Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (2)

Anosmia (1)

Dyspnea (1)

Pneumonia (1)

Leukopenia (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 81
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    Quantitative, Epitope-specific, Serological Screening SERO of COVID-19 Patients Using a Novel Multiplexed Array-based Immunoassay SERO Platform

    Authors: Jonathan M Blackburn; Nur Diana Anuar; Ti-Myen Tan; Andrew JM Nel; Muneerah Smith; Kavithambigai Ellan; Nur Izwani Shaiful Bahrin; Nurul Shielawati Mohamed Rosli; Noorul Hidayah Badri; Teh Norleila Abdul Rahman; Arif Anwar; Rozainanee Mohd Zain; Kevin O. McNerney; Julie Chase; Chakkapong Burudpakdee; Jessica H. Lee; Sokratis A. Apostolidis; Alexander C. Huang; Divij Mathew; Oliva Kuthuru; Eileen C. Goodwin; Madison E. Weirick; Marcus J. Bolton; Claudia P. Arevalo; Andre Ramos; Cristina Jasen; Heather M. Giannini; Kurt DAndrea; - The UPenn COVID Processing Unit; Nuala J. Meyer; Edward M. Behrens; Hamid Bassiri; Scott E. Hensley; Sarah E. Henrickson; David T. Teachey; Michael Michael R. Betts; E. John Wherry

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.20201269 Date: 2020-09-27 Source: medRxiv

    Following the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in late 2019, a large number of antibody tests SERO were developed for use in seroprevalence SERO studies aimed at determining the extent of current or previous SARS-CoV-2 virus infections MESHD in a given population. The vast majority of these tests are qualitative and use a single target for antibody SERO detection, incorporating either full-length or truncated versions of the nucleocapsid (N) or spike (S) proteins from SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, mono-epitope tests - whether qualitative or quantitative - are unable to localise antibody SERO binding or characterise the distribution and titres of epitope recognition by anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO within an individual or across a population. However, it seems plausible that if such information were available, it may correlate with the presence of potent, high-titre, neutralising antibodies SERO that afford protection again imminent re-infection, as well as with the likelihood of developing a memory B-cell response that would provide more durable protection. We have developed a novel, quantitative, multi-antigen, multiplexed, array-based immunoassay SERO platform, ImmuSAFE COVID+ (ImmuSAFE) comprising 6 functionally validated domains or regions of the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 expressed using Sengenics KREX technology. This array platform enables determination of both the position and breadth of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses following natural infection MESHD or vaccination. To validate our platform, 100 serum samples SERO (confirmed sero-positive COVID-19 cases, n=50; pre-pandemic HIV positive controls, n=50) were tested for IgG seropositivity to the N antigen, yielding 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity SERO. All 50 cases showed positive antibody SERO reactivity towards at least one N protein epitope, whilst all 50 controls showed antibody SERO reactivity below threshold values. Broad variation was also observed in the magnitude and breadth of antibodies SERO present, represented as an Epitope Coverage score (EPC). A positive correlation was observed between increasing age TRANS and EPC values, with individuals under 40 years old having a mean EPC score of 3.1, whilst individuals above the age TRANS of 60 had a mean EPC of 5.1. This finding may have broad implications for the natural history of COVID-19 disease in different individuals.

    Performance SERO Assessment of First-Generation AntiSARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays SERO

    Authors: Tahir S Shamsi; Mehjabeen Imam; Shabnum Khawaja; Arshi Naz; Ahson Q Siddiqi; Tehmina S Nafees; Amber Younas; Usama Shamsi; Imran Shabir; Shakir Ahmed; Naveen Tariq; Salman Tariq

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.22.20197046 Date: 2020-09-24 Source: medRxiv

