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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as markers of disease severity in COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Yu Zuo; Srilakshmi Yalavarthi; Hui Shi; Kelsey Gockman; Melanie Zuo; Jacqueline A. Madison; Christopher Blair; Andrew Weber; Betsy J. Barnes; Mikala Egeblad; Robert J. Woods; Yogendra Kanthi; Jason S. Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.09.20059626 Date: 2020-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    In severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), viral pneumonia MESHD progresses to respiratory failure MESHD. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular webs of chromatin, microbicidal proteins, and oxidant enzymes that are released by neutrophils to contain infections. However, when not properly regulated, NETs have potential to propagate inflammation MESHD and microvascular thrombosis MESHD, including in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD. While elevated levels of blood neutrophils predict worse outcomes in COVID-19 MESHD, the role of NETs has not been investigated. We now report that sera from patients with COVID-19 MESHD (n=50 patients, n=84 samples) have elevated levels of cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase HGNC( MPO HGNC)-DNA, and citrullinated histone H3 (Cit-H3); the latter two are highly specific markers of NETs. Highlighting the potential clinical relevance of these findings, cell-free DNA strongly correlated with acute phase reactants including C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase HGNC, as well as absolute neutrophil count. MPO HGNC-DNA associated with both cell-free DNA and absolute neutrophil count, while Cit-H3 correlated with platelet levels. Importantly, both cell-free DNA and MPO HGNC-DNA were higher in hospitalized patients receiving mechanical ventilation as compared with hospitalized patients breathing room air. Finally, sera from individuals with COVID-19 MESHD triggered NET release from control neutrophils in vitro. In summary, these data reveal high levels of NETs in many patients with COVID-19 MESHD, where they may contribute to cytokine release and respiratory failure MESHD. Future studies should investigate the predictive power of circulating NETs in longitudinal cohorts, and determine the extent to which NETs may be novel therapeutic targets in severe COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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