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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Clinical course and features of critical patients with COVID-19 MESHD: a single-center, retrospective study from Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital

    Authors: Huisi He; Zhichao Jin; Yibin Ren; Junxue Wang; Wen Wen; Yushan Miao; Xuewei Qi; Taiyu Shang; Chenxu Zhang; Hongyang Wang; Weiqin Li; Xijing Zhang; Hao Tang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-21014/v1 Date: 2020-04-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background and Aims: The coronavirus pandemic has become a growing public health concern worldwide, and there are insufficient epidemiological data on critical illness. We sought to investigate the clinical course and features of critical patients with Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD).Method: The data on 94 critical patients from 8th February through 16th March 2020, including demographic and clinical information, were obtained from the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital. A cross-sectional survey and comparisons of key biomarkers between survivors and nonsurvivors were performed.Results: Over the study period, 42 nonsurvivors and 52 survivors were included. The overall case fatality rate for critical patients with COVID-19 MESHD was approximately 45%. The average age was 69.17±9.55 years, and the majority had underlying health problems such as hypertension MESHD (56[60%]) and diabetes MESHD (18[19%]). The median length of ICU stay was 8 days (IQR 4, 13). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors were more likely to develop sepsis MESHD (42[100%] vs. 34[65%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD (40[95%] vs. 28[54%]) and organ dysfunction. In addition, the dynamic changes in some biomarkers were significantly different between the two groups. The trajectories of temperature revealed that the group with a high temperature on admission that steadily declined had the highest percentage of deaths (93.33%).Conclusion: Patients aged 60 years or older with many concomitant diseases were at highest risk, and the fatality rate started to increase with age. Lymphocyte, platelet, C-reactive protein HGNC and hypersensitivity MESHD troponin I were revealed to have potential as prognostic factors, whereas some other biomarkers, such as hepatic enzymes, may not offer additional information. Moreover, patients with high temperatures on admission should receive extra care.

    Risk factors for severe corona virus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients : a systematic review and meta analysis

    Authors: Lizhen Xu; mao yaqian; Gang Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.30.20047415 Date: 2020-04-01 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: With the increasing number of infections for COVID-19 MESHD, the global health resources are deficient. At present, we don't have specific medicines or vaccines against novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) and our assessment of risk factors for patients with severe pneumonia MESHD was limited. In order to maximize the use of limited medical resources, we should distinguish between mild and severe patients as early as possible. Objective: To systematically review the evidence of risk factors for severe corona virus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients. Evidence Review: We conducted a comprehensive search for primary literature in both Chinese and English electronic bibliographic data bases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Weipu, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database (CBM-SinoMed), MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and Web of science. The American agency for health research and quality (AHRQ) tool were used for assessing risk of bias. Mata-analysis was undertaken using STATA version 15.0. Results: 20 articles (N=4062 participants) were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. First in this review and meta-analysis, we found that elderly male patients with a high body mass index, high breathing rate and a combination of underlying diseases (such as hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD) were more likely to develop into critically ill MESHD patients. second, compared with ordinary patients, severe patients had more significant symptom such as fever MESHD and dyspnea MESHD. Besides, the laboratory test results of severe patients had more abnormal than non-severe patients, such as the elevated levels of white-cell counts, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, c-reactive protein HGNC and procalcitonin, etc, while the decreased levels of lymphocytes and albumin, etc. Interpretation: This is the first systematic review investigating the risk factors for severe corona virus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients. The findings are presented and discussed by different clinical characteristics. Therefore, our review may provide guidance for clinical decision-making and optimizes resource allocation.

