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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC, sRAGE and immune activation, but lowered calcium and magnesium in COVID-19 MESHD: association with chest CT abnormalities MESHD and lowered peripheral oxygen saturation.

    Authors: Hussein Al-Hakeim; Hawraa Al-Jassas; Gerwyn Morris; Michael Maes

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254383 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background. The characterization of new biomarkers of COVID-19 MESHD is extremely important. Few studies measured the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (sRAGE), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC), calcium and magnesium in COVID-19 MESHD. Aims: To measure sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, interleukin (IL)-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC, calcium, magnesium, and albumin in COVID-19 MESHD patients in association with peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and chest CT scan abnormalities (CCTA) including ground glass opacities. Methods. This study measured sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC using ELISA techniques, and calcium, magnesium, and albumin using a spectrophotometric method in 60 COVID-19 MESHD patients and 30 healthy controls. Results. COVID-19 MESHD is characterized by significantly increased IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, and lowered levels of SpO2, albumin, magnesium and calcium. Neural networks showed that a combination of calcium, IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, and sRAGE yielded an accuracy of 100% in detecting COVID-19 MESHD patients with calcium being the most important predictor followed by IL-6 HGNC, and CRP HGNC. COVID-19 MESHD patients with CCTAs showed lower SpO2 and albumin levels than those without CCTAs. SpO2 was significantly and inversely correlated with IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC, sRAGE, and ACE2 HGNC, and positively with albumin, magnesium and calcium. Patients with positive IgG results showed a significant elevation in the serum level of IL-6 HGNC, sRAGE, and ACE2 HGNC compared to the negatively IgG patient subgroup. Conclusion. The results show that immune-inflammatory and RAGE HGNC pathway biomarkers may be used as external validating criterion for the diagnosis COVID-19 MESHD. Those pathways coupled with lowered SpO2, calcium and magnesium are drug targets that may help to reduce the consequences of COVID-19 MESHD.

    PREDICTIVE IMMUNOLOGICAL, VIROLOGICAL, AND ROUTINE LABORATORY MARKERS FOR CRITICAL COVID-19 MESHD ON ADMISSION.Immunocovid study

    Authors: Mercedes Garcia Gasalla; Juana M Ferrer; Pablo A Fraile-Ribot; Adrian Ferre-Beltran; Adrian Rodriguez; Natalia Martinez-Pomar; Luisa Ramon-Clar; Amanda Iglesias; Francisco Fanjul; Joan A Pou; Isabel LLompart; Ines Losada; Nuria Toledo; Jaime Pons; Antonio Oliver; Melchor Riera; Javier Murillas

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.17.21253816 Date: 2021-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Early identification of COVID-19 MESHD patients at risk of critical illness is challenging for clinicians. Immunological, virological, and routine laboratory markers to be used in addition to clinical data are needed. Aim and methods: Blood tests to measure neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), levels of ferritin, CRP HGNC, D-dimer, complement components (C3, C4), lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines, and SARS-Cov2 RT-PCR tests were performed in COVID-19 MESHD confirmed cases within 48 hours of admission. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were determined by RT-PCR from oral or nasopharyngeal swabs on the day of admission. Severity of symptoms was categorized as mild (grade 1), severe (grade 2), and critical (grade 3). Results: 120 patients were included. COVID-19 MESHD was mild in 49, severe in 32, and critical in 39. Ferritin >370 ng/mL (OR 16.4, 95% CI 5.3-50.8), D-dimer >440 ng/mL (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.36-12.61), CRP >7.65 mg/dL (OR 11.54, 95% CI 4.3-30.8), NLR >3.77 (OR 13.4, 95% CI 4.3-41.1), IL-6 HGNC >142.5 pg/mL (OR 8.76, 95% CI 3.56-21.54), IL-10 HGNC >10.8 pg/mL (OR 16.45, 95% CI 5.32-50.81), sIL-2r (sCD25) >804.5 pg/mL (OR 14.06, 95% CI 4.56-43.28), IL-1Ra HGNC >88.4 pg/mL (OR 4.54, 95% CI 2.03-10.17), and IL-18 HGNC >144 pg/mL (OR 17.85, 95% CI 6.54-48.78) were associated with critical COVID-19 MESHD in the univariate age-adjusted analysis. In the multivariate age-adjusted analysis, this association was confirmed only for ferritin, CRP HGNC,NLR, IL-10 HGNC, sIL-2r, and IL-18 HGNC. T, B, and NK cells were significantly decreased in critical patients. SARS-CoV-2 was undetected in blood except in 3 patients with indeterminate results. Ct values determined by RT-PCR from oral/nasopharyngeal swabs on admission were not related to symptom severity. Conclusion: levels of ferritin, D-dimer, CRP HGNC, NLR, and cytokines and cytokine receptors IL-6 HGNC, IL1-Ra HGNC, sCD25, IL-18 HGNC, and IL-10 HGNC, taken together with clinical data, can contribute to the early identification of critical COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19 MESHD neurological complications: no cytokine storm or neuroinflammation.

