Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Development of a serological assay SERO to identify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Angela Huynh; Donald M Arnold; John G Kelton; James W Smith; Jane C Moore; Vasudhevan T Chetty; Hannah D Stacey; Jann C Ang; Zain Chagla; Bart J Harvey; Dawn ME Bowdish; Matthew S Miller; Ishac Nazy; Anna Smed Sorensen; Jonas Klingstrom; Andreas Brave

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192690 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). While molecular assays are used to detect viral genetic material for the diagnosis of acute infection MESHD, reliable serological assays SERO are needed to measure immunity against SARS-CoV-2. In this report, we describe an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) that detects antibodies SERO against the following SARS-CoV-2 recombinant proteins: the full-length spike (S) protein and the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Our assay is sensitive and specific for immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM anti-S protein and anti-RBD antibodies SERO. Samples were pre-treated with Triton X-100 to inactivate potential virus without affecting antibody SERO detection. Our in-house ELISA SERO performed as well as the commercial EUROIMMUN and Ortho assays for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. This method provides a high-throughput assay that does not require specialized instrumentation and can be widely used to determine immunity and the dynamic range of antibodies SERO found within SARS-CoV-2.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO Among 925 Staff Members in an Urban Hospital Accepting COVID-19 Patients in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    Authors: Tsutomu Nishida; Hiromi Iwahashi; Kazuhiro Yamauchi; Noriko Kinoshita; Yukiyoshi Okauchi; Norihiro Suzuki; Masami Inada; Kinya Abe; Natalia G Herrera; Nicholas C Morano; Sean T Campbell; Erika P. Orner; Amanda Mengotto; M Eugenia Dieterle; Jens Maximilian Fels; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20191866 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The subclinical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD rate in hospitals during the pandemic remains unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of our hospital's current nosocomial infection control, we conducted a serological survey of the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO (immunoglobulin G) among the staff of our hospital, which is treating coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G in the participants using a laboratory-based quantitative test (Abbott immunoassay SERO), which has a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 100% and 99.6%, respectively. To investigate the factors associated with seropositivity, we also obtained some information from the participants with an anonymous questionnaire. Results: We invited 1133 staff members in our hospital, and 925 (82%) participated. The mean age TRANS of the participants was 40.0{+/-}11.8 years, and most were women (80.0%). According to job title, there were 149 medical doctors or dentists (16.0%), 489 nurses (52.9%), 140 medical technologists (14.2%), 49 healthcare providers (5.3%), and 98 administrative staff (10.5%). The overall prevalence SERO of seropositivity for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 0.43% (4/925), which was similar to the control seroprevalence SERO of 0.54% (16/2970)) in the general population in Osaka during the same period according to a government survey conducted with the same assay. Seropositive rates did not significantly differ according to job title, exposure to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients, or any other investigated factors. Conclusion: The subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rate in our hospital was not higher than that in the general population under our nosocomial infection MESHD control measures.

    Antibody SERO Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Coronavirus Diseases MESHD 2019 Patients with Different Severity

    Authors: Ekasit Kowitdamrong; Thanyawee Puthanakit; Watsamon Jantarabenjakul; Eakachai Prompetchara; Pintip Suchartlikitwong; Opass Putcharoen; Nattiya Hirankarn; Ke Lan; Yu Chen; Huabin Zhao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.06.20189480 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: More understanding of antibody SERO responses in the SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD population is useful for vaccine development. Aim: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 IgA MESHD and IgG among COVID-19 Thai patients with different severity. Methods: We used plasma SERO from 118 adult TRANS patients who have confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and 49 patients under investigation without infection MESHD, 20 patients with other respiratory infections MESHD, and 102 healthy controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO from Euroimmun. The optical density ratio cut off for positive test was 1.1 for IgA and 0.8 for IgG. The association of antibody SERO response with the severity of diseases and the day of symptoms was performed. Results: From Mar 10 to May 31, 2020, 289 participants were enrolled, and 384 samples were analyzed. Patients were categorized by clinical manifestations to mild (n=59), moderate (n=27) and severe (n=32). The overall sensitivity SERO of IgA and IgG from samples collected after day 7 is 87.9% (95% CI 79.8-93.6) and 84.8% (95% CI 76.2-91.3), respectively. The severe group had a significantly higher level of specific IgA and IgG to S1 antigen compared to the mild group. All moderate to severe patients have specific IgG while 20% of the mild group did not have any IgG detected after two weeks. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was significantly higher in males TRANS compared to females TRANS among the severe group (p=0.003). Conclusion: The serologic test SERO for SARS-CoV-2 has high sensitivity SERO after the second week after onset of illness. Serological response differs among patients with different severity and different sex.