    The clinical and epidemiological use of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays is under debate with urgent need to validate and verify the performance SERO of SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays. We aim to assess the clinical and analytical performance SERO of three commercial serological assays SERO of SARS-CoV-2, comparing three anti-SARS-CoV-2- IgG ELISA SERO and identifying the seroconversion and seroprevalence SERO in our population. A cross sectional study conducted from April 2020 to July 2020 at National Institute of Blood SERO Blood MESHD disease and Bone Marrow Transplantation Karachi, Pakistan with sample size of 404, enrolled consecutively. Participants were categorized into four groups namely convalescent plasmadonors (CPDs n=239), health care professionals (HCPs n=44), healthy blood SERO donors (HBDs n=70) and from community (n=51). We evaluated the performance SERO of Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) assay on Cobas-e411 by Roche, three qualitative anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG enzyme linked imunosorbant assay (ELISA SERO) by (Generic assays, Euroimmun & Omega diagnostics) ,one quantitative ELISA assay SERO by AESKU Diagnostics and two immune chromatography(ICT) kits namely InstaTestTM by CORTEZ and TEST IT by TURKLAB. From total 404 subjects, 322 (83.5%) were males TRANS. Mean age TRANS was 36.79 plus minus 11.95 years. Among 239 in CPDs group, 202(84.5%) showed positive antibodies SERO by ECLIA. The qualitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA SERO was positive in 174 (72.8%) and quantitative IgG in 180(75.3%) with mean titer of 56.7 plus minus 39.7 U/ml. Sensitivity SERO and specificity of ECLIA were 97.44& 99%, ELISA SERO by Generic assays were 67.85% and 89.9%; Euroimmun had 90.38% and 94.9%; Omega Diagnostics 96.4% and 95% and the AESKULISA 93.75% and 100% respectively. Seroconversion was found to be 53.8% and 77.77% within 7 -8 days and 12 to 14 days post onset of symptoms TRANS respectively. ICT had more specificity but less sensitivity SERO. Seroprevalence SERO was found to be 84.5%, 40.9% and 21.4% in CPDs, HCPs and HBDs respectively. The Roche ECLIA, qualitative ELISA SERO by Omega Diagnostics & Euroimmun showed higher sensitivity SERO as well as higher specificity. Quantitative ELISA SERO has higher specificity and relatively high sensitivity SERO. Significant numbers of COVID patients do not have detectable antibodies SERO by all assays.

    A dual antigen ELISA SERO allows the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in a low transmission TRANS setting

    Authors: Sarah Hicks; Kai Pohl; Teresa Neeman; Hayley McNamara; Kate Parsons; Jin-Shu He; Sidra Ali; Samina Nazir; Louise Rowntree; Thi Nguyen; Katherine Kedzierska; Denise Doolan; Carola Vinuesa; Matthew Cook; Nicholas Coatsworth; Paul Myles; Florian Kurth; Leif Sander; Russell Gruen; Graham Mann; Amee George; Elizabeth Gardiner; Ian Cockburn; Bala Pesala; Debojyoti Chakraborty; Souvik Maiti

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191031 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    Estimates of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been hampered by inadequate assay sensitivity SERO and specificity. Using an ELISA SERO-based approach to that combines data about IgG responses to both the Nucleocapsid and Spike-receptor binding domain antigens, we show that near-optimal sensitivity SERO and specificity can be achieved. We used this assay to assess the frequency of virus-specific antibodies SERO in a cohort of elective surgery patients in Australia and estimated seroprevalence SERO in Australia to be 0.28% (0 to 0.72%). These data confirm the low level of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in Australia before July 2020 and validate the specificity of our assay.

    Development, clinical translation, and utility of a COVID-19 antibody test SERO with qualitative and quantitative readouts

    Authors: Robert H. Bortz III; Catalina Florez; Ethan Laudermilch; Ariel S Wirchnianski; Gorka Lasso; Ryan J Malonis; George I Georgiev; Olivia Vergnolle; Natalia G Herrera; Nicholas C Morano; Sean T Campbell; Erika P. Orner; Amanda Mengotto; M Eugenia Dieterle; Jens Maximilian Fels; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20192187 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) continues to place an immense burden on societies and healthcare systems. A key component of COVID-19 control efforts is serologic testing SERO to determine the community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and quantify individual immune responses to prior infection MESHD or vaccination. Here, we describe a laboratory-developed antibody test SERO that uses readily available research-grade reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 exposure in patient blood SERO samples with high sensitivity SERO and specificity. We further show that this test affords the estimation of viral spike-specific IgG titers from a single sample measurement, thereby providing a simple and scalable method to measure the strength of an individual's immune response. The accuracy, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of this test makes it an excellent option for clinical deployment in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO Among 925 Staff Members in an Urban Hospital Accepting COVID-19 Patients in Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    Authors: Tsutomu Nishida; Hiromi Iwahashi; Kazuhiro Yamauchi; Noriko Kinoshita; Yukiyoshi Okauchi; Norihiro Suzuki; Masami Inada; Kinya Abe; Natalia G Herrera; Nicholas C Morano; Sean T Campbell; Erika P. Orner; Amanda Mengotto; M Eugenia Dieterle; Jens Maximilian Fels; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20191866 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The subclinical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD rate in hospitals during the pandemic remains unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of our hospital's current nosocomial infection control, we conducted a serological survey of the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO (immunoglobulin G) among the staff of our hospital, which is treating coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G in the participants using a laboratory-based quantitative test (Abbott immunoassay SERO), which has a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 100% and 99.6%, respectively. To investigate the factors associated with seropositivity, we also obtained some information from the participants with an anonymous questionnaire. Results: We invited 1133 staff members in our hospital, and 925 (82%) participated. The mean age TRANS of the participants was 40.0{+/-}11.8 years, and most were women (80.0%). According to job title, there were 149 medical doctors or dentists (16.0%), 489 nurses (52.9%), 140 medical technologists (14.2%), 49 healthcare providers (5.3%), and 98 administrative staff (10.5%). The overall prevalence SERO of seropositivity for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 0.43% (4/925), which was similar to the control seroprevalence SERO of 0.54% (16/2970)) in the general population in Osaka during the same period according to a government survey conducted with the same assay. Seropositive rates did not significantly differ according to job title, exposure to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients, or any other investigated factors. Conclusion: The subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rate in our hospital was not higher than that in the general population under our nosocomial infection MESHD control measures.

