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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC, sRAGE and immune activation, but lowered calcium and magnesium in COVID-19 MESHD: association with chest CT abnormalities MESHD and lowered peripheral oxygen saturation.

    Authors: Hussein Al-Hakeim; Hawraa Al-Jassas; Gerwyn Morris; Michael Maes

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254383 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background. The characterization of new biomarkers of COVID-19 MESHD is extremely important. Few studies measured the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (sRAGE), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC), calcium and magnesium in COVID-19 MESHD. Aims: To measure sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, interleukin (IL)-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC, calcium, magnesium, and albumin in COVID-19 MESHD patients in association with peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and chest CT scan abnormalities (CCTA) including ground glass opacities. Methods. This study measured sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC using ELISA techniques, and calcium, magnesium, and albumin using a spectrophotometric method in 60 COVID-19 MESHD patients and 30 healthy controls. Results. COVID-19 MESHD is characterized by significantly increased IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, and lowered levels of SpO2, albumin, magnesium and calcium. Neural networks showed that a combination of calcium, IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, and sRAGE yielded an accuracy of 100% in detecting COVID-19 MESHD patients with calcium being the most important predictor followed by IL-6 HGNC, and CRP HGNC. COVID-19 MESHD patients with CCTAs showed lower SpO2 and albumin levels than those without CCTAs. SpO2 was significantly and inversely correlated with IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC, sRAGE, and ACE2 HGNC, and positively with albumin, magnesium and calcium. Patients with positive IgG results showed a significant elevation in the serum level of IL-6 HGNC, sRAGE, and ACE2 HGNC compared to the negatively IgG patient subgroup. Conclusion. The results show that immune-inflammatory and RAGE HGNC pathway biomarkers may be used as external validating criterion for the diagnosis COVID-19 MESHD. Those pathways coupled with lowered SpO2, calcium and magnesium are drug targets that may help to reduce the consequences of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Multimodal Single-Cell Omics Analysis of COVID-19 MESHD Sex Differences in Human Immune Systems

    Authors: Yuan Hou; Yadi Zhou; Michaela Gack; Justin Lathia; Asha Kallianpur; Reena Mehra; Timothy Chan; Jae U. Jung; Lara Jehi; Charis Eng; Feixiong Cheng; Emily R Ko; Ephraim L Tsalik; gregory sempowski; Thomas N Denny; Thomas W Burke; Micah T McClain; Christopher W. Woods; Xiling Shen; Daniel R Saban; Brea Tinsley; Alan Trudeau; Jitendra Singh; Lindsey Whitmore; Helen Zheng; Matthew Benedek; Jenna Currier; Mark Dresel; Ashish Duvvuru; Britney Dyszel; Emily Fingar; Elizabeth M. Hennen; Michael Kirsch; Ali A. Khan; Charlotte Labrie-Cleary; Stephanie Laporte; Evan Lenkeit; Kailey Martin; Marilyn Orellana; Melanie Ortiz-Alvarez de la Campa; Isaac Paredes; Baleigh Wheeler; Allison Rupert; Andrew Sam; Katherine See; Santiago Soto Zapata; Paul A. Craig; Bonnie L. Hall; Jennifer Jiang; Julia R. Koeppe; Stephen A. Mills; Michael J. Pikaart; Rebecca Roberts; Yana Bromberg; J. Steen Hoyer; Siobain Duffy; Jay Tischfield; Francesc X. Ruiz; Eddy Arnold; Jean Baum; Jesse Sandberg; Grace Brannigan; Sagar D. Khare; Stephen K. Burley

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.01.407007 Date: 2020-12-01 Source: bioRxiv

    Sex differences in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD have been controversial and the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 MESHD sexual dimorphism remain understudied. Here we inspected sex differences in SARS-CoV-2 positivity, hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), sera immune profiling, and two single-cell RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) profiles from nasal tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 MESHD patients with varying degrees of disease severity. Our propensity score-matching observations revealed that male individuals have a 29% increased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with a hazard ration (HR) 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.48) for hospitalization and HR 1.51 (95% CI 1.24-1.84) for admission to ICU. Sera from male patients at hospital admission had decreased lymphocyte count and elevated inflammatory markers ( C-reactive protein HGNC, procalcitonin, and neutrophils). We found that SARS-CoV-2 entry factors, including ACE2 HGNC, TMPRSS2 HGNC, FURIN HGNC and NRP1 HGNC, have elevated expression in nasal squamous MESHD cells from males with moderate and severe COVID-19 MESHD. Cell-cell network proximity analysis suggests possible epithelium-immune cell interactions and immune vulnerability underlying a higher mortality in males with COVID-19 MESHD. Monocyte-elevated expression of Toll like receptor 7 HGNC ( TLR7 HGNC) and Bruton tyrosine kinase ( BTK HGNC) is associated with severe outcomes in males with COVID-19 MESHD. These findings provide basis for understanding immune responses underlying sex differences, and designing sex-specific targeted treatments and patient care for COVID-19 MESHD.

