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MeSH Disease

Fever (101)

COVID-19 (97)

Cough (41)

Pneumonia (27)

Dyspnea (26)


HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Validity of markers and indexes of systemic inflammation MESHD in predicting mortality in COVID 19 infection : A hospital based cross sectional study

    Authors: Archana Baburao; shylaja Shamsunder; Rinki Das

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.30.21254635 Date: 2021-03-31 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 MESHD is an ongoing global pandemic. It is a systemic infection MESHD with a significant impact on the hematopoietic and the immune system. In this study we aimed to evaluate the different inflammatory markers and indexes of systemic inflammatory response in predicting the mortality in patients with COVID 19. Methods In this cross sectional study, various inflammatory markers like D-dimer, CRP HGNC, serum ferritin, LDH and CBC derived indexes of inflammation MESHD were analyzed in predicting mortality in COVID 19 infection. Results We enrolled 302 COVID 19 patients who had a mean age of 54.51 yrs with 210 (69.5%) males. Among them 21% were asymptomatic and fever MESHD was the commonest among symptomatic patients. Majority of patients (66.7%) had no comorbidities and 20% had multiple comorbidities. On analyzing different hematological variables, survivors had statistically significant higher hemoglobin count, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophil and platelet count and lower leukocyte, neutrophil count. Inflammatory markers D-dimer, serum ferritin and LDH were significantly elevated among non survivors. Among the indexes of inflammation MESHD, only NLR showed significant higher values among non survivors. All the inflammatory markers were able to predict mortality among the COVID 19 infected cases with a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 65% for d dimer levels, 85% and 72% for serum ferritin, 85% and 72% for LDH, 85% and 51% for CRP HGNC levels respectively. Among the indexes of inflammation MESHD, validity of NLR was best in predicting mortality with 85% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Conclusion Abnormalities MESHD in peripheral blood parameters and increase in inflammatory markers are common findings in COVID 19 infection. NLR was best at predicting mortality followed by D-dimer and serum ferritin levels

    Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Lixiang Lou Sr.; Hui Zhang Sr.; Baoming Tang Sr.; Ming Li; Zeqing Li; Haifang Cao; Jian Li; Yuliang Chong; Zhaowei Li

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253472 Date: 2021-03-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Although the number of COVID-19 MESHD ( coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD) cases continues to increase globally, there are few studies on the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD. Objective: To conduct a comprehensive systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents to better guide the response to the current epidemic. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI (Chinese database), Clinical Trials.gov and chictr.org.cn (China). The methodological quality of the included literature was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Case Series Studies. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 14.0. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified using I2. We used fixed-effects or random-effects models to pool clinical data in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was evaluated by the Begg's test. Results: We analyzed 49 studies involving 1627 patients. In the pooled data, the most common clinical symptoms were fever MESHD (56% [0.50-0.61]) and cough (45% [0.39-0.51]). The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated procalcitonin (40% [0.23-0.57]), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (31% [0.19-0.43]), increased lymphocyte count (28% [0.17-0.42]), increased creatine kinase (28% [0.18- 0.40]), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (26% [0.17-0.36]). The most common abnormalities determined by computed tomography were lower-lobe involvement (56% [0.42- 0.70]), ground-glass opacities (33% [0.25-0.42]), bilateral pneumonia MESHD (32% [0.24- 0.40]), patchy shadowing (31% [0.18- 0.45]), and upper lobe involvement MESHD (30% [0.20- 0.41]). Conclusion: Disease severity among children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD was milder than that among adult patients, with a greater proportion of mild and asymptomatic cases, and thus, the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD and control of the infection source are more challenging.

    Therapeutic efficacy of macrolides in management of patients with mild COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Alaa Rashad; Asmaa Nafady; Mohammed H. Hassan; Haggagy Mansour; Usama Taya; Shamardan Ezzeldin S. Bazeed; Zaki F. Aref; Mennatallah Ali Abdelrahman Sayed; Hanaa Nafady-Hego; Aida A. Abdelmaksoud