    24 People, one test: Boosting test efficiency using pooled serum SERO antibody testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Stefan Nessler; Jonas Franz; Franziska van der Meer; Konstantina Kolotourou; Vivek Venkataramani; Chalid Hasan; Beatrix Beatrix Pollok-Kopp; Andreas E Zautner; Christine Stadelmann; Michael Weig; Stefan Poehlmann; Markus Hoffmann; Joachim Riggert; Graham Medley; Michael Hohle; John Edmunds; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186130 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The global pandemic of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD), with different prevalence SERO rates across countries and regions. Dynamic testing strategies are mandatory to establish efficient mitigation strategies against the disease; to be cost effective, they should adapt to regional prevalences SERO. Seroprevalence SERO surveys that detect individuals who have mounted an immune response against COVID-19 will help to determine the total number of infections within a community and improve the epidemiological calculations of attack and case fatality rates of the virus. They will also inform about the percentage of a population that might be immune against re-infections. Methods: We developed a sensitive and specific cell-based assay to detect conformational SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (SARS-2-S) S1 antibodies SERO in human serum SERO, and have cross-evaluated this assay against two FDA-approved SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays. We performed pseudovirus neutralization assays to determine whether sera that were rated antibody SERO-positive in our assay were able to specifically neutralize SARS-2-S. We pooled up to 24 sera and assessed the group testing performance SERO of our cell-based assay. Group testing was further optimized by Monte Carlo like simulations and prospectively evaluated. Findings: Highly significant correlations could be established between our cell-based assay and commercial antibody tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-2-S S1 antibody SERO-positive sera neutralized SARS-2-S but not SARS-S MESHD, and were sensitively and specifically detected in pools of 24 samples. Monte Carlo like simulations demonstrated that a simple two-step pooling scheme with fixed pool sizes performed at least equally as well as Dorfman's optimal testing across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. Interpretation: We demonstrate that a cell-based assay for SARS-2-S S1 antibodies SERO qualifies for group testing of neutralizing anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO. The assay can be combined with an easily implemented algorithm which greatly expands the screening capacity to detect anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. It will thus improve population serological testing SERO in many countries.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Analyzing inherent biases in SARS-CoV-2 PCR and serological epidemiologic metrics

    Authors: Monia Makhoul; Farah Abou-Hijleh; Shaheen Seedat; Ghina R Mumtaz; Hiam Chemaitelly; Houssein Ayoub; Laith J Abu-Raddad; Xiaojian Liu; Wei Gao; Renli Zhang; Qiru Su; Andrew Azman; Justin Lessler; Xuan Zou; Wenfeng Gong; Brenda Clemente; Jerel Vega; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184705 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background: Prospective observational data show that infected persons with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) remain polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for a prolonged duration, and that detectable antibodies SERO develop slowly with time. We aimed to analyze how these effects can bias key epidemiological metrics used to track and monitor SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. Methods: An age TRANS-structured mathematical model was constructed to simulate progression of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in populations. PCR testing to diagnose infection MESHD and cross-sectional surveys to measure seroprevalence SERO were also simulated. Analyses were conducted on simulated outcomes assuming a natural epidemic time course and an epidemic in presence of interventions. Results: The prolonged PCR positivity biased the epidemiological measures. There was a lag of 10 days between the true epidemic peak and the actually-observed peak. Prior to epidemic peak, PCR positivity rate was 2-fold higher than that based only on current active infection MESHD, and half of those tested positive by PCR were in the prolonged PCR positivity stage after infection clearance. Post epidemic peak, PCR positivity rate poorly predicted true trend in active infection MESHD. Meanwhile, the prolonged PCR positivity did not appreciably bias estimation of the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS. The time delay in development of detectable antibodies SERO biased measured seroprevalence SERO. The actually-observed seroprevalence SERO substantially underestimated true prevalence SERO of ever infection MESHD, with the underestimation being most pronounced around epidemic peak. Conclusions: Caution is warranted in interpreting PCR and serological testing SERO data, and any drawn inferences need to factor the effects of the investigated biases for an accurate assessment of epidemic dynamics.