    Authors: Maria A. Garcia; Paula V. Barreras; Allie Lewis; Gabriel Pinilla; Lori J. Sokoll; Thomas Kickler; Heba Mostafa; Mario Caturegli; Abhay Moghekar; Kathryn C. Fitzgerald; - Hopkins Neuro-COVID-19 Group; Carlos A Pardo

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.10.20249014 Date: 2021-01-12 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Neurological complications MESHD occur in COVID-19 MESHD. We aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications MESHD and determine presence of neuroinflammatory changes implicated in pathogenesis. METHODS. Cross-sectional study of CSF neuroinflammatory profiles from 18 COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications categorized by diagnosis ( stroke MESHD, encephalopathy MESHD, headache MESHD) and illness severity (critical, severe, moderate, mild). COVID-19 MESHD CSF was compared with CSF from healthy, infectious and neuroinflammatory disorders MESHD and stroke MESHD controls (n=82). Cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC, IFN-gamma HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC), inflammation MESHD and coagulation markers (high-sensitivity- C Reactive Protein HGNC [hsCRP], ferritin, fibrinogen HGNC, D-dimer, Factor VIII) and neurofilament light chain ( NF-L HGNC), were quantified. SARS-CoV2 RNA and SARS-CoV2 IgG and IgA antibodies in CSF were tested with RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS. CSF from COVID-19 MESHD subjects showed a paucity of neuroinflammatory changes, absence of pleocytosis MESHD or specific increases in pro-inflammatory markers or cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, ferritin, or D-dimer). Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects (77%) were observed despite no evidence of SARS-CoV2 viral RNA. A similar increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC;, IL-12p70) and IL-10 HGNC in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD stroke MESHD subjects was observed compared to controls. CSF-NF-L was elevated in subjects with stroke MESHD and critical COVID-19 MESHD. CSF-hsCRP was present almost exclusively in COVID-19 MESHD cases. CONCLUSION. The paucity of neuroinflammatory changes in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects and lack of SARS-CoV2 RNA do not support the presumed neurovirulence of SARS-CoV2 or neuroinflammation MESHD in pathogenesis of neurological complications in COVID-19 MESHD. Elevated CSF-NF-L indicates neuroaxonal injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD cases. The role of CSF SARS-CoV2 IgG antibodies is still undetermined.

    Identification of immunological, inflammatory, hematological, and coagulation abnormalities associated with severity and mortality of COVID-19 MESHD: a meta-analysis of 64 observational studies

    Authors: Li He; Rundong Qin; Zhaowei Yang; Nan Jia; Ruchong Chen; Jiaxing Xie; Wanyi Fu; Hao Chen; Xinliu Lin; Renbin Huang; Tian Luo; Yukai Liu; Siyang Yao; Mei Jiang; Jing Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-74207/v1 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundLaboratory abnormalities associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) have been reported in many observational studies. However, there are significant heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies.ObjectivesWe aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between laboratory abnormalities MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD prognosis.MethodsWe conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies reporting hematological, coagulation, inflammatory, and immunological results during hospital admission of COVID-19 MESHD patients with different severities and outcomes.ResultsA total of 64 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 8 hematological, 3 coagulation, 5 inflammatory, and 23 immunological variables reported. Of them, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts ( Neu HGNC), D-dimer level, procalcitonin (PCT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), ferretin, serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukins (ILs)–2R, IL-6 HGNC, and IL-10 HGNC were significantly increased in severely ill patients and non-survivors. Meanwhile, non-severely ill patients and survivors presented significantly higher counts of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. A majority of included variables presented with significant heterogeneity, some of which resulted from differing disease severities and ages of included patients.ConclusionsThe current meta-analysis provides a comprehensive and updated synthesis of the association between admission laboratory abnormalities with severity and mortality of COVID-19 MESHD. Our results highlight that increases in the levels of PCT, ESR, CRP HGNC, ferretin, SAA, IL-2R HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, and IL-10 HGNC were associated with disease deterioration, whereas elevated eosinophils, lymphocytes, and T-cell subsets might serve as indicators of favorable outcomes.

