Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Falls (2)

Anosmia (1)

Cough (1)

Myalgia (1)

Fever (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 42
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    COVID-19 herd immunity in the Brazilian Amazon

    Authors: Lewis F Buss; Carlos Augusto Prete Jr.; Claudia MM Abrahim; Alfredo Mendrone Jr.; Tassila Salomon; Cesar de Almeida-Neto; Rafael FO França; Maria C Belotti; Maria PSS Carvalho; Allyson G Costa; Myuki AE Crispim; Suzete C Ferreira; Nelson A Fraiji; Susie Gurzenda; Charles Whittaker; Leonardo T Kamaura; Pedro L Takecian; Márcio K Moikawa; Anna S Nishiya; Vanderson Rocha; Nanci A Salles; Andreza A de Souza Santos; Martirene A da Silva; Brian Custer; Manoel Barral-Netto; Moritz Kraemer; Rafael HM Pererira; Oliver G Pybus; Michael P Busch; Márcia C Castro; Christopher Dye; Vitor H Nascimento; Nuno R Faria; Ester C Sabino

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.16.20194787 Date: 2020-09-21 Source: medRxiv

    The herd immunity threshold is the proportion of a population that must be immune to an infectious disease MESHD, either by natural infection MESHD or vaccination such that, in the absence of additional preventative measures, new cases decline and the effective reproduction number TRANS falls HP below unity. This fundamental epidemiological parameter is still unknown for the recently-emerged COVID-19, and mathematical models have predicted very divergent results. Population studies using antibody testing SERO to infer total cumulative infections can provide empirical evidence of the level of population immunity in severely affected areas. Here we show that the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in Manaus, located in the Brazilian Amazon, increased quickly during March and April and declined more slowly from May to September. In June, one month following the epidemic peak, 44% of the population was seropositive for SARS-CoV-2, equating to a cumulative incidence of 52%, after correcting for the false-negative rate of the antibody test SERO. The seroprevalence SERO fell HP in July and August due to antibody SERO waning. After correcting for this, we estimate a final epidemic size of 66%. Although non-pharmaceutical interventions, plus a change in population behavior, may have helped to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Manaus, the unusually high infection rate suggests that herd immunity played a significant role in determining the size of the epidemic.

    Variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in school- children TRANS across districts, schools and classes

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene A Abela; Sarah H Haile; Jacob Blankenberger; Ruedi Jung; Celine Capelli; Christoph Berger; Anja Frei; Michael Huber; Merle Schanz; Magdalena Schwarzmueller; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Peter Hau; Christopher Bohr; Ralph Burkhardt; Andre Gessner; Bernd Salzberger; Frank Hanses; Florian Hitzenbichler; Daniel Heudobler; Florian Lueke; Tobias Pukrop; Wolfgang Herr; Daniel Wolff; Hendrik Poeck; Christoph Brochhausen; Petra Hoffmann; Michael Rehli; Marina Kreutz; Kathrin Renner

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20191254 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Understanding transmission TRANS and impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in school children TRANS is critical to implement appropriate mitigation measures. Objective: To determine the variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in school children TRANS across districts, schools, grades, and classes, and the relationship of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO with self-reported symptoms. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study (Ciao Corona) from June-July 2020. Setting: 55 randomly selected schools and classes stratified by district in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland (1.5 million inhabitants). Participants: Children TRANS, aged TRANS 6-16 years old, attending grades 1-2, 4-5 and 7-8. Exposure: Exposure to circulating SARS-CoV-2 between February and June 2020 including public lock-down and school closure (March 16-May 10, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: Variation in seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS across 12 cantonal districts, schools, and grades using a Luminex-based antibody test SERO with four targets for each of IgG, IgA and IgM. Clustering of cases within classes. Analysis of associations of seropositivity and symptoms. Comparison of seroprevalence SERO with a randomly selected adult TRANS population, based on Luminex-based IgG and IgA antibody test SERO of Corona Immunitas. Results: In total, 55 schools and 2585 children TRANS were recruited (1337 girls, median age TRANS 11, age TRANS range 6-16 years). Overall seroprevalence SERO was 2.8 % (95% CI 1.6-4.1%), ranging from 1.0% to 4.5% across districts. Seroprevalence SERO was 3.8% (1.9-6.1%) in grades 1-2, 2.5% (1.1-4.2%) in grades 4-5, and 1.5% (0.5-3.0%) in grades 7-8. At least one case was present in 36/55 tested schools and in 43/128 classes with [≥]50% participation rate and [≥]5 children TRANS tested. 73% of children TRANS reported COVID-19 compatible symptoms since January 2020, but none were reported more frequently in seropositive compared to seronegative children TRANS. Seroprevalence SERO of children TRANS was very similar to seroprevalence SERO of randomly selected adults TRANS in the same region in June-July 2020, measured with the same Corona Immunitas test, combining IgG and IgA (3.1%, 95% CI 1.4-5.4%, versus 3.3%, 95% CI 1.4-5.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: Seroprevalence SERO was inversely related to age TRANS and revealed a dark figure of around 90 when compared to 0.03% confirmed PCR+ cases in children TRANS in the same area by end of June. We did not find clustering of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive cases in schools so far, but the follow-up of this school-based study will shed more light on transmission TRANS within and outside schools. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04448717, registered June 26, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04448717

