Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Development, clinical translation, and utility of a COVID-19 antibody test SERO with qualitative and quantitative readouts

    Authors: Robert H. Bortz III; Catalina Florez; Ethan Laudermilch; Ariel S Wirchnianski; Gorka Lasso; Ryan J Malonis; George I Georgiev; Olivia Vergnolle; Natalia G Herrera; Nicholas C Morano; Sean T Campbell; Erika P. Orner; Amanda Mengotto; M Eugenia Dieterle; Jens Maximilian Fels; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20192187 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) continues to place an immense burden on societies and healthcare systems. A key component of COVID-19 control efforts is serologic testing SERO to determine the community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and quantify individual immune responses to prior infection MESHD or vaccination. Here, we describe a laboratory-developed antibody test SERO that uses readily available research-grade reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 exposure in patient blood SERO samples with high sensitivity SERO and specificity. We further show that this test affords the estimation of viral spike-specific IgG titers from a single sample measurement, thereby providing a simple and scalable method to measure the strength of an individual's immune response. The accuracy, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of this test makes it an excellent option for clinical deployment in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

    24 People, one test: Boosting test efficiency using pooled serum SERO antibody testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Stefan Nessler; Jonas Franz; Franziska van der Meer; Konstantina Kolotourou; Vivek Venkataramani; Chalid Hasan; Beatrix Beatrix Pollok-Kopp; Andreas E Zautner; Christine Stadelmann; Michael Weig; Stefan Poehlmann; Markus Hoffmann; Joachim Riggert; Graham Medley; Michael Hohle; John Edmunds; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186130 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The global pandemic of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD), with different prevalence SERO rates across countries and regions. Dynamic testing strategies are mandatory to establish efficient mitigation strategies against the disease; to be cost effective, they should adapt to regional prevalences SERO. Seroprevalence SERO surveys that detect individuals who have mounted an immune response against COVID-19 will help to determine the total number of infections within a community and improve the epidemiological calculations of attack and case fatality rates of the virus. They will also inform about the percentage of a population that might be immune against re-infections. Methods: We developed a sensitive and specific cell-based assay to detect conformational SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (SARS-2-S) S1 antibodies SERO in human serum SERO, and have cross-evaluated this assay against two FDA-approved SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays. We performed pseudovirus neutralization assays to determine whether sera that were rated antibody SERO-positive in our assay were able to specifically neutralize SARS-2-S. We pooled up to 24 sera and assessed the group testing performance SERO of our cell-based assay. Group testing was further optimized by Monte Carlo like simulations and prospectively evaluated. Findings: Highly significant correlations could be established between our cell-based assay and commercial antibody tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-2-S S1 antibody SERO-positive sera neutralized SARS-2-S but not SARS-S MESHD, and were sensitively and specifically detected in pools of 24 samples. Monte Carlo like simulations demonstrated that a simple two-step pooling scheme with fixed pool sizes performed at least equally as well as Dorfman's optimal testing across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. Interpretation: We demonstrate that a cell-based assay for SARS-2-S S1 antibodies SERO qualifies for group testing of neutralizing anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO. The assay can be combined with an easily implemented algorithm which greatly expands the screening capacity to detect anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. It will thus improve population serological testing SERO in many countries.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    ASSOCIATION OF HYPERGLYCEMIA HP WITH HOSPITAL MORTALITY IN COVID-19 PATIENTS WITHOUT DIABETES MESHD: A COHORT STUDY

    Authors: Manju Mamtani; Ambarish M Athavale; Mohan Abraham; Jane Vernik; Amatur Amarah; Juan Ruiz; Amit Joshi; Matthew Itteera; Sara Zhukovsky; Ravi Prakash Madaiah; Peter Hart; Hemant Kulkarni