    Alimentary System is Directly Attacked by SARS-COV-2 and Further Prevents Immune Dysregulation Caused by COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Sai Chen; Jing Zhou; Xiaoqi Ou UG; Wei Cheng; Yun Qin; Yingqiang Guo; Yunhan Jiang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56005/v2 Date: 2020-08-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. SARS-COV-2 causes digestive system symptom, the effect of which remains equivocal.Methods. Patients with COVID-19 MESHD were classified into 4 groups according to symptom. The study traced the onset and duration of symptoms, compared laboratory examinations and conducted bioinformatic analysis. Immune indices were further analyzed.Results. By March 16, 25 patients with COVID-19 MESHD and 13 with suspect COVID-19 MESHD were admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Digestive system symptom group had the highest level of ESR (mm/h, P<0.0001), serum ferritin (ng/ml, P<0.0001), hepatic enzymes (P<0.05), and retentive lymphocyte count/percentage (P<0.05) and its subsets (P<0.05). Combined group (respiratory combined with subsequent digestive system symptom) had the highest level of IL-6 HGNC (pg/ml, P=0.0046), CRP HGNC (mg/L, P=0.0004) and moderate lymphocyte depletion. Respiratory system symptom and asymptomatic groups suffered the most from lymphocyte depletion (P<0.05). Bioinformatic analysis indicated co-expression of binding related proteins of SARS-COV-2 ( ACE2 HGNC, TMPRSS2 HGNC and Furin HGNC) in small intestine. CD147 HGNC was extensively expressed in alimentary tract. CTSL HGNC, PIKfyve, TPC2 HGNC and CTSB HGNC could be detected with ≥moderate expressions in a variety of organs including alimentary system.Conclusions. Alimentary system is directly attacked by SARS-COV-2 other than hyperinflammation and immune dysregulation. Involvement of alimentary system might further protect mild and moderate cases from lymphocyte depletion caused by COVID-19 MESHD.

    Level of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 HGNC is highly elevated in old-aged patients with aortic stenosis: implications for ACE2 HGNC as a biomarker for the severity of COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Miklós Fagyas; Attila Kertész; Ivetta Siket Mányiné; Viktor Bánhegyi; Bertalan Kracskó; Andrea Szegedi; Miklós Szokol; Gusztáv Vajda; Ildikó Rácz; Zoltán Csanádi; Zoltán Papp; Attila Tóth; Sándor Sipka

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34549/v1 Date: 2020-06-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has a high mortality in elderly patients with pre- existing cardiovascular diseases MESHD. The cellular receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 ( ACE2 HGNC), thereby implicating a link between cardiovascular diseases MESHD and SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Aortic stenosis MESHD (AS) represents a chronic inflammatory state with severe cardiovascular complications MESHD in the elderly, a prime condition for COVID-19 MESHD mortality. The circulating ACE2 HGNC levels were measured in 111 patients with severe AS and compared to patients with hypertension MESHD and healthy individuals.About 4-times higher circulating ACE2 HGNC activity was found in patients with severe AS than in hypertensives MESHD or healthy individuals (103.4±5.4, n=111, 24.4±0.6, n=540 and 17.3±1.3±0.6 mU/L, n=46, respectively). Patients with severe AS were older than patients with hypertension MESHD (79±0.7 years vs. 60±0.5 years, P<0.05). Serum ACE2 HGNC activity correlated negatively with the left ventricular ejection fraction and positively with the right ventricular systolic pressure in patients with AS. In contrast, circulating ACE2 HGNC activity was independent of the blood pressure, characteristics of the stenotic aortic valve (aortic valve area, peak flow velocity), kidney function (GFR) and inflammatory state ( CRP HGNC). We found no effect of RAAS inhibitory drugs on the serum ACE2 HGNC activity in this group of patients.Our results illustrate circulating ACE2 HGNC as a potential interface between chronic inflammation MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD susceptibility. Elderly patients with AS have markedly elevated ACE2 HGNC levels together with altered left and right ventricular functions, which may pose higher risks during COVID-19 MESHD. Our clinical data do not support a role for RAAS inhibitors in regulating circulating ACE2 HGNC levels.

