Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (4)

Cough (4)

Pain (2)

Chest pain (2)

Anosmia (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Estimates of the rate of infection MESHD and asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD or anosmia HP anosmia MESHD. Specificity of anosmia HP anosmia MESHD for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever HP fever MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP anosmia MESHD combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    EPICOVID19: Psychometric assessment and validation of a short diagnostic scale for a rapid Covid-19 screening based on reported symptoms

    Authors: Luca Bastiani; Loredana Fortunato; Stefania Pieroni; Fabrizio Bianchi; Fulvio Adorni; Federica Prinelli; Andrea Giacomelli; Gabriele Pagani; Stefania Maggi; Caterina Trevisan; Marianna Noale; Nithiya Jesuthasan; Aleksandra Sojic; Carla Pettenati; Massimo Andreoni; Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi; Massimo Galli; Sabrina Molinaro

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.20159590 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background Confirmed COVID-19 cases have been reported in 213 countries and regions and as of 12 July 2020, over 12 million cases, with 561617 deaths have been reported worldwide. The number of cases changes quickly and varies depending upon which source you use to track, so in the current epidemiological context, the early recognition is critical for the rapid identification of suspected cases (with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD-like symptoms and signs) to be immediately subjected to quarantine measures. Although surveys are widely used for identifying COVID-19 cases, outcomes and associated risks, no validated epidemiological tool exists for surveying SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population so far. Methods Our study is the phase II of the EPICOVID19 national survey, launched in April 2020 including a national convenience sample of 201121 adults TRANS, who voluntarily filled the EPICOVID19 questionnaire. The phase II questionnaire was mailed to all subjects who underwent tests for COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and who accepted to be involved in the second phase of the study, focused on the results reported for NPS and/or serological IgG/IgM tests. We evaluated the capability of the self-reported symptoms collected through the EPICOVID19 questionnaire to discriminate the COVID-19 among symptomatic subjects, in order to identify possible cases to undergo instrumental measurements and clinical examinations. We defined a method for the identification of a total score and validated it with reference to the serological and molecular clinical diagnosis, using four standard steps: identification of critical factors, confirmation of presence of latent variable, development of optimal scoring algorithm and validation of the scoring algorithm. Findings 2703 subjects [66% response rate] completed the Phase II questionnaire. Of 2703 individuals, 694 (25.7%) were NPS MESHD(+) and of these 84 (12.1% of the 694 NPS(+)) were asymptomatic TRANS. In the individuals who performed serological testing SERO, of the 472 who did IgG(+) and 421 who did IgM(+), 22.9% and 11.6% tested positive, respectively. Among IgG(+) 1 of 108 subjects was asymptomatic TRANS (0.9%) while 5/49 subjects among IgM(+) were asymptomatic TRANS (10.2%). Compared with NPS(-), among NPS MESHD(+) subjects there was a higher rate for Fever HP Fever MESHD (421 [60.7%] vs 391[19.5% ]; p<0.0001), Loss of Taste and/or Smell (365 [52.6%] vs 239 [11.9% ]; p<0.0001) and Cough HP (352 [50.7%] vs 580 [28.9% ]; p<0.0001). Also for other symptoms the frequencies were significantly higher in NPS MESHD(+) subjects than in NPS(-) ones (p<0.001). Among groups with serological tests SERO, the symptoms with higher percentages in the subjects IgG(+) were Fever HP Fever MESHD (65 [60.2%] vs 43[11.8% ]; p<0.0001) and Pain HP Pain MESHD in muscles, bones, joints (73 [67.6%] vs 71 [19.5% ]; p<0.0001). For the COVID-19 self-reported symptoms items, exploratory (proportion variance explained [89.9%]) and confirmatory factor analysis results (SMSR 0.072; RMSEA 0.052) highlights the presence of one latent variable (factor) underlying the symptoms. We define the one-factor solution as EPICOVID19 diagnostic scale and optimal score for each items was identified: Respiratory problems (1.03), Chest pain HP Chest pain MESHD (1.07), Loss of Taste and/or Smell (0.97) and Tachycardia HP Tachycardia MESHD ( palpitations HP) (1.05) were the most important symptoms. The cut-off score was 2.56 ( Sensitivity SERO 76.56%; Specificity 68.24%) in NPS MESHD(+) and 2.59 (Se 80.37; Sp 80.17) in IgG(+) subjects.

