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Overview

MeSH Disease

COVID-19 (4)

Pneumonia (1)

Fever (1)

Fatigue (1)

Myalgia (1)


HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

There are no SARS-CoV-2 protein terms in the subcorpus


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19 MESHD neurological complications: no cytokine storm or neuroinflammation.

    Authors: Maria A. Garcia; Paula V. Barreras; Allie Lewis; Gabriel Pinilla; Lori J. Sokoll; Thomas Kickler; Heba Mostafa; Mario Caturegli; Abhay Moghekar; Kathryn C. Fitzgerald; - Hopkins Neuro-COVID-19 Group; Carlos A Pardo

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.10.20249014 Date: 2021-01-12 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Neurological complications MESHD occur in COVID-19 MESHD. We aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications MESHD and determine presence of neuroinflammatory changes implicated in pathogenesis. METHODS. Cross-sectional study of CSF neuroinflammatory profiles from 18 COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications categorized by diagnosis ( stroke MESHD, encephalopathy MESHD, headache MESHD) and illness severity (critical, severe, moderate, mild). COVID-19 MESHD CSF was compared with CSF from healthy, infectious and neuroinflammatory disorders MESHD and stroke MESHD controls (n=82). Cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC, IFN-gamma HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC), inflammation MESHD and coagulation markers (high-sensitivity- C Reactive Protein HGNC [hsCRP], ferritin, fibrinogen HGNC, D-dimer, Factor VIII) and neurofilament light chain ( NF-L HGNC), were quantified. SARS-CoV2 RNA and SARS-CoV2 IgG and IgA antibodies in CSF were tested with RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS. CSF from COVID-19 MESHD subjects showed a paucity of neuroinflammatory changes, absence of pleocytosis MESHD or specific increases in pro-inflammatory markers or cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, ferritin, or D-dimer). Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects (77%) were observed despite no evidence of SARS-CoV2 viral RNA. A similar increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC;, IL-12p70) and IL-10 HGNC in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD stroke MESHD subjects was observed compared to controls. CSF-NF-L was elevated in subjects with stroke MESHD and critical COVID-19 MESHD. CSF-hsCRP was present almost exclusively in COVID-19 MESHD cases. CONCLUSION. The paucity of neuroinflammatory changes in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects and lack of SARS-CoV2 RNA do not support the presumed neurovirulence of SARS-CoV2 or neuroinflammation MESHD in pathogenesis of neurological complications in COVID-19 MESHD. Elevated CSF-NF-L indicates neuroaxonal injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD cases. The role of CSF SARS-CoV2 IgG antibodies is still undetermined.

    Altered Transcript Levels of Cytokines in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Majid Samsami; Alireza Fatemi; Reza Jalili Khoshnoud; Karim Kohansal; Arezou Sayad; Shabnam Soghala; Shahram Arsang-Jang; Mohammad Taheri; Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-126215/v1 Date: 2020-12-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD and the related disorder i.e. “ coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD” ( COVID-19 MESHD) have encouraged researchers to unravel the molecular mechanism of disease severity. Several lines of evidence support the impact of "cytokine storm" in the pathogenesis of severe forms of the disorder MESHD. We aimed to assess the expression levels of nine cytokine coding in COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted in a hospital. Expression levels of IFN-G HGNC, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-17 HGNC, TGF-B HGNC, IL-8 HGNC and IL-1B HGNC were significantly higher in COVID-19 MESHD patients compared with healthy controls and in both female and male patients compared with sex-matched controls. However, expression of none of these cytokines was different between ICU-admitted patients and other patients except for IL-6 HGNC whose expression was lower in the former group compared with the latter (ratio of means = 0.33, P value = 4.82E-02). Expression of TNF-A HGNC was not different between COVID-19 MESHD patients and healthy controls. Then, we assessed diagnostic power of cytokine coding genes in differentiating between COVID-19 MESHD patients and controls. The area under curve (AUC) values range from 0.94 for IFN-G HGNC to 1.0 for IL-2 HGNC and IL-1B HGNC. After combining the transcript levels of all cytokines, AUC, sensitivity and specificity values reached 1.0, 1.0 and 0.99, respectively. For differentiation between ICU-admitted patients and other patients, IL-4 HGNC with AUC value of 0.68, had the best diagnostic power among cytokine coding genes. Expression of none of cytokine coding genes was correlated with the assessed clinical/demographic data including age, gender, ICU admission, or CRP HGNC/ESR levels. Our study provides further evidence for contribution of “cytokine storm” in the pathobiology of moderate/severe forms of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Single-cell Transcriptome Analysis Indicates New Potential Regulation Mechanism of ACE2 HGNC and NPs signaling among heart failure patients infected with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Xiaojiang Xu; Dachun Xu; Hong Li; Mengqiu Ma; Yanhua Xu; Yang Su; Sang-Bing Ong; Xindong Hu; Min Cai; Maojun Zhao; Yingjie Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.30.20081257 Date: 2020-05-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbidities such as hypertension MESHD or heart failure MESHD ( HF MESHD) are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC), the critical enzyme for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, is broadly expressed in many organs including heart. However, the cellular distribution of ACE2 HGNC in the human heart, particularly the failing heart is unknown. Methods: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data in both normal and failing hearts, and characterized the ACE2 HGNC gene expression profile in various cell subsets, especially in cardiomyocyte subsets, as well as its interaction with gene networks relating to various defense and immune responses at the single cell level. Results: The results demonstrated that ACE2 HGNC is present in cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in the heart, while the number of ACE2 HGNC-postive ( ACE2 HGNC+) CMs and ACE2 HGNC gene expression in these CMs are significantly increased in the failing hearts. Interestingly, both brain natriuretic peptides ( BNP HGNC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are significantly up-regulated in the ACE2 HGNC+ CMs. Further analysis shows that ANP, BNP HGNC and ACE2 HGNC may form a negative feedback loop with a group of genes associated with the development of heart failure MESHD. To our surprise, we found that genes related to virus entry, virus replication and suppression of interferon-gamma HGNC signaling are all up-regulated in CMs in failing hearts, and the increases were significantly higher in ACE2 HGNC+ CMs as compared with ACE2 HGNC negative ( ACE2 HGNC-) CMs, suggesting that these ACE2 HGNC+ CMs may be more vulnerable to virus infection MESHD. Since ACE2 HGNC expression is correlated with BNP HGNC expression, we further performed retrospective analysis of the plasma BNP HGNC levels and clinic outcome of 91 COVID-19 MESHD patients from a single-center. Patients with higher plasma BNP HGNC were associated with significantly higher mortality rate and expression levels of inflammatory and infective markers such as procalcitonin and C-reactive protein HGNC. Conclusion: In the failing heart, the upregulation of ACE2 HGNC and virus infection MESHD associated genes, as well as the increased expression of ANP and BNP HGNC could facilitate SARS-CoV-2 virus entry and replication in these vulnerable cardiomyocyte subsets. These findings may advance our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of myocarditis MESHD associated with COVID-19 MESHD.