    A dual antigen ELISA SERO allows the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO seroprevalence SERO in a low transmission TRANS setting

    Authors: Sarah Hicks; Kai Pohl; Teresa Neeman; Hayley McNamara; Kate Parsons; Jin-Shu He; Sidra Ali; Samina Nazir; Louise Rowntree; Thi Nguyen; Katherine Kedzierska; Denise Doolan; Carola Vinuesa; Matthew Cook; Nicholas Coatsworth; Paul Myles; Florian Kurth; Leif Sander; Russell Gruen; Graham Mann; Amee George; Elizabeth Gardiner; Ian Cockburn; Bala Pesala; Debojyoti Chakraborty; Souvik Maiti

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191031 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    Estimates of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO have been hampered by inadequate assay sensitivity SERO and specificity. Using an ELISA SERO-based approach to that combines data about IgG responses to both the Nucleocapsid and Spike-receptor binding domain antigens, we show that near-optimal sensitivity SERO and specificity can be achieved. We used this assay to assess the frequency of virus-specific antibodies SERO in a cohort of elective surgery patients in Australia and estimated seroprevalence SERO in Australia to be 0.28% (0 to 0.72%). These data confirm the low level of transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in Australia before July 2020 and validate the specificity of our assay.

    Retrospective study of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors at the onset of the outbreak before implementation of strict lockdown measures in France

    Authors: Nicolas Germain; Stephanie Herwegh; Anne Sophie Hatzfeld; Laurence Bocket; Brigitte Prevost; Pierre Marie Danze; Philippe Marchetti; Rachael Dodd; Brooke Nickel; Kristen Pickles; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Kirsten J McCaffery; Aboubacar Sidiki Magassouba; Arsen Arakelyan; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192518 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered organ and tissue donations as well as transplantation practices. SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO could help in the selection of donors. We assessed COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in a population of tissue donors, at the onset of the outbreak in France, before systematic screening of donors for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Methods: 235 tissue donors at the Lille Tissue bank between November 1, 2019 and March 16, 2020 were included. Archived serum SERO samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using two FDA-approved kits. Results: Most donors were at higher risks for severe COVID-19 illness including age TRANS over 65 years (142/235) and/or presence of co-morbidities (141/235). According to the COVID-19 risk assessment of transmission TRANS, 183 out of 235 tissue donors presented with a low risk level and 52 donors with an intermediate risk level of donor derived infection MESHD. Four out of the 235 (1.7%) tested specimens were positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: 2 donors with anti-N protein IgG and 2 other donors with anti-S protein total Ig. None of them had both type of antibodies SERO. Conclusion: Regarding the seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors, we concluded that the transmission TRANS probability to recipient via tissue products was very low at the beginning of the outbreak.

    Model-informed COVID-19 vaccine prioritization strategies by age TRANS and serostatus

    Authors: Kate M Bubar; Stephen M Kissler; Marc Lipsitch; Sarah Cobey; Yonatan Grad; Daniel B Larremore

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.08.20190629 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    When a vaccine for COVID-19 becomes available, limited initial supply will raise the question of how to prioritize the available doses and thus underscores the need for transparent, evidence-based strategies that relate knowledge of, and uncertainty in, disease transmission, risk TRANS, vaccine efficacy, and existing population immunity. Here, we employ a model-informed approach to vaccine prioritization that evaluates the impact of prioritization strategies on cumulative incidence and mortality and accounts for population factors such as age TRANS, contact structure, and seroprevalence SERO, and vaccine factors including imperfect and age TRANS-varying efficacy. This framework can be used to evaluate and compare existing strategies, and it can also be used to derive an optimal prioritization strategy to minimize mortality or incidence. We find that a transmission TRANS-blocking vaccine should be prioritized to adults TRANS ages TRANS 20-49y to minimize cumulative incidence and to adults TRANS over 60y to minimize mortality. Direct vaccination of adults TRANS over 60y minimizes mortality for vaccines that do not block transmission TRANS. We also estimate the potential benefit of using individual-level serological tests SERO to redirect doses to only seronegative individuals, improving the marginal impact of each dose. We argue that this serology-informed vaccination approach may improve the efficiency of vaccination efforts while partially addressing existing inequities in COVID-19 burden and impact.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Disease-dependent interaction policies to support health and economic outcomes during the COVID-19 epidemic

