Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 49
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    Development, clinical translation, and utility of a COVID-19 antibody test SERO with qualitative and quantitative readouts

    Authors: Robert H. Bortz III; Catalina Florez; Ethan Laudermilch; Ariel S Wirchnianski; Gorka Lasso; Ryan J Malonis; George I Georgiev; Olivia Vergnolle; Natalia G Herrera; Nicholas C Morano; Sean T Campbell; Erika P. Orner; Amanda Mengotto; M Eugenia Dieterle; Jens Maximilian Fels; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.20192187 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) continues to place an immense burden on societies and healthcare systems. A key component of COVID-19 control efforts is serologic testing SERO to determine the community prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and quantify individual immune responses to prior infection MESHD or vaccination. Here, we describe a laboratory-developed antibody test SERO that uses readily available research-grade reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 exposure in patient blood SERO samples with high sensitivity SERO and specificity. We further show that this test affords the estimation of viral spike-specific IgG titers from a single sample measurement, thereby providing a simple and scalable method to measure the strength of an individual's immune response. The accuracy, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of this test makes it an excellent option for clinical deployment in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

    Robust SARS-COV-2 serological population screens via multi-antigen rules-based approach

    Authors: Christos F Fotis; Nikolaos Meimetis; Nikos Tsolakos; Marianna Politou; Karolina Akinosoglou; Vicky Pliaka; Angeliki Minia; Evangelos Terpos; Ioannis P. Trougakos; Andreas Mentis; Markos Marangos; George Panayiotakopoulos; Meletios A. Dimopoulos; Charalampos Gogos; Alexandros Spyridonidis; Leonidas G. Alexopoulos

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191122 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    More than 300 SARS-COV-2 serological tests SERO have recently been developed using either the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), the spike glycoprotein subunit (S1), and more recently the receptor binding domain (RBD). Most of the assays report very good clinical performance SERO characteristics in well-controlled clinical settings. However, there is a growing belief that good performance SERO characteristics that are obtained during clinical performance SERO trials might not be sufficient to deliver good diagnostic results in population-wide screens that are usually characterized with low seroprevalence SERO. In this paper, we developed a serological assay SERO against N, S1 and RBD using a bead-based multiplex platform and a rules-based computational approach to assess the performance SERO of single and multi-antigen readouts in well-defined clinical samples and in a population-wide serosurvey from blood SERO donors. Even though assays based on single antigen readouts performed similarly well in the clinical samples, there was a striking difference between the antigens on the population-wide screen. Asymptomatic TRANS individuals with low antibody SERO titers and sub-optimal assay specificity might contribute to the large discrepancies in population studies with low seroprevalence SERO. A multi-antigen assay requiring partial agreement between RBD, N and S1 readouts exhibited enhanced specificity, less dependency on assay cut-off values and an overall more robust performance SERO in both sample settings. Our data suggest that assays based on multiple antigen readouts combined with a rules-based computational consensus can provide a more robust platform for routine antibody SERO screening.

    Clinical Performance SERO Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody Test SERO for Determining Past Exposure to SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Peter Findeisen; Hugo Stiegler; Eloisa Lopez-Calle; Tanja Schneider; Eva Urlaub; Johannes Hayer; Claudia Silke Zemmrich

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20180687 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: medRxiv

    The true prevalence SERO and population seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD remains unknown, due to the number of asymptomatic TRANS infections MESHD and limited access to high- performance SERO antibody tests SERO. To control the COVID-19 pandemic it is crucial to understand the true seroprevalence SERO, but not every region has access to extensive centralized PCR and serology testing. Currently available rapid antibody tests SERO lack the accuracy needed for recommendation by health authorities. To fill this gap, we analyzed and validated the clinical performance SERO of a new point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody SERO Assay, a chromatographic immunoassay SERO for qualitative detection of IgM/IgG antibodies SERO for use in near-patient settings. Analysis was performed using 42 Anti-SARS-Cov-2 positive (CoV+) and 92 Anti-SARS-Covid-2 negative (CoV-) leftover samples from before December 2019, using the Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 as the reference assay. Analytical specificity was tested using leftover samples from individuals with symptoms of common cold collected before December 2019. The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody Test SERO was 100.0% (95% CI 91.59-100.00) sensitive and 96.74% (95% CI 90.77-99.32) specific with an assay failure rate of 0.00%. No cross-reactivity was observed against the common cold panel. Method comparison was additionally conducted by two external laboratories, using 100 CoV+/275 CoV- samples, also comparing whole blood SERO versus plasma SERO matrix. The comparison demonstrated for plasma SERO 96.00% positive/96.36% negative percent agreement with the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and overall 99.20% percent agreement between whole blood SERO and EDTA plasma SERO. The SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antibody Test SERO demonstrated similar clinical performance SERO to the manufacturer's data and to a centralized automated immunoassay SERO, with no cross-reactivity to common cold panels.

