Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Obesity HP Obesity MESHD and Smoking as Risk Factors for Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in COVID-19: a Retrospective, Observational Cohort Study

    Authors: Ana Carolina Costa Monteiro; Rajat Suri; Ileanacho Obi Emeruwa; Robert J Stretch; Roxana Y Cortes Lopez; Alexander Sherman; Catherine C Lindsay; Jennifer A Fulcher; David Goodman-Meza; Anil Sapru; Russell G Buhr; Steven Y Chang; Tisha Wang; Nida Qadir; Rachel Vreeman; Joseph Masci; Nick A Maskell; Shaney Barratt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173849 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Purpose: To describe the trajectory of respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD in COVID-19 and explore factors associated with risk of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study of 112 inpatient adults TRANS diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 12 and April 16, 2020. Data were manually extracted from electronic medical records. Multivariable and Univariable regression were used to evaluate association between baseline characteristics, initial serum SERO markers and the outcome of IMV. Results: Our cohort had median age TRANS of 61 (IQR 45-74) and was 66% male TRANS. In-hospital mortality was 6% (7/112). ICU mortality was 12.8% (6/47), and 18% (5/28) for those requiring IMV. Obesity HP (OR 5.82, CI 1.74-19.48), former (OR 8.06, CI 1.51-43.06) and current smoking status (OR 10.33, CI 1.43-74.67) were associated with IMV after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and high prevalence SERO comorbidities by multivariable analysis. Initial absolute lymphocyte count (OR 0.33, CI 0.11-0.96), procalcitonin (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.57), IL-6 (OR 1.17, CI 1.03-1.33), ferritin (OR 1.05, CI 1.005-1.11), LDH (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.17) and CRP (OR 1.13, CI 1.06-1.21), were associated with IMV by univariate analysis. Conclusions: Obesity HP, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were associated with increased need for IMV in patients with COVID-19.

    Identifying novel factors associated with COVID-19 transmission TRANS and fatality using the machine learning approach

    Authors: Mengyuan Li; Zhilan Zhang; Wenxiu Cao; Yijing Liu; Beibei Du; Canping Chen; Qian Liu; Md. Nazim Uddin; Shanmei Jiang; Cai Chen; Yue Zhang; Xiaosheng Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20127472 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 virus has infected millions of people and resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide. By using the logistic regression model, we identified novel critical factors associated with COVID19 cases, death MESHD, and case fatality rates in 154 countries and in the 50 U.S. states. Among numerous factors associated with COVID-19 risk, we found that the unitary state system was counter-intuitively positively associated with increased COVID-19 cases and deaths. Blood SERO type B was a protective factor for COVID-19 risk, while blood SERO type A was a risk factor. The prevalence SERO of HIV, influenza and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, and chronic lower respiratory diseases MESHD was associated with reduced COVID-19 risk. Obesity HP Obesity MESHD and the condition of unimproved water sources were associated with increased COVID-19 risk. Other factors included temperature, humidity, social distancing, smoking, and vitamin D intake. Our comprehensive identification of the factors affecting COVID-19 transmission TRANS and fatality may provide new insights into the COVID-19 pandemic and advise effective strategies for preventing and migrating COVID-19 spread.

    COVID-19 transmission risk TRANS factors

    Authors: Alessio Notari; Giorgio Torrieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20095083 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    We analyze risk factors correlated with the initial transmission TRANS growth rate of the recent COVID-19 pandemic in different countries. The number of cases follows in its early stages an almost exponential expansion; we chose as a starting point in each country the first day with 30 cases and we used 12 days, capturing thus the early exponential growth. We looked then for linear correlations of the exponents with other variables, for a sample of 126 countries. We find a positive correlation, faster spread of COVID-19 , with high confidence level with the following variables, with respective p-value: low Temperature (4x10 -7), high ratio of old vs. working- age TRANS people (3x10 -6), life expectancy (8x10 -6), number of international tourists (1x10 -5), earlier epidemic starting date (2x10 -5), high level of physical contact in greeting habits (6x10 -5), lung cancer MESHD prevalence SERO (6x10 -5), obesity HP obesity MESHD in males TRANS (1x10 -4), share of population in urban areas (2x10 -4), cancer MESHD prevalence SERO (3x10 -4), alcohol consumption (0.0019), daily smoking prevalence SERO (0.0036), UV index (0.004, smaller sample, 73 countries), low Vitamin D serum SERO levels (0.002-0.006, smaller sample, 50 countries). There is highly significant correlation also with blood SERO type: positive correlation with types RH- (2x10 -5) and A+ (2x10 -3), negative correlation with B+ (2x10 -4). We also find positive correlation with moderate confidence level (p-value of 0.02-0.03) with: CO2/SO emissions, type-1 diabetes MESHD in children TRANS, low vaccination coverage for Tuberculosis MESHD (BCG). Several of the above variables are correlated with each other and so they are likely to have common interpretations. Other variables are found to have a counterintuitive negative correlation, which may be explained due their strong negative correlation with life expectancy: slower spread of COVID-19 is correlated with high death-rate due to pollution, prevalence SERO of anemia HP anemia MESHD and hepatitis HP hepatitis MESHD B, high blood SERO pressure in females TRANS. We also analyzed the possible existence of a bias: countries with low GDP-per capita, typically located in warm regions, might have less intense testing and we discuss correlation with the above variables.