    Authors: Guanlin Li; Shashwat Shivam; Michael E. Hochberg; Yorai Wardi; Joshua S Weitz; Natalia Ivanova Maltseva; Siquan Chen; Vlad Nicolaescu; Steve Dvorkin; Kevin Furlong; Rahul S Kathayat; Mason R Firpo; Vincent Mastrodomenico; Emily A Bruce; Madaline M Schmidt; Robert Jedrzejczak; Miguel A Munoz-Alia; Brooke Schuster; Vishnu Nair; Jason W Botten; Christopher B Brooke; Susan C Baker; Bryan C Mounce; Nicholas S Heaton; Bryan C Dickinson; Andrzej Jaochimiak; Glenn Randall; Savaş Tay; Maria Elena Madrigal; Enric Contreras; Eduard Muniz-Diaz; Jose Maria Domingo-Morera; Inmaculada Casas-Flecha; Mayte Perez-Olmeda; Javier Garcia-Perez; Jose Alcami; Jose Luis Bueno; Rafael F Duarte; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.20180752 Date: 2020-08-31 Source: medRxiv

    Lockdowns and stay-at-home orders have mitigated the spread of Covid-19 in certain counties.However, the indiscriminate nature of mitigation - applying to all individuals irrespective of disease status - has come with substantial socioeconomic costs. Here, we explore how to leverage the increasing reliability and scale of both molecular and serological tests SERO to balance transmission risks TRANS with economic costs involved in responding to Covid-19 epidemics. First, we introduce an optimal control approach that identifies personalized interaction rates according to an individual's test status; such that infected individuals isolate, recovered individuals can elevate their interactions, and activity of susceptible individuals varies over time. Critically, the extent to which susceptible individuals can return to work depends strongly on isolation efficiency. As we show, optimal control policies can yield mitigation policies with similar infection rates to total shutdown but lower socioeconomic costs. However, optimal control policies can be fragile given mis-specification of parameters or mis-estimation of the current disease state. Hence, we leverage insights from the optimal control solutions and propose a feedback control approach based on monitoring of the epidemic state. We utilize genetic algorithms to identify a `switching' policy such that susceptible individuals (both PCR and serological test SERO negative) return to work after lockdowns insofar as recovered fraction is much higher than the circulating infected prevalence SERO. This feedback control policy exhibits similar performance SERO results to optimal control, but with greater robustness to uncertainty. Overall, our analysis shows that test-driven improvements in isolation efficiency of infectious individuals can inform disease-dependent interaction policies that mitigate transmission TRANS while enhancing the return of individuals to pre-pandemic economic activity.

    Dynamic causal modeling of the COVID-19 pandemic in northern Italy predicts possible scenarios for the second wave

    Authors: Daniela Gandolfi; Giuseppe Pagnoni; Tommaso Filippini; Alessia Goffi; Marco Vinceti; Egidio Ugo D'Angelo; Jonathan Mapelli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.20178798 Date: 2020-08-23 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked an intense debate about the factors underlying the dynamics of the outbreak. Mitigating virus spread could benefit from reliable predictive models that inform effective social and healthcare strategies. Crucially, the predictive validity of these models depends upon incorporating behavioral and social responses to infection MESHD that underwrite ongoing social and healthcare strategies. Formally, the problem at hand is not unlike the one faced in neuroscience when modelling brain dynamics in terms of the activity of a neural network: the recent COVID19 pandemic develops in epicenters (e.g. cities or regions) and diffuses through transmission TRANS channels (e.g., population fluxes). Indeed, the analytic framework known as "Dynamic Causal Modeling" ( DCM MESHD) has recently been applied to the COVID-19 pandemic, shedding new light on the mechanisms and latent factors driving its evolution. The DCM approach rests on a time-series generative model that provides - through Bayesian model inversion and inference - estimates of the factors underlying the progression of the pandemic. We have applied DCM to data from northern Italian regions, which were the first areas in Europe to contend with the COVID-19 outbreak. We used official data on the number of daily confirmed cases TRANS, recovered cases, deaths MESHD and performed tests. The model - parameterized using data from the first months of the pandemic phase - was able to accurately predict its subsequent evolution (including social mobility, as assessed through GPS monitoring, and seroprevalence SERO, as assessed through serologic testing SERO) and revealed the potential factors underlying regional heterogeneity. Importantly, the model predicts that a second wave could arise due to a loss of effective immunity after about 7 months. This second wave was predicted to be substantially worse if outbreaks are not promptly isolated and contained. In short, dynamic causal modelling appears to be a reliable tool to shape and predict the spread of the COVID-19, and to identify the containment and control strategies that could efficiently counteract its second wave, until effective vaccines become available.

