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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Multimodal Single-Cell Omics Analysis of COVID-19 MESHD Sex Differences in Human Immune Systems

    Authors: Yuan Hou; Yadi Zhou; Michaela Gack; Justin Lathia; Asha Kallianpur; Reena Mehra; Timothy Chan; Jae U. Jung; Lara Jehi; Charis Eng; Feixiong Cheng; Emily R Ko; Ephraim L Tsalik; gregory sempowski; Thomas N Denny; Thomas W Burke; Micah T McClain; Christopher W. Woods; Xiling Shen; Daniel R Saban; Brea Tinsley; Alan Trudeau; Jitendra Singh; Lindsey Whitmore; Helen Zheng; Matthew Benedek; Jenna Currier; Mark Dresel; Ashish Duvvuru; Britney Dyszel; Emily Fingar; Elizabeth M. Hennen; Michael Kirsch; Ali A. Khan; Charlotte Labrie-Cleary; Stephanie Laporte; Evan Lenkeit; Kailey Martin; Marilyn Orellana; Melanie Ortiz-Alvarez de la Campa; Isaac Paredes; Baleigh Wheeler; Allison Rupert; Andrew Sam; Katherine See; Santiago Soto Zapata; Paul A. Craig; Bonnie L. Hall; Jennifer Jiang; Julia R. Koeppe; Stephen A. Mills; Michael J. Pikaart; Rebecca Roberts; Yana Bromberg; J. Steen Hoyer; Siobain Duffy; Jay Tischfield; Francesc X. Ruiz; Eddy Arnold; Jean Baum; Jesse Sandberg; Grace Brannigan; Sagar D. Khare; Stephen K. Burley

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.01.407007 Date: 2020-12-01 Source: bioRxiv

    Sex differences in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD have been controversial and the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 MESHD sexual dimorphism remain understudied. Here we inspected sex differences in SARS-CoV-2 positivity, hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), sera immune profiling, and two single-cell RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) profiles from nasal tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 MESHD patients with varying degrees of disease severity. Our propensity score-matching observations revealed that male individuals have a 29% increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with a hazard ration (HR) 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.48) for hospitalization and HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.24-1.84) for admission to ICU. Sera from male patients at hospital admission had decreased lymphocyte count and elevated inflammatory markers ( C-reactive protein HGNC, procalcitonin, and neutrophils). We found that SARS-CoV-2 entry factors, including ACE2 HGNC, TMPRSS2 HGNC, FURIN HGNC and NRP1 HGNC, have elevated expression in nasal squamous MESHD cells from males with moderate and severe COVID-19 MESHD. Cell-cell network proximity analysis suggests possible epithelium-immune cell interactions and immune vulnerability underlying a higher mortality in males with COVID-19 MESHD. Monocyte-elevated expression of Toll like receptor 7 HGNC ( TLR7 HGNC) and Bruton tyrosine kinase ( BTK HGNC) is associated with severe outcomes in males with COVID-19 MESHD. These findings provide basis for understanding immune responses underlying sex differences, and designing sex-specific targeted treatments and patient care for COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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