    24 People, one test: Boosting test efficiency using pooled serum SERO antibody testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Stefan Nessler; Jonas Franz; Franziska van der Meer; Konstantina Kolotourou; Vivek Venkataramani; Chalid Hasan; Beatrix Beatrix Pollok-Kopp; Andreas E Zautner; Christine Stadelmann; Michael Weig; Stefan Poehlmann; Markus Hoffmann; Joachim Riggert; Graham Medley; Michael Hohle; John Edmunds; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186130 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The global pandemic of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD), with different prevalence SERO rates across countries and regions. Dynamic testing strategies are mandatory to establish efficient mitigation strategies against the disease; to be cost effective, they should adapt to regional prevalences SERO. Seroprevalence SERO surveys that detect individuals who have mounted an immune response against COVID-19 will help to determine the total number of infections within a community and improve the epidemiological calculations of attack and case fatality rates of the virus. They will also inform about the percentage of a population that might be immune against re-infections. Methods: We developed a sensitive and specific cell-based assay to detect conformational SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD (SARS-2-S) S1 antibodies SERO in human serum SERO, and have cross-evaluated this assay against two FDA-approved SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO assays. We performed pseudovirus neutralization assays to determine whether sera that were rated antibody SERO-positive in our assay were able to specifically neutralize SARS-2-S. We pooled up to 24 sera and assessed the group testing performance SERO of our cell-based assay. Group testing was further optimized by Monte Carlo like simulations and prospectively evaluated. Findings: Highly significant correlations could be established between our cell-based assay and commercial antibody tests SERO for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-2-S S1 antibody SERO-positive sera neutralized SARS-2-S but not SARS-S MESHD, and were sensitively and specifically detected in pools of 24 samples. Monte Carlo like simulations demonstrated that a simple two-step pooling scheme with fixed pool sizes performed at least equally as well as Dorfman's optimal testing across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. Interpretation: We demonstrate that a cell-based assay for SARS-2-S S1 antibodies SERO qualifies for group testing of neutralizing anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO. The assay can be combined with an easily implemented algorithm which greatly expands the screening capacity to detect anti-SARS-2-S antibodies SERO across a wide range of antibody SERO prevalences SERO. It will thus improve population serological testing SERO in many countries.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in children TRANS - A prospective multicentre cohort study.

    Authors: Thomas Waterfield; Chris Watson; Rebecca Moore; Kathryn Ferris; Claire Tonry; Alison P Watt; Claire McGinn; Steven Foster; Jennifer Evans; Mark D Lyttle; Shazaad Ahmad; Shamez Ladhani; Michael Corr; Lisa McFetridge; Hannah Mitchell; Kevin Brown; Gayatric Amirthalingam; Julie-Ann Maney; Sharon Christie; Angela Afonso; Marc Veldhoen; Matthew Harnett; Melody Eaton; Sandra Hatem; Hajra Jamal; Alara Akyatan; Alexandra Tabachnikova; Lora E. Liharska; Liam Cotter; Brian Fennessey; Akhil Vaid; Guillermo Barturen; Scott R. Tyler; Hardik Shah; Yinh-chih Wang; Shwetha Hara Sridhar; Juan Soto; Swaroop Bose; Kent Madrid; Ethan Ellis; Elyze Merzier; Konstantinos Vlachos; Nataly Fishman; Manying Tin; Melissa Smith; Hui Xie; Manishkumar Patel; Kimberly Argueta; Jocelyn Harris; Neha Karekar; Craig Batchelor; Jose Lacunza; Mahlet Yishak; Kevin Tuballes; Leisha Scott; Arvind Kumar; Suraj Jaladanki; Ryan Thompson; Evan Clark; Bojan Losic; - The Mount Sinai COVID-19 Biobank Team; Jun Zhu; Wenhui Wang; Andrew Kasarskis; Benjamin S. Glicksberg; Girish Nadkarni; Dusan Bogunovic; Cordelia Elaiho; Sandeep Gangadharan; George Ofori-Amanfo; Kasey Alesso-Carra; Kenan Onel; Karen M. Wilson; Carmen Argmann; Marta E. Alarcón-Riquelme; Thomas U. Marron; Adeeb Rahman; Seunghee Kim-Schulze; Sacha Gnjatic; Bruce D. Gelb; Miriam Merad; Robert Sebra; Eric E. Schadt; Alexander W. Charney