    High SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO in Children TRANS and Adults TRANS in the Austrian Ski Resort Ischgl

    Authors: Ludwig Knabl; Tanmay Mitra; Janine Kimpel; Annika Roessler; Andre Volland; Andreas Walser; Hanno Ulmer; Lisa Pipperger; Sebastian C Binder; Lydia Riepler; Katie Bates; Arnab Bandyopadhyay; Marta Schips; Mrinalini Ranjan; Barbara Falkensammer; Wegene Borena; Michael Meyer-Hermann; Dorothee von Laer; David Wyllie

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.20178533 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Early March 2020, a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the ski resort Ischgl in Austria initiated the spread of SARS-CoV-2 throughout Austria and Northern Europe. Methods: Between April 21 and 27, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study targeting the full population of Ischgl (n= 1867), of which 79% could be included (n=1473, incl. 214 children TRANS), was performed. For each individual, the study involved a SARS-CoV-2 PCR, antibody testing SERO and structured questionnaires. A mathematical model was used to help understand the influence of the determined seroprevalence SERO on virus transmission TRANS. Findings: The seroprevalence SERO was 42.4% (95% CI 39.8-44.7). Individuals under 18 showed a significantly lower seroprevalence SERO of 27.1% (95% CI 21.3-33.6) than adults TRANS (45%; 95% CI 42.2-47.7; OR of 0.455, 95% CI 0.356-0.682, p<0.001). Of the seropositive individuals, 83.7% had not been diagnosed to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD previously. The clinical course was generally mild. Over the previous two months, two COVID-19-related deaths had been recorded, corresponding to an infection fatality rate (IFR) of 0.25% (95% CI 0.03-0.91). Only 8 (0.5 %) individuals were newly diagnosed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 during this study. Interpretation: Ischgl was hit early and hard by SARS-CoV-2 leading to a high local seroprevalence SERO of 42.4%, which was lower in individuals below the age TRANS of 18 than in adults TRANS. Mathematical modeling suggests that a drastic decline of newly infected individuals in Ischgl by the end of April occured due to the dual impact from the non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) and a significant immunization of the Ischgl population. Funding: Helmholtz Association, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, German Research Foundation (DFG), state Tyrol.

    Seroprevalence SERO of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Among Health Care Workers from Three Pandemic Hospitals of Turkey

    Authors: Gizem ALKURT; Ahmet MURT; Zeki AYDIN; Ozge TATLI; Nihat Bugra AGAOGLU; Arzu IRVEM; Mehtap AYDIN; Ridvan KARAALI; Mustafa GUNES; Batuhan YESILYURT; Hasan TURKEZ; Adil MARDINOGLU; Mehmet DOGANAY; Filiz BASINOGLU; Nurhan SEYAHI; Gizem DINLER DOGANAY; Levent DOGANAY; Robert C Reiner; B. Aditya Prakash; Dave Osthus; Michael Lingzhi Li; Elizabeth C Lee; Ugur Koyluoglu; Pinar Keskinocak; Youyang Gu; Quanquan Gu; Glover E George; Guido España; Sabrina Corsetti; Jagpreet Chhatwal; Sean Cavany; Hannah Biegel; Michal Ben-Nun; Jo Walker; Rachel Slayton; Velma Lopez; Matthew Biggerstaff; Michael A Johansson; Nicholas G Reich; - COVID-19 Forecast Hub Consortium

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.20178095 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 is a global threat with an increasing number of infections MESHD. Research on IgG seroprevalence SERO among health care workers (HCWs) is needed to re-evaluate health policies. This study was performed in three pandemic hospitals in Istanbul and Kocaeli. Different clusters of HCWs were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Seropositivity rate among participants was evaluated by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay SERO. We recruited 813 non-infected and 119 PCR-confirmed infected HCWs. Of the previously undiagnosed HCWs, 22 (2.7%) were seropositive. Seropositivity rates were highest for cleaning staff (6%), physicians (4%), nurses (2.2%) and radiology technicians (1%). Non-pandemic clinic (6.4%) and ICU (4.3%) had the highest prevalence SERO. HCWs in high risk group had similar seropositivity rate with no risk group (2.9 vs 3.6 p=0.7), indicating the efficient implementation of protection measures in the hospitals in Turkey. These findings might lead to the re-evaluation of infection control and transmission TRANS dynamics in hospitals.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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