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-181996/v1 Date: 2021-01-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Evidence on the efficacy of adding macrolides (azithromycin or clarithromycin) to the treatment regimen for COVID-19 MESHD is limited. We testify whether adding azithromycin or clarithromycin to a standard of care regimen was superior to standard of supportive care alone in patients with mild COVID-19 MESHD.The study included three groups of patients with COVID-19 MESHD. The azithromycin group included, 107 patients who received azithromycin 500 mg/24 h for 7 days, the clarithromycin group included 99 patients who received clarithromycin 500 /12 h for 7 days, and the control group included 99 patients who received standard care only. All three groups received only symptomatic treatment for control of fever MESHD and cough MESHD .Clinical and laboratory evaluations of the study participants including assessment of the symptoms duration, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), serum ferritin, D-dimer, complete blood count (CBC), non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT), were performed.The overall results revealed significant early improvement of symptoms ( fever MESHD, dyspnea MESHD and cough MESHD) in patients treated with either azithromycin or clarithromycin compared to control group, also there was significant early conversion of SARS-CoV-2 PCR to negative in patients treated with either azithromycin or clarithromycin compared to control group (p˂0.05 for all).There was no significant difference in time to improvement of fever MESHD, cough MESHD, dyspnea MESHD, anosmia MESHD, GIT symptoms and time to PCR negative conversion between patients treated with azithromycin compared to patients treated with clarithromycin (p˃0.05 for all). Follow up chest CT done after 2 weeks of start of treatment showed significant improvement in patients treated with either azithromycin or clarithromycin compared to control group (p˂0.05 for all).Adding Clarithromycin or Azithromycin to the therapeutic protocols for COVID-19 MESHD could be beneficial for early control of fever MESHD and early PCR negative conversion in Mild COVID-19 MESHD

    Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors of Mortality Among Severe COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Reham Mohamed Elmorshedy; Maha Mohamed El-kholy; Alaa Eldin AbdelMoniem; Shimaa Abbas Hassan; Samiaa Hamdy Sadek

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-166002/v1 Date: 2021-01-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The novel corona virus is attacking several millions of people worldwide, resulting in death of almost a million and a half-humans. The rational of the current study was to detect clinical characteristics of severe COVID- 19 patients, and assessment of risk factors for death MESHD.Methodology:This retrospective cohort study included all laboratory confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients with severe disease admitted to critical care unit in June and July 2020. All recorded data were collected,which included clinincal, radiological, and laboratory data, in addition to the outcome and duration of ICU stay.Statistical analysis was performed for obtaining descriptive information, comparison between living and dead patients,in addition to regression analysis to identify risk factors for mortality.Results:One hundred and three patients were included in the current study; cough MESHD and fever MESHD were the most common clinical presentations, and bilateral ground glass opacity was the most common radiological presentation. Patients had elevated values of  neutrophils, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), serum ferritin, CRP HGNC, and D-dimer, also had longer ICU stay ,with reduced values of  lymphocytes, and PaO2/FIO2 ratio. Most of these variables were more exaggerated in dead patients compared to living ones. Older age, lower values of PaO2/FIO2 ratio, and higher values of neutrophils, NLR, and D-dimer were predictors for death MESHD.Conclusion: Cough, fever MESHD and bilateral ground glass opacity were the most common clinical and radiological presentation of severe COVID 19. Older age, lower value of PaO2/FIO2 ratio, and higher values of D- dimer, neutrophil and NLR were risk factors associated with increased risk of mortality.

    Respiratory and non-respiratory manifestations in children admitted with COVID 19 in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Authors: ANDRE RICARDO ARAUJO ARAUJO DA SILVA; CARLOS GABRIEL BRANDAO FOINSECA; JACKSON LINO PAULA SANTANA DE MIRANDA; BEATRIZ VALLADARES TRAVASSOS; CAROLINA RODRIGUES BAIAO; KALINA DOMINIK SILVA; LINO BRENO AZEVEDO ESTEVAM DOS SANTOS; MARIANNA MELO RODRIGUES DE BRITTO; PABLO AUGUSTO LUCAS DE SOUZA CERQUEIRA; SILVIA NAZARE BRAGA PEREIRA; REBECA BITTENCOURT JAQUEIRA RIOS; CRISTINA SOUZA VIEIRA; IZABEL ALVES LEAL; NATALIA COCHRANE MARTINS; LIEGE MARIA ABREU DE CARVALHO; ANDREA BARCHIK PEREIRA; CRISTIANE HENRIQUES TEIXEIRA

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.29.20248994 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: medRxiv