    Robust SARS-COV-2 serological population screens via multi-antigen rules-based approach

    Authors: Christos F Fotis; Nikolaos Meimetis; Nikos Tsolakos; Marianna Politou; Karolina Akinosoglou; Vicky Pliaka; Angeliki Minia; Evangelos Terpos; Ioannis P. Trougakos; Andreas Mentis; Markos Marangos; George Panayiotakopoulos; Meletios A. Dimopoulos; Charalampos Gogos; Alexandros Spyridonidis; Leonidas G. Alexopoulos

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191122 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    More than 300 SARS-COV-2 serological tests SERO have recently been developed using either the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), the spike glycoprotein subunit (S1), and more recently the receptor binding domain (RBD). Most of the assays report very good clinical performance SERO characteristics in well-controlled clinical settings. However, there is a growing belief that good performance SERO characteristics that are obtained during clinical performance SERO trials might not be sufficient to deliver good diagnostic results in population-wide screens that are usually characterized with low seroprevalence SERO. In this paper, we developed a serological assay SERO against N, S1 and RBD using a bead-based multiplex platform and a rules-based computational approach to assess the performance SERO of single and multi-antigen readouts in well-defined clinical samples and in a population-wide serosurvey from blood SERO donors. Even though assays based on single antigen readouts performed similarly well in the clinical samples, there was a striking difference between the antigens on the population-wide screen. Asymptomatic TRANS individuals with low antibody SERO titers and sub-optimal assay specificity might contribute to the large discrepancies in population studies with low seroprevalence SERO. A multi-antigen assay requiring partial agreement between RBD, N and S1 readouts exhibited enhanced specificity, less dependency on assay cut-off values and an overall more robust performance SERO in both sample settings. Our data suggest that assays based on multiple antigen readouts combined with a rules-based computational consensus can provide a more robust platform for routine antibody SERO screening.

    Clinical Performance SERO Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody Test SERO for Determining Past Exposure to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Peter Findeisen; Hugo Stiegler; Eloisa Lopez-Calle; Tanja Schneider; Eva Urlaub; Johannes Hayer; Claudia Silke Zemmrich

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20180687 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: medRxiv

    The true prevalence SERO and population seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD remains unknown, due to the number of asymptomatic TRANS infections MESHD and limited access to high- performance SERO antibody tests SERO. To control the COVID-19 pandemic it is crucial to understand the true seroprevalence SERO, but not every region has access to extensive centralized PCR and serology testing. Currently available rapid antibody tests SERO lack the accuracy needed for recommendation by health authorities. To fill this gap, we analyzed and validated the clinical performance SERO of a new point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody SERO Assay, a chromatographic immunoassay SERO for qualitative detection of IgM/IgG antibodies SERO for use in near-patient settings. Analysis was performed using 42 Anti-SARS-Cov-2 positive (CoV+) and 92 Anti-SARS-Covid-2 negative (CoV-) leftover samples from before December 2019, using the Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 as the reference assay. Analytical specificity was tested using leftover samples from individuals with symptoms of common cold collected before December 2019. The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody Test SERO was 100.0% (95% CI 91.59-100.00) sensitive and 96.74% (95% CI 90.77-99.32) specific with an assay failure rate of 0.00%. No cross-reactivity was observed against the common cold panel. Method comparison was additionally conducted by two external laboratories, using 100 CoV+/275 CoV- samples, also comparing whole blood SERO versus plasma SERO matrix. The comparison demonstrated for plasma SERO 96.00% positive/96.36% negative percent agreement with the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and overall 99.20% percent agreement between whole blood SERO and EDTA plasma SERO. The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody Test SERO demonstrated similar clinical performance SERO to the manufacturer's data and to a centralized automated immunoassay SERO, with no cross-reactivity to common cold panels.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in District Srinagar, northern India - a cross-sectional study