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20183095 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background Studies based on molecular testing of oral/nasal swabs underestimate SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD due to issues with test sensitivity SERO and timing of testing. The objective of this study was to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, consistent with previous infection MESHD, and to report the symptomatology of infection MESHD in children TRANS. Design This multicentre observational cohort study, conducted between 16th April - 3rd July 2020 at 5 UK sites, aimed to recruit 900 children TRANS aged TRANS 2 to 15 years of age TRANS. Participants provided blood SERO samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing and data were gathered regarding unwell contacts and symptoms. Results 1007 participants were enrolled, and 992 were included in the final analysis. The median age TRANS of participants was 10.1 years. There were 68 (6.9%) participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO tests indicative of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Of these, 34/68 (50%) reported no symptoms. The presence of antibodies SERO and the mean antibody SERO titre was not influenced by age TRANS. Following multivariate analysis 4 independent variables were identified as significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. These were: known infected household contact TRANS; fatigue HP fatigue MESHD; gastrointestinal symptoms; and changes in sense of smell or taste. Discussion In this study children TRANS demonstrated similar antibody SERO titres in response to SARS-CoV-2 irrespective of age TRANS. The symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS were subtle but of those reported, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD and changes in sense of smell or taste were most strongly associated with antibody SERO positivity. Registration This study was registered at (trial registration: NCT04347408) on the 15/04/2020.

    Prevalence SERO of readily detected amyloid blood SERO clots in ‘unclotted’ Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP and COVID-19 plasma SERO

    Authors: Etheresia Pretorius; Chantelle Venter; Gert Jacobus Laubscher; Petrus Johannes Lourens; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas B Kell

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-08-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus MESHD Diabetes Mellitus HP ( T2DM MESHD) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies MESHD are a common accompaniment to both T2DM MESHD and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity SERO. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated clotting severity and the extent of clotting pathologies in the individual who was infected MESHD or not would be highly desirable.Methods We show here that microclots can be detected in the native plasma SERO of COVID-19, as well as T2DM MESHD patients, without the addition of any clotting agent, and in particular that such clots are amyloid in nature as judged by a standard fluorogenic stain.Results In COVID-19 plasma SERO these microclots are significantly increased when compared to the levels in T2DM MESHD.Conclusions This fluorogenic test may provide a rapid and convenient test with 100% sensitivity SERO (P < 0.0001), and is consistent with the recognition that the early detection and prevention of such clotting can have an important role in therapy.

    Clinical Characterisation of Lateral Flow Assays for Detection of COVID-19 Antibodies SERO in a population

    Authors: Fabian Rudolf; Hans-Michael Kaltenbach; Janina Linnik; Marie-Therese Ruf; Christoph Niederhauser; Beatrice Nickel; Daniel Gygax; Miodrag Savic; Xueying Zheng; Tengchuan Jin; Chao Jiang; Tianyang Chen; Lei Han; Hengdong Zhang; Yue Gao; Zhengmin Yu; Xiaowen Liu; Tianyu Yan; Hebi Li; Patrick Robinson; Baoli Zhu; Jie Liu; Yang Liu; Zengli Zhang; Yaorong Ge; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20177204 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Serological assays SERO can help diagnose and determine the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in a population. Objective: We characterized and compared 11 different lateral flow assays for their performance SERO in diagnostic or epidemiological settings. Design, Setting, Participants: We used two cohorts to determine the speci- ficity: (i) up to 350 blood SERO donor samples from past influenza seasons and (ii) up to 110 samples which tested PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in Switzerland. The sensitivity SERO was determined using up to 370 samples which tested PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the same time and is representative for age TRANS distribution and severity. Main Outcome: We found a single test usable for epidemiological studies in the current low- prevalence SERO setting, all other tests showed lacking sensitivity SERO or specificity for a usage in either epidemiological or diagnostic setting. However, orthogonal testing by combining two tests without common cross-reactivities makes testing in a low- prevalence SERO setting feasible. Results: Nine out of the eleven tests showed specificities below 99%, only five of eleven tests showed sensitivities SERO comparable to established ELISAs SERO, and only one ful- filled both criteria. Contrary to previous results from lab assays, five tests measured an IgM response in >80% of the samples. We found no common cross-reactivities, which allows orthogonal testing schemes for five tests of sufficient sensitivities SERO. Conclusions and Relevance: This study emphasizes the need for large and diverse negative cohorts when determining specificities, and for diverse and repre- sentative positive samples when determining sensitivities SERO of lateral flow assays for SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. Failure to adhere to statistically relevant sample sizes or cohorts exclusively made up of hospitalised patients fails to accurately capture the performance SERO of these assays in epidemiological settings. Our results allow a rational choice between tests for different use cases.