    IntroductionCOVID 19 is still a challenge in pediatrics due to variety of symptoms and different presentations AimTo describe clinical, laboratorial and treatment of confirmed COVID-19 MESHD pediatric admitted in hospitals. MethodsA retrospective study was conducted in children (0-18 years), admitted between March and November 15, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or serological tests. Clinical data about symptoms, laboratorial exams and treatments were analysed. Patients were evaluated according predominant (PRS) or non-predominant respiratory symptoms (non-PRS) ResultsSixty-four patients were evaluated, being the median age 5.6 years. Forty-seven (73.4%) children were admitted with PRS MESHD and 17 (26.4%) with non-PRS. The main symptoms in the PRS group were fever MESHD in 74.5% of children and cough in 66%; and fever MESHD in 76.5% and edema MESHD/cavitary effusion in 29.4% in the non-PRS group. The median of C-reactive protein HGNC (in mg/dl) was 2.5 in the PRS group and 6.1 in the non-PRS group. Antibiotics were used in 85.1% of the PRS group and 94.1% of non-group. Comorbidity was present in 30/47 (63.8%) of PRS group and 8/17 (47.1%) of non-PRS group (p=0.22). Length of stay until 7 days in patients with comorbidity was present in 27/64 (42.1%) and more than 7 days in 11/64 (17.1%) (p= 0.2) ConclusionNon-PRS represented more than one quarter of admitted patients. Fever MESHD was the main symptom detected, elevated CRP HGNC was frequent and antibiotics were commonly prescribed. Comorbidity was found in both groups and his presence was not associated with a longer length of stay.

    Evaluation of Patients With Covid-19 MESHD Diagnosis for Chronic Diseases MESHD

    Authors: Murat Altuntas; Habip Yilmaz; Emre Güner

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-135761/v1 Date: 2020-12-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: Covid-19 MESHD is one of the most important pandemics in the world history. Chronic diseases MESHD, which are risk factors that increase the case fatality rates, have been the leading cause of death MESHD all over the world. In this study, it was aimed to detect coexisting diseases in patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of Covid-19 MESHD.           Material and Method: It was carried out with the data of 229 inpatients in an intensive care unit between 01.06.2020 - 30.06.2020. Among the inclusion criteria of the study; it is necessary to have a diagnosis confirmed by PCR test, to be hospitalized in the relevant intensive care unit on the date of the study and to have data accessible through the hospital automation system. According to literature; chronic diseases of the patients and their effects on the covid-19 MESHD process were evaluated. Statistical analyzes were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp .; Armonk, NY, USA).Results: It was seen that the average age of the patients were 61.4±15.9 years old. While the average symptom duration was 8.2±5.3 days; total hospitalization period was 13.1±5.9 days. The length of stay of 75 patients who were sent to intensive care unit was determined as 10.1±7.1. The most common chronic disease MESHD among patients was hypertension MESHD with 47.2%. This was followed by diabetes mellitus MESHD (32.8%) and heart disease MESHD (27.5%), respectively. In the presented study, cough MESHD (59.4%), fever MESHD (58.5%) and shortness of breath MESHD (45.9%) were found to be the most common symptoms. Leukopenia MESHD, impairments in liver and muscle enzymes, abnormal C-reactive protein HGNC, ferritin and d-dimer levels were the important laboratory findings.Conclusion: Particular attention should be paid to the elderly Covid-19 MESHD patients with chronic diseases MESHD, especially DM MESHD, HT MESHD and cancer MESHD.

    Development and external validation of a logistic regression derived formula based on repeated routine hematological measurements predicting survival of hospitalized Covid-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Stefan Heber; David Pereyra; Waltraud Schrottmaier; Kerstin Kammerer; Jonas Santol; Erich Pawelka; Markus Hana; Alexander Scholz; Markus Liu; Agnes Hell; Klara Heiplik; Benno Lickefett; Sebastian Haverall; Marianna Traugott; Matthias Neuboeck; Christian Schoergenhofer; Tamara Seitz; Christa Firbas; Mario Karolyi; Guenter Weiss; Bernd Jilma; Charlotte Thalin; Rosa Bellmann-Weiler; Helmut Salzer; Michael JM Fischer; Alexander Zoufaly; Alice Assinger