    Clinical and immunologic features in severe and moderate forms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Guang Chen; Di Wu; Wei Guo; Yong Cao; Da Huang; Hongwu Wang; Tao Wang; Xiaoyun Zhang; Huilong Chen; Haijing Yu; Xiaoping Zhang; Minxia Zhang; Shiji Wu; Jianxin Song; Tao Chen; Meifang Han; Shusheng Li; Xiaoping Luo; Jianping Zhao; Qin Ning

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.16.20023903 Date: 2020-02-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background Since late December, 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia MESHD cases caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and continued to spread throughout China and across the globe. To date, few data on immunologic features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) have been reported. Methods In this single-centre retrospective study, a total of 21 patients with pneumonia MESHD who were laboratory-confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan Tongji hospital were included from Dec 19, 2019 to Jan 27, 2020. The immunologic characteristics as well as their clinical, laboratory, radiological features were compared between 11 severe cases and 10 moderate cases. Results Of the 21 patients with COVID-19 MESHD, only 4 (19%) had a history of exposure to the Huanan seafood market. 7 (33.3%) patients had underlying conditions. The average age of severe and moderate cases was 63.9 and 51.4 years, 10 (90.9%) severe cases and 7 (70.0%) moderate cases were male. Common clinical manifestations including fever MESHD (100%, 100%), cough (70%, 90%), fatigue MESHD (100%, 70%) and myalgia MESHD (50%, 30%) in severe cases and moderate cases. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly lower in severe cases (122.9) than moderate cases (366.2). Lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in severe cases (7000 million/L) than moderate cases (11000 million/L). Alanine aminotransferase HGNC, lactate dehydrogenase levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HGNC and ferritin were significantly higher in severe cases (41.4 U/L, 567.2 U/L, 135.2 mg/L and 1734.4 ug/L) than moderate cases (17.6 U/L, 234.4 U/L, 51.4 mg/L and 880.2 ug /L). IL-2R HGNC, TNF HGNC- and IL-10 HGNC concentrations on admission were significantly higher in severe cases (1202.4 pg/mL, 10.9 pg/mL and 10.9 pg/mL) than moderate cases (441.7 pg/mL, 7.5 pg/mL and 6.6 pg/mL). Absolute number of total T lymphocytes, CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were significantly lower in severe cases (332.5, 185.6 and 124.3 million/L) than moderate cases (676.5, 359.2 and 272.0 million/L). The expressions of IFN-{gamma HGNC} by CD4+T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.6%) than moderate cases (23.6%). Conclusion The SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+T cells, resulting in significant decrease in number as well as IFN-{gamma HGNC} production, which may be associated with disease severity. Together with clinical characteristics, early immunologic indicators including diminished T lymphocytes and elevated cytokines may serve as potential markers for prognosis in COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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