    COVID-19 MESHD clinical characteristics, and sex-specific risk of mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Mohammad Javad Nasiri; Sara Haddadi; Azin Tahvildari; Yeganeh Farsi; Mahta Arbabi; Saba Hasanzadeh; Parnian Jamshidi; Mukunthan Murthi; Mehdi Mirsaeidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.24.20042903 Date: 2020-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: The rapidly evolving coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. It was first detected in the city of Wuhan in China and has spread globally resulting in substantial health and economic crisis in many countries. Observational studies have partially identified the different aspects of this disease. Up to this date, no comprehensive systematic review for the clinical, laboratory, epidemiologic and mortality findings has been published. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis for a better understanding of COVID-19 MESHD. Methods: We reviewed the scientific literature published from January 1, 2019 to March 3, 2020. Statistical analyses were performed with STATA (version 14, IC; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). The pooled frequency with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was assessed using random effect model. Publication bias was assessed and p <0.05 was considered a statistically significant publication bias. Results: Out of 1102 studies, 32 satisfied the inclusion criteria. A total of 4789 patients with a mean age of 49 years were evaluated. Fever MESHD (83.0%, CI 77.5 to 87.6), cough MESHD (65.2%, CI 58.6 to 71.2) and myalgia MESHD/ fatigue MESHD (34.7, CI 26.0 to 44.4) were the most common symptoms. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension MESHD (18.5 %, CI 12.7 to 24.4) and Cardiovascular disease MESHD (14.9 %, CI 6.0 to 23.8). Among the laboratory abnormalities, elevated C-Reactive Protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) (72.0% (CI 54.3 to 84.6) and lymphopenia (50.1%, CI 38.0 to 62.4) were the most common findings. Bilateral ground-glass opacities (66.0%, CI 51.1 to 78.0) was the most common CT-Scan presentation. Pooled mortality rate was 6.6%, with males having significantly higher mortality compared to females (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.1, P = 0.01). Conclusion: COVID-19 MESHD commonly presented with a progressive course of cough and fever with more than half of hospitalized patients showing leukopenia or a high CRP HGNC on their laboratory findings. Mortality associated with COVID19 MESHD was higher than that reported in studies in China with Males having a 3-fold higher risk of mortality in COVID19 MESHD compared to females.

    A Tool to Early Predict Severe 2019-Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia ( COVID-19 MESHD) : A Multicenter Study using the Risk Nomogram in Wuhan and Guangdong, China

    Authors: Jiao Gong; Jingyi Ou; Xueping Qiu; Yusheng Jie; Yaqiong Chen; Lianxiong Yuan; Jing Cao; Mingkai Tan; Wenxiong Xu; Fang Zheng; Yaling Shi; Bo Hu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.17.20037515 Date: 2020-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) rapidly develop acute respiratory distress MESHD leading to respiratory failure MESHD, with high short-term mortality rates. At present, there is no reliable risk stratification tool for non-severe COVID-19 MESHD patients at admission. We aimed to construct an effective model for early identifying cases at high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 MESHD. Methods SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients from one center in Wuhan city and two centers in Guangzhou city, China were included retrospectively. All patients with non-severe COVID-19 MESHD during hospitalization were followed for more than 15 days after admission. Patients who deteriorated to severe or critical COVID-19 MESHD and patients who kept non-severe state were assigned to the severe and non-severe group, respectively. We compared the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data between severe and non-severe group. Based on baseline data, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm and logistic regression model were used to construct a nomogram for risk prediction in the train cohort. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability of nomogram were evaluated by area under the curve (AUC) and calibration curve. Decision curve analysis (DCA) and clinical impact curve analysis (CICA) were conducted to evaluate the clinical applicability of our nomogram. Findings The train cohort consisted of 189 patients, while the two independent validation cohorts consisted of 165 and 18 patients. Among all cases, 72 (19.35%) patients developed severe COVID-19 MESHD and 107 (28.76%) patients had one of the following basic disease, including hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, chronic respiratory disease MESHD, tuberculosis disease MESHD. We found one demographic and six serological indicators (age, serum lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein HGNC, the coefficient of variation of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), blood urea nitrogen, albumin, direct bilirubin) are associated with severe COVID-19 MESHD. Based on these features, we generated the nomogram, which has remarkably high diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing individuals who exacerbated to severe COVID-19 MESHD from non-severe COVID-19 MESHD (AUC 0.912 [95% CI 0.846-0.978]) in the train cohort with a sensitivity of 85.71 % and specificity of 87.58% ; 0.853 [0.790-0.916] in validation cohort with a sensitivity of 77.5 % and specificity of 78.4%. The calibration curve for probability of severe COVID-19 MESHD showed optimal agreement between prediction by nomogram and actual observation. DCA and CICA further indicated that our nomogram conferred significantly high clinical net benefit. Interpretation Our nomogram could help clinicians to early identify patients who will exacerbate to severe COVID-19 MESHD. And this risk stratification tool will enable better centralized management and early treatment of severe patients, and optimal use of medical resources via patient prioritization and thus significantly reduce mortality rates. The RDW plays an important role in predicting severe COVID-19 MESHD, implying that the role of RBC in severe disease is underestimated.