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.20.20248563 Date: 2020-12-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Covid-19 pandemic MESHD Covid-19 pandemic MESHD has become a global public health crisis and providing optimal patient care while preventing a collapse of the health care system is a principal objective worldwide. Objective: To develop and validate a prognostic model based on routine hematological parameters to predict uncomplicated disease progression to support the decision for an earlier discharge. Design: Development and refinement of a multivariable logistic regression model with subsequent external validation. The time course of several hematological variables until four days after admission were used as predictors. Variables were first selected based on subject matter knowledge; their number was further reduced using likelihood ratio-based backward elimination in random bootstrap samples. Setting: Model development based on three Austrian hospitals, validation cohorts from two Austrian and one Swedish hospital. Participants: Model development based on 363 survivors and 78 non-survivors of Covid-19 MESHD hospitalized in Austria. External validation based on 492 survivors and 61 non-survivors hospitalized in Austria and Sweden. Outcome: In-hospital death. Main Results: The final model includes age, fever MESHD upon admission, parameters derived from C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) concentration, platelet count and creatinine concentration, approximating their baseline values ( CRP HGNC, creatinine) and change over time ( CRP HGNC, platelet count). In Austrian validation cohorts both discrimination and calibration of this model were good, with c indices of 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 - 0.96) in a cohort from Vienna and 0.93 (0.88 - 0.98) in one from Linz. The model performance seems independent of how long symptoms persisted before admission. In a small Swedish validation cohort, the model performance was poorer (p = 0.008) compared with Austrian cohorts with a c index of 0.77 (0.67 - 0.88), potentially due to substantial differences in patient demographics and clinical routine. Conclusions: Here we describe a formula, requiring only variables routinely acquired in hospitals, which allows to estimate death probabilities of hospitalized patients with Covid-19 MESHD. The model could be used as a decision support for earlier discharge of low-risk patients to reduce the burden on the health care system. The model could further be used to monitor whether patients should be admitted to hospital in countries with health care systems with emphasis on outpatient care (e.g. Sweden).

    Clinical Presentations and Outcomes in Transplant Patients With COVID-19 MESHD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Kirellos Abbas; Jaffer Shah; Nahla El-Sahat; Fatmaelzahraa Ali; Esraa Mostafa; Ebrahem Khattab; Hadeer Sherif; Selma Klouche Djedid; Yousra Elmamoun; Nada Abdhalim; Ramy Gayed; Mostafa Amin; Nitu Lama; Majd Alahmar; Zeinab Mohamed; Shrouk Dabbous; Nguyen Phuong; Ashlyn Brown; Joseph Varney; Nguyen Huy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-132795/v1 Date: 2020-12-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: Transplant patients are a vulnerable group due to their immunocompromised status. Understanding how COVID-19 MESHD can present in this group is clinically important. Therefore, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical features and management of transplant patients with COVID-19 MESHD.Methods: Five databases were searched in May 2020 to include all relevant studies reporting clinical features or outcomes of COVID-19 MESHD infection in transplant patients. Data on clinical presentation, outcomes, lab values, imaging, and drug regimen were extracted. CMA software was used for meta-analysis. Protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020189458).Results: A total of 49 studies were finally included for analysis. Patients mainly complained from fever MESHD with event rate 74.40 % (95% CI= 69.4-78.8), cough MESHD 61.10% (95% CI= 55.8-66), and dyspnea MESHD 46.60% (95% CI= 69.4-78.8). Blood urea nitrogen 78.90% (95% CI= 54.7-92), ESR 78.10% (95% CI=52.3-92.1), and D-dimer 74.10% (95 % CI= 53-87.9) were the most elevated observed laboratory values. Ground glass opacities (GGO) were observed with event rate 68.10% (95% CI= 20.4-94.9). For treatment, immunosuppressants were used in 88.80% (95% CI= 77.6-94.8) of patients, followed by antibiotics and antiviral drugs 68.40% (95% CI= 52.4-80.9), 66.80% (95% CI = 45-83.2), respectively. Mechanical ventilation was used in 26.30% (95% CI=21-32.4) patients while 33.7% (95% CI= 20.7-49.9) intubated. Rejection occurred in 11% (95% CI= 4.4-25) of the patients. Finally, 18.20% (95% CI= 12.6-25.7) died. Conclusion:  Clinical characteristics and management in transplant COVID patients suggest the similar course in non-transplant. Fever MESHD, cough MESHD, dyspnoea MESHD, elevated blood urea nitrogen level, elevated CRP HGNC, elevated d-dimer, GGO, and consolidation were found to be the most frequent abnormalities. No direct, comparative analysis with non-transplant COVID population limited our results; however, numerous studies that examined the infected general population found similar, less augmented findings. Most of the included sample were kidney transplant patients; therefore, more studies are needed to address other types of COVID-19 MESHD infected transplant patients. 