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185157 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Diabetes MESHD is a known risk factor for mortality in Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our objective was to identify prevalence SERO of hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes MESHD and quantify its association with COVID-19 disease course. Research Design and Methods: In this observational cohort study, all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to John H Stroger Jr. Hospital, Chicago, IL from March 15, 2020 to May 15, 2020 were included. The primary outcome was hospital mortality and the main predictor was hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD (any blood SERO glucose [≥]7.78 mmol/L during hospitalization). Results: Of 403 COVID-19 patients studied, 228 (57%) developed hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD. Of these, 83 (21%) had hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD without diabetes MESHD. A total of 51 (12.7%) patients died. Compared to the reference group no- diabetes MESHD/no- hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients the no- diabetes MESHD/ hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients showed higher mortality (1.8% versus 20.5%, adjusted odds ratio 21.94 (95% confidence interval 4.04-119.0), p < 0.001); improved prediction of death (p=0.0162) and faster progression to death (p=0.0051). Hyperglycemia HP Hyperglycemia MESHD within the first 24 and 48 hours was also significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.15 and 3.31, respectively). Further, compared to the same reference group, no- diabetes MESHD/ hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD patients had higher risk of ICU admission (p<0.001), mechanical ventilation (p<0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome (p<0.001) and a longer hospital stay in survivors (p<0.001). Conclusions: Hyperglycemia HP Hyperglycemia MESHD in the absence of diabetes MESHD was common (21% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients) and was associated with an increased risk of and faster progression to death. Development of hyperglycemia HP hyperglycemia MESHD in COVID-19 patients who do not have diabetes MESHD is an early indicator of poor prognosis.

    Population-based seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is more than halfway through the herd immunity threshold in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

    Authors: Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva; Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto; Conceição de Maria Pedrozo e Silva de Azevedo; Léa Márcia Melo da Costa; Maylla Luana Barbosa Martins Bragança; Allan Kardec Duailibe Barros Filho; Bernardo Bastos Wittlin; Bruno Feres de Souza Sr.; Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira; Carolina Abreu de Carvalho; Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz; Eudes Alves Simões Neto; Jamesson Ferreira Leite Júnior; Lécia Maria Sousa Santos Cosme; Marcos Adriano Garcia Campos; Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz; Sérgio Souza Costa; Vitória Abreu de Carvalho; Vanda Maria Ferreira Simóes; Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto e Alves; Alcione Miranda dos Santos; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20180463 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Few population-based studies on the prevalence SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have been performed to date, and most of them have used lateral flow immunoassays SERO with finger-prick, which may yield false-negative results and thus underestimate the true infection rate. Methods: A population-based household survey was performed in the State of Maranhao, Brazil, from 27 July 2020 to 8 August 2020 to estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 using a serum SERO testing electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO. A three-stage cluster sampling stratified by four state regions was used. The estimates took clustering, stratification, and non-response into account. Qualitative detection of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO was performed in a fully-automated Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay SERO on the Cobas e601 analyser (Roche Diagnostics). Findings: A total of 3156 individuals were interviewed. Seroprevalence SERO of total antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 was 40.4% (95%CI 35.6-45.3). Population adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions was higher at the beginning of the pandemic than in the last month. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD rates were significantly lower among mask wearers and among those who maintained social and physical distancing in the last month compared to their counterparts. Among the infected, 62.2% had more than three symptoms, 11.1% had one or two symptoms, and 26.0% were asymptomatic TRANS. The infection MESHD fatality rate was 0.17%, higher for males TRANS and advanced age groups TRANS. The ratio of estimated infections MESHD to reported cases was 22.2. Interpretation: To the best of our knowledge, the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 estimated in this population-based survey was the highest and the closest to the herd immunity threshold reported to date. Our results suggest that the herd immunity threshold is not as low as 20%, but at least higher than or equal to around 40%. The infection MESHD fatality rate was one of the lowest reported so far, and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases was low.

    Abnormal Upregulation of Cardiovascular Disease MESHD Biomarker PLA2G7 Induced by Proinflammatory Macrophages in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Yang LI; Yongzhong JIANG; Yi ZHANG; Naizhe LI; Qiangling YIN; Linlin LIU; Xin LV; Yan LIU; Aqian LI; Bin FANG; Jiajia LI; Hengping YE; Gang YANG; Xiaoxian CUI; Yang LIU; Yuanyuan QU; Chuan LI; Jiandong LI; Dexin LI; Shiwen WANG; Zhongtao GAI; Faxian ZHAN; Mifang LIANG; Scott Hensley

