is that the volume of requests from hospital referral routes are manageable within existing clinical and laboratory services; however, the demand from community referrals has not yet been assessed. Given recent evidence for a rapid decline in antibodies SERO, particularly following mild infection MESHD, there is likely a limited window of opportunity to realise the benefit of serology testing for individuals infected during the 'first-wave' before they potentially fall HP below a measurable threshold. Rapidly expanding availability of serology services for NHS patients will also help understand the long-term implications of serostatus and prior infection MESHD in different patient groups, particularly before emergence of any 'second-wave' outbreak or introduction of a vaccination programme.

    Remarkable variability in SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO across Brazilian regions: nationwide serological household survey in 27 states

    Authors: Pedro Hallal; Fernando Hartwig; Bernardo Horta; Gabriel D Victora; Mariangela Silveira; Claudio Struchiner; Luis Paulo Vidaletti; Nelson Neumann; Lucia C Pellanda; Odir A Dellagostin; Marcelo N Burattini; Ana M Menezes; Fernando C Barros; Aluisio J Barros; Cesar G Victora

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.30.20117531 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: medRxiv

    Population based data on COVID-19 are essential for guiding policy. We report on the first wave of seroprevalence SERO surveys relying upon on household probabilistic samples of 133 large sentinel cities in Brazil, including 25,025 participants from all 26 states and the Federal District. Seroprevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO, assessed using a lateral flow rapid test SERO, varied markedly across the cities and regions, from below 1% in most cities in the South and Center-West regions to up to 25% in the city of Breves in the Amazon (North) region. Eleven of the 15 cities with the highest seroprevalence SERO were located in the North, including the six cities with highest prevalence SERO which were located along a 2,000 km stretch of the Amazon river. Overall seroprevalence SERO for the 90 cities with sample size of 200 or greater was 1.4% (95% CI 1.3-1.6). Extrapolating this figure to the population of these cities, which represent 25% of the country population, led to an estimate of 760,000 cases, as compared to the 104,782 cases reported in official statistics. Seroprevalence SERO did not vary significantly between infancy and age TRANS 79 years, but fell HP by approximately two-thirds after age TRANS 80 years. Prevalence SERO was highest among indigenous people (3.7%) and lowest among whites (0.6%), a difference which was maintained when analyses were restricted to the North region, where most indigenous people live. Our results suggest that pandemic is highly heterogenous, with rapid escalation in the North and Northeast, and slow progression in the South and Center-West regions.

    Evaluation of antibody testing SERO for SARS-Cov-2 using ELISA SERO and lateral flow immunoassays SERO

    Authors: Emily R Adams; Mark Ainsworth; Rekha Anand; Monique I Andersson; Kathryn Auckland; J Kenneth Baillie; Eleanor Barnes; Sally Beer; John Bell; Tamsin Berry; Sagida Bibi; Miles Carroll; Senthil Chinnakannan; Elizabeth Clutterbuck; Richard J Cornall; Derrick W Crook; Thushan De Silva; Wanwisa Dejnirattisai; Kate E Dingle; Christina Dold; Alexis Espinosa; David W Eyre; Helen Farmer; Maria Fernandez Mendoza; Dominique Georgiou; Sarah J Hoosdally; Alistair Hunter; Katie Jeffrey; Paul Klenerman; Julian Knight; Clarice Knowles; Andrew J Kwok; Ullrich Leuschner; Robert Levin; Chang Liu; Cesar Lopez-Camacho; Jose Carlos Martinez Garrido; Philippa C Matthews; Hannah McGivern; Alexander J Mentzer; Jonathan Milton; Juthathip Mongkolsapaya; Shona C Moore; Marta S Oliveira; Fiona Pereira; Elena Perez Lopez; Timothy Peto; Rutger J Ploeg; Andrew Pollard; Tessa Prince; David J Roberts; Justine K Rudkin; Veronica Sanchez; Gavin R Screaton; Malcolm G Semple; Donal T Skelly; Jose Slon-Campos; Elliot Nathan Smith; Alberto Jose Sobrino Diaz; Julie Staves; David Stuart; Piyada Supasa; Tomas Surik; Hannah Thraves; Pat Tsang; Lance Turtle; A Sarah Walker; Beibei Wang; Charlotte Washington; Nicholas Watkins; James Whitehouse

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.15.20066407 Date: 2020-04-20 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused >1 million infections during January-March 2020. There is an urgent need for reliable antibody SERO detection approaches to support diagnosis, vaccine development, safe release of individuals from quarantine, and population lock-down exit strategies. We set out to evaluate the performance SERO of ELISA SERO and lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) devices. Design: We tested plasma SERO for COVID (SARS-CoV-2) IgM and IgG antibodies SERO by ELISA SERO and using nine different LFIA devices. Setting: We performed laboratory work at the University of Oxford. Participants: We used a panel of plasma SERO samples from individuals who have had confirmed COVID infection MESHD based on a PCR result (n=40), and pre-pandemic negative control samples banked in the UK prior to December-2019 (n=142). Main outcome measures: We recorded optical density results from ELISA SERO experiments and positive/negative/invalid results from LFIA devices. Results: ELISA SERO detected IgM or IgG in 34/40 individuals with a confirmed history of COVID infection MESHD ( sensitivity SERO 85%, 95%CI 70-94%), vs. 0/50 pre-pandemic controls (specificity 100% [95%CI 93-100%]). IgG levels were detected in 31/31 COVID-positive individuals tested [≥]10 days after symptom onset TRANS ( sensitivity SERO 100%, 95%CI 89-100%). IgG titres rose during the 3 weeks post symptom onset TRANS and began to fall HP by 8 weeks, but remained above the detection threshold. Point estimates for the sensitivity SERO of LFIA devices ranged from 55-70% versus RT-PCR and 65-85% versus ELISA SERO, with specificity 95-100% and 93-100% respectively. Within the limits of the study size, the performance SERO of most LFIA devices was similar. Conclusions: Currently available commercial LFIA devices do not perform sufficiently well for individual patient applications. ELISA SERO can be calibrated to be specific for detecting and quantifying SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG and is highly sensitive for IgG from 10 days following first symptoms.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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