    Incidence, clinical characteristics and prognostic factor of patients with COVID-19 MESHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Xianxian Zhao; Bili Zhang; Pan Li; Chaoqun Ma; Jiawei Gu; Pan Hou; Zhifu Guo; Hong Wu; Yuan Bai

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.17.20037572 Date: 2020-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Recently, Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbreak started in Wuhan, China. Although the clinical features of COVID-19 MESHD have been reported previously, data regarding the risk factors associated with the clinical outcomes are lacking. Objectives: To summary and analyze the clinical characteristics and identify the predictors of disease severity and mortality. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, Cochrane and MedRxiv databases were searched through February 25, 2020. Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) recommendations were followed. We extracted and pooled data using random-effects meta-analysis to summary the clinical feature of the confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients, and further identify risk factors for disease severity and death MESHD. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 method and explained with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. Results: A total of 30 studies including 53000 patients with COVID-19 MESHD were included in this study, the mean age was 49.8 years (95% CI, 47.5-52.2 yrs) and 55.5% were male. The pooled incidence of severity and mortality were 20.2% (95% CI, 15.1-25.2%) and 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.2%), respectively. The predictor for disease severity included old age ([≥] 50 yrs, odds ratio [OR] = 2.61; 95% CI, 2.29-2.98), male (OR =1.348, 95% CI, 1.195-1.521), smoking (OR =1.734, 95% CI, 1.146-2.626) and any comorbidity (OR = 2.635, 95% CI, 2.098-3.309), especially chronic kidney disease MESHD ( CKD MESHD, OR = 6.017; 95% CI, 2.192-16.514), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD, OR = 5.323; 95% CI, 2.613-10.847) and cerebrovascular disease MESHD (OR = 3.219; 95% CI, 1.486-6.972). In terms of laboratory results, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) HGNC and D-dimer and decreased blood platelet MESHD and lymphocytes count were highly associated with severe COVID-19 MESHD (all for P < 0.001). Meanwhile, old age ([≥] 60 yrs, RR = 9.45; 95% CI, 8.09-11.04), followed by cardiovascular disease MESHD (RR = 6.75; 95% CI, 5.40-8.43) hypertension MESHD (RR = 4.48; 95% CI, 3.69-5.45) and diabetes MESHD (RR = 4.43; 95% CI, 3.49-5.61) were found to be independent prognostic factors for the COVID-19 MESHD related death. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence-based medicine research to explore the risk factors of prognosis in patients with COVID-19 MESHD, which is helpful to identify early-stage patients with poor prognosis and adapt effective treatment.

    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients in Nanjing

    Authors: Wei Chen; Chunmei Hu; Lili Huang; Min Cai; Yongchen Zhang; Hongxia Wei; Yun Chi; Zhiliang Hu; Yi Zeng; Yishan Zheng; Ying Liu; Cong Cheng; Hongmei Zhang; Weixiao Wang; Xia Zhang; Yongxiang Yi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18007/v1 Date: 2020-03-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since December 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD has spread quickly and thumped many countries and regions. The epidemic of central China was under the spotlight and attracted much more attentions. However, there are few reports describing COVID-19 MESHD patients in the regions outside of Wuhan, which are undergoing the change from sporadic imported cases to community-acquired transmission.Methods: The electronic medical records of 74 laboratory-confirmed patients of COVID-19 MESHD were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Their epidemiological, demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics were systematically summarized. The difference between severe patients and non-severe patients were also analyzed statistically.Results: The 74 COVID-19 MESHD patients were composed of 4 (5.4%) mild patients, 56 (75.7%) common patients, 13 (17.6%) severe patients and 1 (1.4%) critical patient. 43 were male, and 31 were female, with the average age 48.1±17.5. No significant difference of susceptibility was observed between genders, and almost people with all age were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Before Jan 26, only imported sporadic cases were observed. However, from that day onward, family cluster infection MESHD cases increased dramatically, up to 70.3% (52/74), which were mainly from 15 family. The incubation period spanned from 0 to 19 days, with the median 5, and 81.4% had symptom onset within 7 days. At admission, 31.1% of patients had underlying diseases MESHD and the most common underlying diseases were hypertension MESHD (13.5%) and diabetes MESHD (5.4%). The most common symptoms were fever MESHD (90.5%), cough (75.7%), fatigue MESHD (36.5%) and chest distress (32.4%). 36.5% and 16.2% of patients had leukopenia MESHD and lymphocytopenia MESHD. 43.2% of patients had increased C reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), and 40.5% had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and 21.6% had higher calcitonin. 74.3% of patients had obvious lesions in both lung lobes MESHD and 56.8% of lesions manifested as ground glass opacity. Compared with non-severe group, the severe/critical group were significantly older and had more underlying diseases. After treatment, all patients improved and were discharged. No medical professional infection and death case were reported.Conclusion: The epidemic of COVID-19 MESHD in Nanjing were mainly caused by family cluster infection MESHD. The entire prevalence and illness were much milder than those of Wuhan. The disease of COVID-19 MESHD could be controlled and cured.  