    Laboratory biomarkers associated with COVID-19 MESHD severity and management.

    Authors: Stephen Keddie; Oliver J Ziff; Michael KL Chou; Rachel L Taylor; Amanda Heslegrave; Edmund Garr; Neghat Lakdawala; Andrew Church; Dalia Ludwig; Jessica Manson; Marie Scully; Eleni Nastouli; Miles D Chapman; Melanie Hart; Michael P Lunn

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.20168807 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: medRxiv

    The heterogeneous disease course of COVID-19 MESHD is unpredictable, ranging from mild self-limiting symptoms to cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD), multi-organ failure MESHD and death MESHD. Identification of high-risk cases will enable appropriate intervention and escalation. This study investigates the routine laboratory tests and cytokines implicated in COVID-19 MESHD for their potential application as biomarkers of disease severity, respiratory failure MESHD and need of higher-level care. From analysis of 203 samples, CRP HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 and LDH HGNC were most strongly correlated with the WHO ordinal scale of illness severity, the fraction of inspired oxygen delivery, radiological evidence of ARDS MESHD and level of respiratory support (p[≤]0.001). IL-6 HGNC levels of >3.27pg/ml provide a sensitivity of 0.87 and specificity of 0.64 for a requirement of ventilation, and a CRP HGNC of >37mg/L of 0.91 and 0.66. Reliable stratification of high-risk cases has significant implications on patient triage, resource management and potentially the initiation of novel therapies in severe patients.

    Diagnostic and prognostic value of hematological and immunological markers in COVID-19 MESHD infection: A meta-analysis of 6320 patients

    Authors: Rami M Elshazli; Eman Ali Toraih; Abdelaziz Elgaml; Mohammed El-Mowafy; Mohamed El-Mesery; Mohamed N Amin; Mohammad H Hussein; Mary T Killackey; Manal S Fawzy; Emad Kandil

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20141218 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: medRxiv

    Objective Evidence-based characterization of the diagnostic and prognostic value of the hematological and immunological markers related to the epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is critical to understand the clinical course of the infection and to assess in development and validation of biomarkers. Methods Based on systematic search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct up to April 22, 2020, a total of 52 eligible articles with 6,320 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD cohorts were included. Pairwise comparison between severe versus mild disease, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) versus general ward admission, and expired versus survivors were performed for 36 laboratory parameters. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the DerSimonian Laird method/random effects model and converted to Odds ratio (OR). The decision tree algorithm was employed to identify the key risk factor(s) attributed to severe COVID-19 MESHD disease. Results Cohorts with elevated levels of white blood cells (WBCs) (OR=1.75), neutrophil count (OR=2.62), D-dimer (OR=3.97), prolonged prothrombin time (PT) (OR=1.82), fibrinogen HGNC (OR=3.14), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (OR=1.60), procalcitonin (OR=4.76), IL-6 HGNC (OR=2.10), and IL-10 HGNC (OR=4.93) had higher odds of progression to severe phenotype. Decision tree model (sensitivity=100%, specificity=81%) showed the high performance of neutrophil count at a cut-off value of more than 3.74 x109/L for identifying patients at high risk of severe COVID-19 MESHD. Likewise, ICU admission was associated with higher levels of WBCs (OR=5.21), neutrophils (OR=6.25), D-dimer (OR=4.19), and prolonged PT (OR=2.18). Patients with high IL-6 HGNC (OR=13.87), CRP HGNC (OR=7.09), D-dimer (OR=6.36), and neutrophils (OR=6.25) had the highest likelihood of mortality. Conclusions Several hematological and immunological markers, in particular neutrophilic count, could be helpful to be included within the routine panel for COVID-19 MESHD infection evaluation to ensure risk stratification and effective management.