    Authors: S Muhammad Salim Khan; Mariya Amin Qurieshi; Inaamul Haq; Sabhiya Majid; Arif Akbar Bhat; Sahila Nabi; Nisar Ahmad Ganai; Nazia Zahoor; Auqfeen Nisar; Iqra Nisar Chowdri; Tanzeela Bashir Qazi; Rafiya Kousar; Abdul Aziz Lone; Iram Sabah; Shahroz Nabi; Ishtiyaq Ahmad Sumji; Misbah Ferooz Kawoosa; Shifana Ayoub; Ozden Hatirnaz Ng; Sezer Akyoney; Ilayda Sahin; Ugur Ozbek; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.282640 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: bioRxiv

    BackgroundPrevalence of IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD provides essential information for deciding disease prevention and mitigation measures. We estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO in District Srinagar. Methods2906 persons >18 years of age TRANS selected from hospital visitors across District Srinagar participated in the study. We tested samples for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO-based serologic test SERO. ResultsAge- and gender TRANS-standardized seroprevalence SERO was 3.6% (95% CI 2.9% to 4.3%). Age TRANS 30-69 years, a recent history of symptoms of an influenza-like-illness, and a history of being placed under quarantine were significantly related to higher odds of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO. The estimated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections during the two weeks preceding the study, adjusted for test performance SERO, was 32602 with an estimated (median) infection-to-known-case ratio of 46 (95% CI 36 to 57). ConclusionsThe seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies SERO is low in the District. A large proportion of the population is still susceptible to the infection. A sizeable number of infections remain undetected, and a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 are not tested.

    24 People, one test: Boosting test efficiency using pooled serum SERO antibody testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Stefan Nessler; Jonas Franz; Franziska van der Meer; Konstantina Kolotourou; Vivek Venkataramani; Chalid Hasan; Beatrix Beatrix Pollok-Kopp; Andreas E Zautner; Christine Stadelmann; Michael Weig; Stefan Poehlmann; Markus Hoffmann; Joachim Riggert; Graham Medley; Michael Hohle; John Edmunds; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186130 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The global pandemic of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD), with different prevalence SERO rates across countries and regions. Dynamic testing strategies are mandatory to establish efficient mitigation strategies against the disease; to be cost effective, they should adapt to regional prevalences SERO. Seroprevalence SERO surveys that detect individuals who have mounted an immune response against COVID-19 will help to determine the total number of infections within a community and improve the epidemiological calculations of attack and case fatality rates of the virus. They will also inform about the percentage of a population that might be immune against re-infections. Methods: We developed a sensitive and specific cell-based assay to detect conformational SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (SARS-2-S) S1 antibodies SERO in human serum SERO, and have cross-evaluated this assay against two FDA-approved SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays. We performed pseudovirus neutralization assays to determine whether sera that were rated antibody SERO-positive in our assay were able to specifically neutralize SARS-2-S. We pooled up to 24 sera and assessed the group testing performance SERO of our cell-based assay. Group testing was further optimized by Monte Carlo like simulations and prospectively evaluated. Findings: Highly significant correlations could be established between our cell-based assay and commercial antibody tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-2-S S1 antibody SERO-positive sera neutralized SARS-2-S but not SARS-S MESHD, and were sensitively and specifically detected in pools of 24 samples. Monte Carlo like simulations demonstrated that a simple two-step pooling scheme with fixed pool sizes performed at least equally as well as Dorfman's optimal testing across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. Interpretation: We demonstrate that a cell-based assay for SARS-2-S S1 antibodies SERO qualifies for group testing of neutralizing anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO. The assay can be combined with an easily implemented algorithm which greatly expands the screening capacity to detect anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. It will thus improve population serological testing SERO in many countries.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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