    Clinical symptoms and psychological changes of patients with COVID-19 MESHD in Jiangxi Province

    Authors: Jing Zhou; Xin-Ping Xu; Fei Xu; Yi Shao; Mei-Hong Zou; Jing-Jing Yu; Fen Liu; Wei Zuo; Si-Guang Xie; Cong-Yang Zhou; Wei Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-18080/v1 Date: 2020-03-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and differences in etiology, clinical manifestations, and psychological activity of coronavirus disease-19 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) among patients. Results We recruited 90 subjects, 30 were healthy controls, 30 were patients with moderate infection, and 30 were patients with severe/ critical infections MESHD. No significant differences were noted in the sex ratio, mean age, body mass index, or blood type; however, the history of exposure of the patients with COVID-19 MESHD compared with healthy controls was noteworthy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein HGNC and serum amyloid A (SAA) were all increased. In terms of mental health, there were significant differences in the worry scores between severely and moderately infected MESHD patients and healthy controls. There was a significant difference in depression MESHD scores between patients with moderate infection and healthy hypertension MESHD, and there was also a significant difference in dream worry scores. Analysis of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed that for patients with moderate infection, the depression MESHD score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety MESHD score. For patients with severe infection, the anxiety MESHD score was positively correlated with the dream anxiety MESHD score, and the depression MESHD score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety MESHD score. Conclusion Patients with severe infection showed increased pain MESHD and sputum in the pharyngeal area compared with patients with moderate infection. Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to COVID-19 MESHD, and lymphopenia MESHD may indicate worsening of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and risk factors for severe cases: a meta-analysis involving 5,729 patients

    Authors: Zhongheng Zhang; Lin Chen; Hongying Ni; Min Yao; Casarotta Erika; Donati Abele; Carsetti Andrea; Yizhan Guo; Qing Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-17871/v1 Date: 2020-03-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) has become a global health emergency. However, the clinical presentations are not well characterized. The study aimed to describe clinical characteristics of 2019-nCov pneumonia MESHD with meta-analytic approach, and to identify risk factors for developing severe cases.Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Google Scholar and MedRxiv were searched from December 2019 to February 2020. Records were included if they reported clinical characteristics of 2019-nCov pneumonia MESHD. Studies using crowd sourcing data for mathematical modeling but not reporting clinical data were excluded. The study was reported according to the PRISMA guideline. Data were extracted by independent reviewers. Proportions and mean values were pooled across component studies by using the meta-analytic approach. Data were pooled with fixed or random-effects model as appropriate. Clinical characteristics such as age, gender, symptoms, treatment and mortality outcome were pooled across studies if appropriate. Risk factors for development of severe cases were reported.Results: A total of 13 studies involving 5,729 patients were included for quantitative analysis. The mean age of the study population was 50 years (95% CI: 47 to 53). The most common initial symptoms were cough (68.0%; 95% CI: 65.6 to 70.4%), followed by fever MESHD (56.5%; 95% CI: 53.9 to 58.9%), fatigue MESHD (42.5%; 95% CI: 39.9 to 45.1%) and anorexia MESHD (31.7%; 95% CI: 26.5 to 38.4%). The severe cases accounts for 22.5% of the whole population (95% CI: 21.4 to 23.6%). The overall mortality rate was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.2%), which was consistent with the real time epidemic tracking data. There was substantial heterogeneity across included studies (O = 0.84; p < 0.001). A number of comorbidities and symptoms such as hypertension MESHD, COPD, dyspnea MESHD, elevated C-reactive protein HGNC and procalcitonin were found to be associated with increased risk of developing severe cases.Conclusions: Our study described clinical characteristics of the 2019-nCov pneumonia MESHD in a systematic way. Multiple risk factors were identified for severe cases.