    Clinical Characteristics and Short-Term Outcomes of Severe Patients with COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Xiaobo Feng Sr.; Peiyun Li; Liang Ma; Hang Liang; Jie Lei; Wenqiang Li; Kun Wang; Yu Song; Shuai Li; Wei Yang; Cao Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20078063 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Objective. A novel pneumonia MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) which is sweeping the globe was started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Most deaths MESHD occurred in severe and critically cases, but information on prognostic risk factors for severe ill patients is incomplete. Further research is urgently needed to guide clinicians, so we prospectively evaluate the clinical outcomes of 114 severe ill patients with COVID-19 MESHD for short-term in the Union Hospital in Wuhan, China. Methods. In this single-centered, prospective and observational study, we enrolled 114 severe ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD from Jan 23, 2020 to February 22, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic and laboratory information were collected at baseline, data on treatment and outcome were collected until the day of death MESHD or discharge or for the first 28 days after severe ill diagnosis, whichever was shorter. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of poor outcome. Results. Among enrolled 114 patients, 94 (82.5%) had good outcome while 20 (17.5%) had poor outcome. No significant differences were showed in age, gender and the prevalence of coexisting disorders between outcome groups. Results of multivariate Cox analyses indicated that higher levels of oxygen saturation (HR, 0.123; 95% CI, 0.041-0.369), albumin (HR, 0.060; 95% CI, 0.008-0.460) and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (HR, 0.321; 95% CI, 0.106-0.973) were associated with decreased risk of developing poor outcome within 28 days. In the other hand, higher levels of leucocytes (HR, 5.575; 95% CI, 2.080-14.943), neutrophils (HR, 2.566; 95% CI, 1.022-6.443), total bilirubin (HR, 6.171; 95% CI, 2.458-15.496), globulin (HR, 2.526; 95% CI, 1.027-6.211), blood urea nitrogen (HR, 5.640; 95% CI, 2.193-14.509), creatine kinase-MB (HR, 3.032; 95% CI, 1.203-7.644), lactate dehydrogenase (HR, 4.607; 95% CI, 1.057-20.090), hypersensitive MESHD cardiac troponin I (HR, 5.023; 95% CI, 1.921-13.136), lactate concentration (HR,15.721; 95% CI, 2.099-117.777), Interleukin-10 HGNC (HR, 3.551; 95% CI, 1.280-9.857) and C-reactive protein HGNC (HR, 5.275; 95% CI, 1.517-18.344) were associated with increased risk of poor outcome development. We also found that traditional Chinese medicine can significantly improve the patient's condition, which is conducive to the transformation from severe to mild. Conclusion. In summary, we firstly reported this single-centered, prospective and observational study for short-term outcome in severe patients with COVID-19 MESHD. We found that cytokine storm and uncontrolled inflammation MESHD responses, liver, kidney, cardiac dysfunction MESHD may play important roles in final outcome of severe ill patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Our study will provide clinicians to be benefit to rapidly estimate the likelihood risk of short-term poor outcome for severe patients.

    Risk factors and clinical features of deterioration in COVID-19 MESHD patients in Zhejiang, China: a single- centre, retrospective study

    Authors: Ping Yi; Xiang Yang; Cheng Ding; Yanfei Chen; Kaijin Xu; Qing Ni; Hong Zhao; Yongtao Li; Xuan Zhang; Jun Liu; Jifang Sheng; Lanjuan Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-22481/v4 Date: 2020-04-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD swept through Wuhan and spread across China and overseas beginning in December 2019. To identify predictors associated with disease progression, we evaluated clinical risk factors for exacerbation of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.MethodsA retrospective analysis was used for PCR-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD ( coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD)-diagnosed hospitalized cases between January 19, 2020, and February 19, 2020, in Zhejiang, China. We systematically analysed the clinical characteristics of the patients and predictors of clinical deterioration.ResultsOne hundred patients with COVID-19 MESHD, with a median age of 54 years, were included. Among them, 49 patients (49%) had severe and critical disease MESHD. Age ([36-58] vs [51-70], P=0.0001); sex (49% vs 77.6%, P=0.0031); Body Mass Index (BMI ) ([21.53-25.51] vs [23.28-27.01], P=0.0339); hypertension MESHD (17.6% vs 57.1%, P<0.0001); IL-6 HGNC ([6.42-30.46] vs [16.2-81.71], P=0.0001); IL-10 HGNC ([2.16-5.82] vs [4.35-9.63], P<0.0001); T lymphocyte count ([305- 1178] vs [167.5-440], P=0.0001); B lymphocyte count ([91-213] vs [54.5-163.5], P=0.0001); white blood cell count ([3.9-7.6] vs [5.5-13.6], P=0.0002); D2 dimer ([172-836] vs [408-953], P=0.005), PCT ([0.03-0.07] vs [0.04-0.15], P=0.0039); CRP HGNC ([3.8-27.9] vs [17.3-58.9], P<0.0001); AST HGNC ([16, 29] vs [18, 42], P=0.0484); artificial liver therapy (2% vs 16.3%, P=0.0148); and glucocorticoid therapy (64.7% vs 98%, P<0.0001) were associated with the severity of the disease. Age and weight were independent risk factors for disease severity.ConclusionDeterioration among COVID-19 MESHD-infected patients occurred rapidly after hospital admission. In our cohort, we found that multiple factors were associated with the severity of COVID19 MESHD. Early detection and monitoring of these indicators may reduce the progression of the disease. Removing these factors may halt the progression of the disease. In addition, Oxygen support, early treatment with low doses of glucocorticoids and liver therapy, when necessary, may help reduce mortality in critically ill MESHD patients.