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.16.20175505 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) triggers distinct patterns of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD progression with multiorgan disease, calling for cell- and/or tissue-type specific host injury markers. METHODS. An integrated hypothesis-free single biomarker analysis framework was performed on nasal swabs (n=484) from patients with COVID-19 in GSE152075. The origin of candidate biomarker was assessed in single-cell RNA data (GSE145926). The candidate biomarker was validated in a cross-sectional cohort (n=564) at both nucletide and protein levels. RESULTS. Phospholipase A2 group VII (PLA2G7) was identified as a candidate biomarker in COVID-19. PLA2G7 was predominantly expressed by proinflammatory macrophages in lungs emerging with progression of COVID-19. In the validation stage, PLA2G7 was found in patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, especially in severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, rather than patients suffered mild H1N1 influenza infection MESHD. The positive rates of PLA2G7 ranging from 29.37% to 100.00% were positively correlated with not only viral loads in patients with COVID-19 but also severity of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in non COVID-19 patients. Although Ct values of PLA2G7 in severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was siginificantly lower than that in moderate pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (P=7.2e-11), no differences were observed in moderate pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD with COVID-19 between severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD without COVID-19 (P=0.81). Serum SERO protein levels of PLA2G7, also known as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), were further found to be elevated and beyond the upper limit of normal in patients with COVID-19, especially among the re-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS. We firstly identified and validated PLA2G7, a biomarker for cardiovascular diseases MESHD ( CVDs MESHD), was abnormally enhanced in COVID-19 patients at both nucletide and protein aspects. These findings provided indications into the prevalence SERO of cardiovascular involvements seen in COVID-19 patients. PLA2G7 could be a hallmark of COVID-19 for monitoring disease progress and therapeutic response.

    Analysis of COVID-19 cases in India through Machine Learning: A Study of Intervention

    Authors: Hanuman Verma; Akshansh Gupta; Utkarsh Niranjan

    id:2008.10450v1 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: arXiv

    To combat the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the world has vaccination, plasma SERO therapy, herd immunity, and epidemiological interventions as few possible options. The COVID-19 vaccine development is underway and it may take a significant amount of time to develop the vaccine and after development, it will take time to vaccinate the entire population, and plasma SERO therapy has some limitations. Herd immunity can be a plausible option to fight COVID-19 for small countries. But for a country with huge population like India, herd immunity is not a plausible option, because to acquire herd immunity approximately 67% of the population has to be recovered from COVID-19 infection MESHD, which will put an extra burden on medical system of the country and will result in a huge loss of human life. Thus epidemiological interventions (complete lockdown, partial lockdown, quarantine, isolation, social distancing, etc.) are some suitable strategies in India to slow down the COVID-19 spread until the vaccine development. In this work, we have suggested the SIR model with intervention, which incorporates the epidemiological interventions in the classical SIR model. To model the effect of the interventions, we have introduced \r{ho} as the intervention parameter. \r{ho} is a cumulative quantity which covers all type of intervention. We have also discussed the supervised machine learning approach to estimate the transmission TRANS rate (\b{eta}) for the SIR model with intervention from the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 data in India and some states of India. To validate our model, we present a comparison between the actual and model-predicted number of COVID-19 cases. Using our model, we also present predicted numbers of active and recovered COVID-19 cases till Sept 30, 2020, for entire India and some states of India and also estimate the 95% and 99% confidence interval for the predicted cases.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    The Lebanese Cohort for COVID-19; A Challenge for the ABO Blood SERO Group System

    Authors: Athar Khalil; Mahmoud Hassoun; Rita Feghali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166785 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    A sudden outbreak of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread all over the world facilitating the declaration of the resultant disease as a pandemic in March,2020. In Lebanon, the fast action of announcing a state of emergency with strict measures was among the factors that helped in achieving a successful containment of the disease in the country. Predisposing factors for acquiring COVID-19 and for developing a severe form of this disease were postulated to be related to epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the genomics signature of a given population or its environment. Biological markers such as the ABO blood SERO group system was amongst those factors that were proposed to be linked to the variability in the disease course and/or the prevalence SERO of this infection among different groups. We therefore conducted the first retrospective case-control study in the Middle-East and North Africa that tackles the association between the blood SERO group types and the susceptibility as well as the severity of SARS-CoV2 infection MESHD. Opposing to the current acknowledged hypothesis, our results have challenged the association significance of this system with COVID-19. Herein, we highlighted the importance of studying larger cohorts using more rigorous approaches to diminish the potential confounding effect of some underlying comorbidities and genetic variants that are known to be associated with the ABO blood SERO group system.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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