    Population-based seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is more than halfway through the herd immunity threshold in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

    Authors: Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto; Conceição de Maria Pedrozo e Silva de Azevedo; Léa Márcia Melo da Costa; Maylla Luana Barbosa Martins Bragança; Allan Kardec Duailibe Barros Filho; Bernardo Bastos Wittlin; Bruno Feres de Souza Sr.; Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira; Carolina Abreu de Carvalho; Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz; Eudes Alves Simões Neto; Jamesson Ferreira Leite Júnior; Lécia Maria Sousa Santos Cosme; Marcos Adriano Garcia Campos; Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz; Sérgio Souza Costa; Vitória Abreu de Carvalho; Vanda Maria Ferreira Simóes; Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e Alves; Alcione Miranda dos Santos; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20180463 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Few population-based studies on the prevalence SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been performed to date, and most of them have used lateral flow immunoassays SERO with finger-prick, which may yield false-negative results and thus underestimate the true infection rate. Methods: A population-based household survey was performed in the State of Maranhao, Brazil, from 27 July 2020 to 8 August 2020 to estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 using a serum SERO testing electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO. A three-stage cluster sampling stratified by four state regions was used. The estimates took clustering, stratification, and non-response into account. Qualitative detection of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO was performed in a fully-automated Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO on the Cobas e601 analyser (Roche Diagnostics). Findings: A total of 3156 individuals were interviewed. Seroprevalence SERO of total antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 was 40.4% (95%CI 35.6-45.3). Population adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions was higher at the beginning of the pandemic than in the last month. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates were significantly lower among mask wearers and among those who maintained social and physical distancing in the last month compared to their counterparts. Among the infected, 62.2% had more than three symptoms, 11.1% had one or two symptoms, and 26.0% were asymptomatic TRANS. The infection MESHD fatality rate was 0.17%, higher for males TRANS and advanced age groups TRANS. The ratio of estimated infections MESHD to reported cases was 22.2. Interpretation: To the best of our knowledge, the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 estimated in this population-based survey was the highest and the closest to the herd immunity threshold reported to date. Our results suggest that the herd immunity threshold is not as low as 20%, but at least higher than or equal to around 40%. The infection MESHD fatality rate was one of the lowest reported so far, and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases was low.

    Analyzing inherent biases in SARS-CoV-2 PCR and serological epidemiologic metrics

    Authors: Monia Makhoul; Farah Abou-Hijleh; Shaheen Seedat; Ghina R Mumtaz; Hiam Chemaitelly; Houssein Ayoub; Laith J. Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70006/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Prospective observational data show that infected persons with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) remain polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for a prolonged duration, and that detectable antibodies SERO develop slowly with time. We aimed to analyze how these effects can bias key epidemiological metrics used to track and monitor SARS-CoV-2 epidemics.Methods An age TRANS-structured mathematical model was constructed to simulate progression of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in populations. PCR testing to diagnose infection MESHD and cross-sectional surveys to measure seroprevalence SERO were also simulated. Analyses were conducted on simulated outcomes assuming a natural epidemic time course and an epidemic in presence of interventions.Results The prolonged PCR positivity biased the epidemiological measures. There was a lag of 10 days between the true epidemic peak and the actually-observed peak. Prior to epidemic peak, PCR positivity rate was 2-fold higher than that based only on current active infection MESHD, and half of those tested positive by PCR were in the prolonged PCR positivity stage after infection clearance. Post epidemic peak, PCR positivity rate poorly predicted true trend in active infection MESHD. Meanwhile, the prolonged PCR positivity did not appreciably bias estimation of the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS. The time delay in development of detectable antibodies SERO biased measured seroprevalence SERO. The actually-observed seroprevalence SERO substantially underestimated true prevalence SERO of ever infection MESHD, with the underestimation being most pronounced around epidemic peak.Conclusions Caution is warranted in interpreting PCR and serological testing SERO data, and any drawn inferences need to factor the effects of the investigated biases for an accurate assessment of epidemic dynamics.