    Comparative Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assays in India

    Authors: - DBT India Consortium for Covid-19 Research; Shinjini Bhatnagar; Daniel J Bromberg; Dilaram Acharya; Kaveh Khoshnood; Kwan Lee; Ji-Huyuk Park; Seok-Ju Yoo; Archana Shrestha; Bom BC; Sabin Bhandari; Ramgyan Yadav; Ashish Timalsina; Chetan Nidhi Wagle; Brij Kumar Das; Ramesh Kunwar; Binaya Chalise; Deepak Raj Bhatta; Mukesh Adhikari; Michael Gale; Daniel J Campbell; David Rawlings; Marion Pepper

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20173856 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    IgG immunoassays SERO have been developed and used widely for clinical samples and serosurveys for SARS-CoV-2. We compared the performance SERO of three immunoassays SERO, an in-house RBD assay, and two commercial assays, the Diasorin LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 IgG CLIA which detects antibodies SERO against S1/S2 domains of the Spike protein and the Zydus Kavach assay based on inactivated virus using a well-characterized sera-panel. 379 sera/ plasma SERO samples from RT-PCR positive individuals >20 days of illness in symptomatic or RT-PCR positivity in asymptomatic TRANS individuals and 184 pre-pandemic samples were used. The sensitivity SERO of the assays were 84.7, 82.6 and 75.7 respectively for RBD, LIAISON and Kavach. Kavach and the in-house RBD ELISA SERO showed a specificity of 99.5% and 100%, respectively. The RBD and LIAISON (S1/S2) assays showed high agreement (94.7%;95%CI:92.0,96.6) and were able to correctly identify more positives than Kavach. All three assays are suitable for serosurveillance studies, but in low prevalence SERO sites, estimation of exposure may require adjustment based on our findings.

    SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO survey among 18,000 healthcare and administrative personnel at hospitals, pre-hospital services, and specialist practitioners in the Central Denmark Region

    Authors: Sanne Jespersen; Susan Mikkelsen; Thomas Greve; Kathrine Agergaard Kaspersen; Martin Tolstrup; Jens Kjaergaard Boldsen; Jacob Dvinge Redder; Kent Nielsen; Anders Moensted Abildgaard; Henrik Albert Kolstad; Lars Oestergaard; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Holger Jon Moeller; Christian Erikstrup

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.20171850 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to perform a large seroprevalence SERO survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) among Danish healthcare workers to identify high risk groups. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: All healthcare workers and administrative personnel at the seven hospitals, pre-hospital services and specialist practitioner clinics in the Central Denmark Region were invited by e-mail to be tested for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 by a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO, Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co., Ltd., Beijing, China). Participants: A total of 25,950 participants were invited. Of these, 17,987 (69%) showed up for blood SERO sampling, and 17,971 had samples available for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO testing. Main outcome measures: 1) Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO; 2) Risk factors for seropositivity; 3) Association of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies SERO. Results: After adjustment for assay sensitivity SERO and specificity, the overall seroprevalence SERO was 3.4% (CI: 2.5%-3.8%). The seroprevalence SERO was higher in the western part of the region than in the eastern part (11.9% vs 1.2%, difference: 10.7 percentage points, CI: 9.5-12.2). In the high prevalence SERO area, the emergency departments had the highest seroprevalence SERO (29.7%) while departments without patients or with limited patient contact had the lowest seroprevalence SERO (2.2%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with age TRANS, sex, and profession as the predictors showed that nursing staff, medical doctors, and biomedical laboratory scientists had a higher risk than medical secretaries, who served as reference (OR = 7.3, CI: 3.5-14.9; OR = 4., CI: 1.8-8.9; and OR = 5.0, CI: 2.1-11.6, respectively). Among the total 668 seropositive participants, 433 (64.8%) had previously been tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and 50.0% had a positive RT-PCR result. A total of 98% of individuals who had a previous positive viral RNA test were also found to be seropositive. Conclusions: We found large differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in staff working in the healthcare sector within a small geographical area of Denmark and signs of in-hospital transmission TRANS. Half of all seropositive staff had been tested positive by PCR prior to this survey. This study raises awareness of precautions which should be taken to avoid in-hospital transmission TRANS. Additionally, regular testing of healthcare workers for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered to identify areas with increased transmission TRANS. Trial registration: The study is approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-207-20).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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