    COVID-19 transmission risk TRANS factors

    Authors: Alessio Notari; Giorgio Torrieri

    id:2005.03651v1 Date: 2020-05-07 Source: arXiv

    We analyze risk factors correlated with the initial transmission TRANS growth rate of the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of cases follows an early exponential expansion; we chose as a starting point in each country the first day with 30 cases and used 12 days. We looked for linear correlations of the exponents with other variables, using 126 countries. We find a positive correlation with high C.L. with the following variables, with respective $p$-value: low Temperature ($4\cdot10^{-7}$), high ratio of old vs.~working- age TRANS people ($3\cdot10^{-6}$), life expectancy ($8\cdot10^{-6}$), number of international tourists ($1\cdot10^{-5}$), earlier epidemic starting date ($2\cdot10^{-5}$), high level of contact in greeting habits ($6 \cdot 10^{-5}$), lung cancer MESHD ($6 \cdot 10^{-5}$), obesity HP obesity MESHD in males TRANS ($1 \cdot 10^{-4}$), urbanization ($2\cdot10^{-4}$), cancer MESHD prevalence SERO ($3 \cdot 10^{-4}$), alcohol consumption ($0.0019$), daily smoking prevalence SERO ($0.0036$), UV index ($0.004$, smaller sample, 73 countries), low Vitamin D levels HP ($p$-value $0.002-0.006$, smaller sample, $\sim 50$ countries). There is highly significant correlation also with blood SERO type: positive correlation with RH- ($2\cdot10^{-5}$) and A+ ($2\cdot10^{-3}$), negative correlation with B+ ($2\cdot10^{-4}$). We also find positive correlation with moderate C.L. ($p$-value of $0.02\sim0.03$) with: CO$_2$ emissions, type-1 diabetes MESHD, low vaccination coverage for Tuberculosis MESHD (BCG). Several such variables are correlated with each other and so they likely have common interpretations. We also analyzed the possible existence of a bias: countries with low GDP-per capita, typically located in warm regions, might have less intense testing and we discuss correlation with the above variables.

    High frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia MESHD and association with severe disease

    Authors: Catherine A. Hogan; Bryan Stevens; Malaya K Sahoo; ChunHong Huang; Natasha Garamani; Saurabh Gombar; Fiona Yamamoto; Kanagavel Murugesan; Jason Kurzer; James Zehnder; Benjamin A. Pinsky

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20080101 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the blood SERO, also known as RNAemia, has been reported, but its prognostic implications are not well understood. This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma SERO and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed in a single-center tertiary care institution in northern California and included consecutive inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 confirmed by detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The prevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 RNAemia MESHD and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined and included the need for transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU), mechanical ventilation and 30-day all-cause mortality. Results: Paired nasopharyngeal and plasma SERO samples were included from 85 patients. The overall median age TRANS was 55 years, and individuals with RNAemia were older than those with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma SERO (63 vs 50 years; p=0.001). Comorbidities were frequent including obesity HP obesity MESHD (37.7%), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (30.6%) and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (22.4%). RNAemia was detected in a total of 28/85 (32.9%) individual patients, including 22/28 (78.6%) who required hospital admission. RNAemia was detected more frequently in individuals who developed severe disease including the need for ICU transfer (32.1% vs 14.0%; p=0.05), mechanical ventilation (21.4% vs 3.5%; p=0.01) and 30-day all-cause mortality (14.3% vs 0%; p=0.01). No association was detected between RNAemia and estimated levels of viral RNA in the nasopharynx. An additional 121 plasma SERO samples from 28 individuals with RNAemia were assessed longitudinally, and RNA was detected for a maximum duration of 10 days. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia MESHD, and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity suggesting the potential utility of plasma SERO viral testing as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19.

    Vitamin D Insufficiency MESHD is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19

    Authors: Frank H. Lau; Rinku Majumder; Radbeh Torabi; Fouad Saeg; Ryan Hoffman; Jeffrey D. Cirillo; Patrick Greiffenstein

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 is a major pandemic that has killed more than 196,000 people. The COVID-19 disease course is strikingly divergent. Approximately 80-85% of patients experience mild or no symptoms, while the remainder develop severe disease. The mechanisms underlying these divergent outcomes are unclear. Emerging health disparities data regarding African American and homeless populations suggest that vitamin D insufficiency MESHD ( VDI MESHD) may be an underlying driver of COVID-19 severity. To better define the VDI-COVID-19 link, we determined the prevalence SERO of VDI MESHD among our COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: In an Institutional Review Board approved study performed at a single, tertiary care academic medical center, the medical records of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were included for whom serum SERO 25-hydroxycholecalcifoerol (25OHD) levels were determined. COVID-19-relevant data were compiled and analyzed. We determined the frequency of VDI MESHD among COVID-19 patients to evaluate the likelihood of a VDI-COVID-19 relationship. Results: Twenty COVID-19 patients with serum SERO 25OHD levels were identified; 65.0% required ICU admission.The VDI prevalence SERO in ICU patients was 84.6%, vs. 57.1% in floor patients. Strikingly, 100% of ICU patients less than 75 years old had VDI MESHD. Coagulopathy MESHD was present in 62.5% of ICU COVID-19 patients, and 92.3% were lymphocytopenic. Conclusions: VDI is highly prevalent in severe COVID-19 patients. VDI MESHD and severe COVID-19 share numerous associations including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, male TRANS sex, advanced age TRANS, concentration in northern climates, coagulopathy MESHD, and immune dysfunction MESHD. Thus, we suggest that prospective, randomized controlled studies of VDI MESHD in COVID-19 patients are warranted.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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