    Multi-species ELISA SERO for the detection of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in animals

    Authors: Kerstin Wernike; Andrea Aebischer; Anna Michelitsch; Donata Hoffmann; Conrad Freuling; Anne Balkema-Buschmann; Annika Graaf; Thomas Mueller; Nikolaus Osterrieder; Melanie Rissmann; Dennis Rubbenstroth; Jacob Schoen; Claudia Schulz; Jakob Trimpert; Lorenz Ulrich; Asisa Volz; Thomas Mettenleiter; Martin Beer; Thamar Loser; Susanne Mangold; Christel Herzog; Dieter Schiegg; Christian Reichen; Filip Radom; Andreas Bosshart; Andreas Lehmann; Micha A. Haeuptle; Alexander Zuercher; Toni Vagt; Gabriel Sigrist; Marcel Straumann; Karl Proba; Niina Veitonmaki; Keith M. Dawson; Christof Zitt; Jennifer Mayor; Sarah Ryter; Heyrhyoung Lyoo; Chunyan Wang; Wentao Li; Ieva Drulyte; H. Kaspar Binz; Leon de Waal; Koert J. Stittelaar; Seth Lewis; Daniel Steiner; Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld; Olivier Engler; Berend-Jan Bosch; Michael T. Stumpp; Patrick Amstutz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.266825 Date: 2020-08-26 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of infected humans and hundreds of thousands of fatalities. As the novel disease - referred to as COVID-19 - unfolded, occasional anthropozoonotic infections of animals by owners or caretakers were reported in dogs, felid species and farmed mink. Further species were shown to be susceptible under experimental conditions. The extent of natural infections of animals, however, is still largely unknown. Serological methods will be useful tools for tracing TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in animals once test systems are validated for use in different species. Here, we developed an indirect multi-species ELISA SERO based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. The newly established ELISA SERO was validated using 59 sera of infected MESHD or vaccinated animals including ferrets, raccoon dogs, hamsters, rabbits, chickens, cattle and a cat, and a total of 220 antibody SERO-negative sera of the same animal species. Overall, a diagnostic specificity of 100.0% and sensitivity SERO of 98.31% was achieved, and the functionality with every species included in this study could be demonstrated. Hence, a versatile and reliable ELISA SERO protocol was established that enables high-throughput antibody SERO detection in a broad range of animal species, which may be used for outbreak investigations, to assess the seroprevalence SERO in susceptible species or to screen for reservoir or intermediate hosts.

    FLOW CYTOMETRY MULTIPLEXED METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF NEUTRALIZING HUMAN ANTIBODIES SERO TO THE NATIVE SARS-CoV-2 SPIKE PROTEIN

    Authors: Lydia Horndler; Pilar Delgado; Ivaylo Balabanov; Georgina Cornish; Miguel Angel Llamas; Sergio Serrano-Villar; Manuel Fresno; Hisse Martien van Santen; Balbino Alarcon

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.20180661 Date: 2020-08-25 Source: medRxiv

    A correct identification of seropositive individuals for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD is of paramount relevance to assess the degree of protection of a human population to present and future outbreaks of the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe here a sensitive and quantitative flow cytometry method using the cytometer-friendly non-adherent Jurkat T cell line that stably expresses the full-length native spike S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a truncated form of the human EGFR that serves a normalizing role. S protein and huEGFRt coding sequences are separated by a T2A self-cleaving sequence, allowing to accurately quantify the presence of anti-S immunoglobulins by calculating a ratio of the mean fluorescence intensities obtained by double- staining with the sera and a monoclonal antibody SERO specific for EGFR. We show that the method allows to detect immune individuals regardless of the result of other serological tests SERO or even repeated PCR monitoring. It can also be employed to detect neutralizing activity in the sera of individuals. Finally, the method can be used in a multiplexed format to simultaneously measure all anti-S human immunoglobulin isotypes in blood SERO and mucosal fluids including total saliva.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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