    Results of Favipiravir Combined Treatment in Intensive Care Patients With Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Habip Yilmaz; Emre Güner; Murat Altuntas

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-132216/v1 Date: 2020-12-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aim: Covid-19 MESHD ( Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD) is a disease that has already taken place in human history. Although there is still no effective treatment and vaccine protocol, different treatment options are being tried. In this study, it was aimed to determine the basic characteristics and changes in laboratory findings of patients who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of Covid-19 MESHD in the intensive care unit and underwent treatment protocol containing favipiravir.Material and Method: It was carried out with the data of 179 inpatients in an intensive care unit between 01.06.2020 - 30.06.2020. The inclusion criterias of the study are to have a diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD confirmed by PCR test, to be hospitalized in the intensive care unit, receiving therapy combined with favipravir and to have access to its data through the automation system. According to literature; the sociodemographic characteristics, some basic characteristics and some laboratory findings of the patients were evaluated. Statistical analyzes were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 (IBM Corp .; Armonk, NY, USA).Findings: The average age of the study group is 60.9±16.4 years and 65.9% (n:118) of them are male. According to the clinical classification, more than half (50.8%, n: 91) are included in the "high" clinical classification. The most common chronic disease MESHD is " hypertension MESHD ( HT MESHD)" (42.5%, n:76) and the most common symptom is " fever MESHD" (57.5%, n: 103). While 82.7% (n: 148) have widespread CT (Computed tomography) findings, CPR HGNC ( C-Reactive protein HGNC) positivity rate is 65.4% (n: 117). Statistical significant difference was detected between three measurements of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), aspartat aminotransferase ( AST HGNC), alanin aminotransfrase (ALT), CRP HGNC between the 1st and the 3rd day. Conclusion: Favipiravir demonstrates a proper safety profile. However, its side effects teratogenicity, hyperuricaemia and QTc MESHD (corrected QT interval) prolongation have not yet been adequately studied. It may be safe and tolerable in short-term use, but more evidence is needed to assess the longer-term effects of treatment.

    Foistar(Camostat mesylate) associated with the significant decrease in CRP HGNC levels compared to Kaletra(Lopinavir/Ritonavir) treatment in Korean mild COVID-19 MESHD pneumonic patients.

    Authors: Jae-Phil Choi; Jae-Phil Choi; Hyoung-Jun Kim; Jumi Han; Sujung Park; JinJoo Han

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.10.20240689 Date: 2020-12-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background There is limited information due to absence of virus titer MESHD and symptom related changes. Nonetheless, this is the first comparative study between the use of Foistar (Camostat mesilate) and Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir) on COVID-19 MESHD infection. Methods Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing that were admitted to Seoul Medical Center (Seoul, South Korea) where is the largest public medical center in South Korea between August 1 and September 20, 2020 were included The data of the patients with pneumonia MESHD who received Foistar (Foistar group) during their hospitalization period were primarily collected, and the patients who received Kaletra (Kaletra group) during their hospitalization period were matched to have a similar age group to that of Foistar group so that three times the number of Foistar group patients were randomly selected into Kaletra group and their body temperature, CRP HGNC level, WBC count, and event of diarrhea MESHD were collected, accordingly. Results A total of 29 patients (7 Foistar group and 22 Kaletra group) was included. The median age was 69, and all had mild COVID-19 MESHD (WHO ordinal scale 3 or 4) on admission. 6 patients out of 7 patients (85.71%) from Foistar group who exhibited elevated CRP HGNC levels ( CRP HGNC >0.4mg/dL) on admission have controlled their CRP HGNC levels to the normal range. In Kaletra group, 11 out of 18 patients (61.11%) have controlled their CRP HGNC levels to the normal range, and only 1 of 2 patients (50.00%) who had normal CRP HGNC level has maintained his or her normal CRP HGNC level. The difference in the white blood cell counts was not significant between two groups. None of the patients in the study had hyperkalemia MESHD. Conclusion This study has found a probable association of controlling inflammatory reactions and fever MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients with Foistar (camostat mesilate) use. In addition, there was no significant adverse drug event found from this study upon the Foistar use. These results may encourage the use of Foistar as a treatment option for the patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD.

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HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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