    Single-cell Transcriptome Analysis Indicates New Potential Regulation Mechanism of ACE2 HGNC and NPs signaling among heart failure patients infected with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Xiaojiang Xu; Dachun Xu; Hong Li; Mengqiu Ma; Yanhua Xu; Yang Su; Sang-Bing Ong; Xindong Hu; Min Cai; Maojun Zhao; Yingjie Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.30.20081257 Date: 2020-05-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbidities such as hypertension MESHD or heart failure MESHD ( HF MESHD) are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC), the critical enzyme for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, is broadly expressed in many organs including heart. However, the cellular distribution of ACE2 HGNC in the human heart, particularly the failing heart is unknown. Methods: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data in both normal and failing hearts, and characterized the ACE2 HGNC gene expression profile in various cell subsets, especially in cardiomyocyte subsets, as well as its interaction with gene networks relating to various defense and immune responses at the single cell level. Results: The results demonstrated that ACE2 HGNC is present in cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in the heart, while the number of ACE2 HGNC-postive ( ACE2 HGNC+) CMs and ACE2 HGNC gene expression in these CMs are significantly increased in the failing hearts. Interestingly, both brain natriuretic peptides ( BNP HGNC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are significantly up-regulated in the ACE2 HGNC+ CMs. Further analysis shows that ANP, BNP HGNC and ACE2 HGNC may form a negative feedback loop with a group of genes associated with the development of heart failure MESHD. To our surprise, we found that genes related to virus entry, virus replication and suppression of interferon-gamma HGNC signaling are all up-regulated in CMs in failing hearts, and the increases were significantly higher in ACE2 HGNC+ CMs as compared with ACE2 HGNC negative ( ACE2 HGNC-) CMs, suggesting that these ACE2 HGNC+ CMs may be more vulnerable to virus infection MESHD. Since ACE2 HGNC expression is correlated with BNP HGNC expression, we further performed retrospective analysis of the plasma BNP HGNC levels and clinic outcome of 91 COVID-19 MESHD patients from a single-center. Patients with higher plasma BNP HGNC were associated with significantly higher mortality rate and expression levels of inflammatory and infective markers such as procalcitonin and C-reactive protein HGNC. Conclusion: In the failing heart, the upregulation of ACE2 HGNC and virus infection MESHD associated genes, as well as the increased expression of ANP and BNP HGNC could facilitate SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and replication in these vulnerable cardiomyocyte subsets. These findings may advance our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of myocarditis MESHD associated with COVID-19 MESHD.

    Effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD upon male gonadal function: A single center-based study

    Authors: Ling Ma; Wen Xie; Danyang Li; Lei Shi; Yanhong Mao; Yao Xiong; Yuanzhen Zhang; Ming Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.21.20037267 Date: 2020-03-24 Source: medRxiv

    Since SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was first identified in December 2019, it spread rapidly and a global pandemic of COVID-19 MESHD has occurred. ACE2 HGNC, the receptor for entry into the target cells by SARS-CoV-2, was found to abundantly express in testes, including spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cells. However, there is no clinical evidence about whether SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD can affect male gonadal function so far. In this study, we compared the sex-related hormones between 81 reproductive-aged men with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and 100 age-matched healthy men, and found that serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly increased, but the ratio of testosterone (T) to LH and the ratio of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to LH were dramatically decreased in males with COVID-19 MESHD. Besides, multivariable regression analysis indicated that c-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) level was significantly associated with serum T:LH ratio in COVID-19 MESHD patients. This study provides the first direct evidence about the influence of medical condition of COVID-19 MESHD on male sex hormones, alerting more attention to gonadal function evaluation among patients recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, especially the reproductive-aged men.

    Hypokalemia and Clinical Implications in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD)

    Authors: dong chen Jr.; Xiaokuni Li; qifa song Sr.; Chenchan Hu Jr.; Feifei Su; Jianyi Dai

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.27.20028530 Date: 2020-02-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a series of COVID-19 MESHD globally. SARS-CoV-2 binds angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and causes prevalent hypokalemia MESHD METHODS: The patients with COVID-19 MESHD were classified into severe hypokalemia MESHD, hypokalemia MESHD, and normokalemia group. The study aimed to determine the relationship between hypokalemia MESHD and clinical features, the underlying causes and clinical implications of hypokalemia MESHD. RESULTS: By Feb 15, 2020, 175 patients with COVID-19 MESHD (92 women and 83 men; median age, 46 [IQR, 34-54] years) were admitted to hospital in Wenzhou, China, consisting 39 severe hypokalemia MESHD-, 69 hypokalemia MESHD-, and 67 normokalemia patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms were not associated with hypokalemia MESHD among 108 hypokalemia MESHD patients (P>0.05). Body temperature, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and CRP HGNC were significantly associated with the severity of hypokalemia MESHD (P<0.01). 93% of severe and critically ill MESHD patients had hypokalemia MESHD which was most common among elevated CK, CK-MB, LDH, and CRP HGNC. Urine K+ loss was the primary cause of hypokalemia MESHD. severe hypokalemia MESHD patients was given 3 g/day, adding up to an average of 34 (SD=4) g potassium during hospital stay. The exciting finding was that patients responded well to K+ supplements when they were inclined to recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Hypokalemia MESHD is prevailing in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. The correction of hypokalemia MESHD is challenging because of continuous renal K+ loss resulting from the degradation of ACE2 HGNC. The end of urine K+ loss indicates a good prognosis and may be a reliable, in-time, and sensitive biomarker directly reflecting the end of adverse effect on RAS system.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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