    Clinical features and outcomes of 2019 novel coronavirus-infected patients with cardiac injury

    Authors: youbin liu; Jinglong Li; Dehui liu; Huafeng Song; Chunlin chen; Mingfang lv; Xing pei; Zhongwei Hu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.11.20030957 Date: 2020-03-16 Source: medRxiv

    Aims To explore the epidemiological and clinical features of 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV)-infected patients with cardiac injury MESHD . Methods and results Data were collected from patients medical records, and we defined cardiac injury MESHD according to cardiac biomarker troponin I level > 0.03>ug/L. Among the 291 patients, 15 (5.2%) showed evidence of cardiac injury MESHD. Of 16 hospitalized patients with cardiac injury MESHD, the median age was 62 years, and 11/15 (73.3%) were men. Underlying cardiovascular diseases MESHD in some patients were hypertension MESHD (n=7, 46.6%), coronary heart disease MESHD (n=3, 20%) and diabetes MESHD (n=3, 20%). The most common symptoms at illness onset in patients with cardiac injury MESHD were fever MESHD (n=11, 73.3%), cough (n=7, 46.7%), headache MESHD or fatigue MESHD (n=5, 33.3%) and dyspnoea MESHD (n=4, 26.6%). These patients had higher systolic pressures, and lower lymphocyte counts and platelet counts, compared with patients without cardiac injury MESHD, respectively. Bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC occurred in all patients with cardiac injury MESHD. Compared with patients without cardiac injury MESHD, patients with cardiac injury MESHD were more likely to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD (73.3%), and receive mechanical ventilation (53.4%), continuous renal replacement therapy (33.3%), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (26.7%) and vasopressor therapy (26.7%) and be admitted to the intensive care unit (73.3%). One patient died during the study. Conclusion Cardiac injury MESHD is a common condition among patients infected with 2019-nCoV.Compared with patients without cardiac injury MESHD, the clinical outcomes of patients with cardiac injury MESHD are relatively worse. Keywords: 2019-nCoV, Cardiac injury MESHD, Clinical features

    Acute Myocardial Injury of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Huayan Xu; Keke Hou; Hong Xu; Zhenlin Li; Huizhu Chen; Na Zhang; Rong Xu; Hang Fu; Ran Sun; Lingyi Wen; Linjun Xie; Hui Liu; Kun Zhang; Joseph B Selvanayagam; Chuan Fu; Shihua Zhao; Zhigang Yang; Ming Yang; Yingkun Guo

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.05.20031591 Date: 2020-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in China, respiratory manifestations of the disease have been observed. However, as a fatal comorbidity, acute myocardial injury MESHD ( AMI MESHD) in COVID-19 MESHD patients has not been previously investigated in detail. We investigated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients with AMI MESHD and determined the risk factors for AMI MESHD in them. Methods: We analyzed data from 53 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients (28 men, 25 women; age, 19-81 years). We collected information on epidemiological and demographic characteristics, clinical features, routine laboratory tests (including cardiac injury MESHD biomarkers), echocardiography, electrocardiography, imaging findings, management methods, and clinical outcomes. Results: Cardiac complications were found in 42 of the 53 (79.25%) patients: tachycardia MESHD (n=15), electrocardiography abnormities (n=11), diastolic dysfunction MESHD (n=20), elevated myocardial enzymes (n=30), and AMI MESHD (n=6). All the six AMI MESHD patients were aged >60 years; five of them had two or more underlying comorbidities ( hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) severity was higher in the AMI MESHD patients than in patients with non-definite AMI MESHD (p<0.001). All the AMI MESHD patients required care in intensive care unit; of them, three died, two remain hospitalized. Multivariate analyses showed that C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) levels, NCP PROTEIN severity, and underlying comorbidities were the risk factors for cardiac abnormalities MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusions: Cardiac complications MESHD are common in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Elevated CRP HGNC levels, underlying comorbidities, and NCP PROTEIN severity are the main risk factors for cardiac complications in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

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HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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