    SARS-CoV-2 Serology Results in the First COVID-19 Case in California: A Case Report and Recommendations for Serology Testing and Interpretation

    Authors: Richard B. Lanman, MD; Todd H. Lanman

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35358/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: As countries in COVID-19 pandemic lockdown begin relaxation of shelter-in-place mitigation strategies, the role of serology testing escalates in importance. However, there are no clear guidelines as to when to use qualitative rapid diagnostic serology tests (RDTs) vs. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA load (PCR) tests as an aid in acute diagnosis of patients presenting with flu-like symptoms, nor how to interpret serology test results in asymptomatic TRANS individuals or those with atypical COVID-19 symptomatology. Here we describe, in the context of the likely first case of COVID-19 in California, with an atypical presentation and not tested acutely, who nearly 3 months later was found to be IgM- and IgG+ positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, highlighting the role of RDT- based serology testing SERO and interpretation in retrospective diagnosis.Case Presentation: A 62-year-old male TRANS practicing neurosurgeon had onset of flu-like symptoms on January 20 with fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, slight cough HP only on deep inspiration, intermittent pleuritic chest pain MESHD chest pain HP unrelated to exertion, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, and night sweats HP but without fever HP fever MESHD, sore throat or rhinorrhea HP rhinorrhea MESHD. He had recently traveled TRANS abroad but not to China. CT scan revealed right lower lobe infiltrate and effusion. Because of atypical symptoms, and low prevalence SERO of COVID-19 in January, community acquired pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was diagnosed and one week of doxycycline was prescribed without relief, followed by a second week of azithromycin with symptom remission. Three months later the physician-patient (author THL), tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO by a serology point-of-care rapid diagnostic test (RDT).Conclusions: Serology testing may be an aid in acute diagnosis of COVID-19, especially in patients with atypical presentations, as well as in assessment of asymptomatic TRANS higher-risk persons such as healthcare workers for prior infection MESHD. Recommendations for serology testing and interpretation are explicated.

    Global lessons and Potential strategies in combating COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia:Systematic Review

    Authors: Yimam Getaneh; Ajanaw Yizengaw; Sisay Adane; Kidist Zealiyas; Zelalem Abate; Sileshi Leulseged; Hailemichael Desalegn; Getnet Yimer; Ebba Abate

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20111062 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging disease MESHD that has been classified a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative public health strategies to control the spread. Here, we have conducted an online search for all relevant public health interventions for COVID-19. We then characterize and summarize the global COVID-19 pandemic situation and recommend potential mitigation strategies in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: Initial search of Pub Med central and Google scholar was undertaken followed by analysis of the text words; COVID-19,SARS-CoV-2, Global lessons and Pandemic; A second search using all identified keywords including COVID-19, Epidemiology, Sociocultural, Ethiopia; thirdly, the reference list of all identified reports and articles were searched. Accordingly, of the 1,402 articles, 39 were included in the analysis for this review. Result: Countries COVID-19 mitigation strategies widely varied. The most common global COVID-19 mitigation strategies include; whole of government approach including individual, community and environmental measures, detecting and isolating cases, contact tracing TRANS and quarantine, social and physical distancing measures including for mass gatherings and international travel TRANS measures. Models revealed that, social and physical distancing alone could prevent the pandemic from 60-95%, if timely and effectively implemented. Moreover, detecting and isolation of cases were found to be crucial while access to testing was found to the global challenge. Individual measures including proper hand washing were also reported to be effective measures in preventing the pandemic. Asymptomatic TRANS cases of COVID-19 ranged from 25% to 80% and as a result, countries are revising the case definition for early detection of mild symptomatic cases of COVID-19 with inclusion of Chills HP, Muscle pain MESHD pain HP and new loss of taste or smell in addition to Cough HP, Shortness of breath, Fever MESHD Fever HP and Sore throat. Global reports also revealed that the incubation period TRANS of COVID-19 could go to 24 days. Ethiopia is also unique in the aspects of sociocultural prospects while more than 99.3% of the population has a religion. Moreover, 69% of the population is under the age TRANS of 29 years old and the health policy in the country focused on prevention and primary health care. All these could be potential entries and opportunities to combat COVID-19 pandemic in the context of Ethiopia. Conclusion: While recommendations may change depending on the level of outbreak, we conclude that in Most countries have benefited from early interventions and in setups like Africa including Ethiopia where health system capability is limited, community engagement supported by local evidence with strict implementation of social and physical distancing measures is mandatory. Active involvement of religious Institutions and mobilizing youth could be entry to increase public awareness in mitigating COVID-19. Community level case detection could enhance early identification of cases which could be implemented through the health extension program. Isolation and quarantine beyond 14 days could help identify long term carriers TRANS of COVID-19. Validation and use of rapid test SERO kits could be vital to increase access for testing. Revision of case definitions for COVID-19 could be important for early detection and identification of mild symptomatic cases.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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