    Clinical Characteristics of 6 patients with SARS-Cov-2 infected severe pneumonia in Zunyi, China

    Authors: Bao Fu; Kun Qian; Tao Chen; Xiaoyun Fu; Miao Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-16200/v1 Date: 2020-03-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose To study the clinical characteristics, laboratory examination, radiological changes and treatments of 6 patients with severe SARS-Cov-2 infected pneumonia MESHD in Zunyi City, China.MethodsThe clinical data, laboratory examination, radiological changes and clinical treatment process of 6 patients with severe SARS-Cov-2 infected pneumonia MESHD admitted to the Department of Critical Medicine of the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University were retrospectively analyzed.Results Four of the six patients were older than 65 years. Two patients had a history of exposure to Wuhan, and four patients had family clustering infection. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were dry cough MESHD (4, 66%) and fever MESHD (4, 66%). Laboratory tests showed that white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, and urea nitrogen elevated. The Total lymphocyte count and T lymphocyte count decreased. All patients received antiviral therapy, blood purification, immunomodulatory therapy, and Chinese herb treatments. One patient was discharged from the hospital, and 5 patients' condition improved significantly. ConclusionT lymphocyte decreased significantly, IL-6 HGNC and IL-10 HGNC elevated in severe SARS-Cov-2 infected pneumonia MESHD patients. Elderly patients with comorbidities appear to be more severe and to recover more slowly. Blood purification can be tried for severe and critically ill MESHD patients. Early identification and timely treatment of critical cases is of crucial importance. 

    Correlation Analysis Between Disease Severity and Inflammation-related Parameters in Patients with COVID-19 MESHD Pneumonia

    Authors: Jing Gong; Hui Dong; Song Qing Xia; Yi Zhao Huang; Dingkun Wang; Yan Zhao; Wenhua Liu; Shenghao Tu; Mingmin Zhang; Qi Wang; Fuer Lu

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.25.20025643 Date: 2020-02-27 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: The new coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) outbreaking at the end of 2019 is highly contagious. Crude mortality rate reached 49% in critical patients. Inflammation matters MESHD on disease progression. This study analyzed blood inflammation MESHD indicators among mild, severe and critical patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients were included and divided to mild, severe or critical groups. Correlation of peripheral blood inflammation MESHD-related indicators with disease criticality was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill MESHD patients were speculated through the ROC curve. ResultsSignificantly, disease severity were associated with age (R=-0.564, P<0.001), interleukin-2 receptor ( IL2R HGNC) (R=-0.534, P<0.001), interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) (R=-0.535, P<0.001), interleukin-8 HGNC ( IL-8 HGNC) (R=-0.308, P<0.001), interleukin-10 HGNC ( IL-10 HGNC) (R=-0.422, P<0.001), tumor MESHD tumor HGNC necrosis MESHD factor ( TNF HGNC) (R=-0.322, P<0.001), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) (R=-0.604, P<0.001), ferroprotein (R=-0.508, P<0.001), procalcitonin (R=-0.650, P<0.001), white cell counts (WBC) (R=-0.54, P<0.001), lymphocyte counts (LC) (R=-0.56, P<0.001), neutrophil count (NC) (R=-0.585, P<0.001) and eosinophil counts (EC) (R=-0.299, P=0.01). ConclusionWith following parameters such as age >67.5 years, IL2R HGNC >793.5U/mL, CRP HGNC >30.7ng/mL, ferroprotein >2252g/L, WBC>9.5*10^9/L or NC >7.305*10^9/L, the progress of COVID-19 MESHD to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Inflammation is closely related to severity of COVID-19 MESHD, and IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC and IL-8 HGNC might be promising therapeutic targets.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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