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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    IL-6 HGNC and D-Dimer at Admission Predicts Cardiac Injury MESHD and Early Mortality during SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Daoyuan Si; Beibei Du; Bo Yang; Lina Jin; Lujia Ni; Qian Zhang; Zhongfan Zhang; Mohammed Ali Azam; Patrick F.H Lai; Stephane Masse; Huan Sun; Xingtong Wang; Slava Epelman; Patrick R Lawler; Ping Yang; Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254077 Date: 2021-03-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: We recently described mortality of cardiac injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Admission activation of immune, thrombotic MESHD biomarkers and their ability to predict cardiac injury MESHD and mortality patterns in COVID-19 MESHD is unknown. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 170 COVID-19 MESHD patients with cardiac injury MESHD at admission to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from January 29-March 8, 2020. Temporal evolution of inflammatory cytokines, coagulation markers, clinical, treatment and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 170 patients, 60 (35.3%) died early (<21d) and 61 (35.9%) died after prolonged stay. Admission lab work that correlated with early death MESHD were elevate levels of interleukin 6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) (p<0.0001), Tumor Necrosis Factor-a HGNC Tumor Necrosis Factor-a MESHD ( TNF-a HGNC) (p=0.0025), and C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) (p<0.0001). We observed the trajectory of biomarker changes after admission, and determined that early mortality had a rapidly increasing D-dimer, gradually decreasing platelet and lymphocyte counts. Multivariate and simple linear regression models showed that death risk was determined by immune and thrombotic MESHD pathway activation. Increasing cTnI HGNC levels were associated with those of increasing IL-6 HGNC (p=0.03) and D-dimer (p=0.0021). Exploratory analyses suggested that patients that received heparin has lower early mortality compared to those who did not (p =0.07), despite similar risk profile. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 MESHD patients with cardiac injury MESHD, admission IL-6 HGNC and D-dimer predicted subsequent elevation of cTnI HGNC and early death MESHD, highlighting the need for early inflammatory cytokine-based risk stratification in patients with cardiac injury MESHD.

    Can we predict the severe course of COVID-19 MESHD? A systematic review and meta-analysis of indicators of clinical outcome.

    Authors: Stephan Katzenschlager; Alexandra J Zimmer; Claudius Gottschalk; Juergen Grafeneder; Alexander Seitel; Lena Maier-Hein; Andrea Benedetti; Jan Larmann; Markus A Weigand; Sean McGrath; Claudia Denkinger

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.09.20228858 Date: 2020-11-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD has been reported in over 40million people globally with variable clinical outcomes. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed demographic, laboratory and clinical indicators as predictors for severe courses of COVID-19 MESHD. Methods: We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, MedRvix and bioRvix) for publications from December 2019 to May 31st 2020. Random-effects meta- analyses were used to calculate pooled odds ratios and differences of medians between (1) patients admitted to ICU versus non-ICU patients and (2) patients who died versus those who survived. We adapted an existing Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool for outcome studies. Results: Of 6,702 unique citations, we included 88 articles with 69,762 patients. There was concern for bias across all articles included. Age was strongly associated with mortality with a difference of medians (DoM) of 13.15 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.37 to 14.94) between those who died and those who survived. We found a clinically relevant difference between non-survivors and survivors for C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC; DoM 69.10, CI 50.43 to 87.77), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; DoM 189.49, CI 155.00 to 223.98), cardiac troponin I ( cTnI HGNC; DoM 21.88, CI 9.78 to 33.99) and D-Dimer (DoM 1.29mg/L, CI 0.9 - 1.69). Furthermore, cerebrovascular disease MESHD was the co-morbidity most strongly associated with mortality (Odds Ratio 3.45, CI 2.42 to 4.91) and ICU admission (Odds Ratio 5.88, CI 2.35 to 14.73). Discussion: This comprehensive meta-analysis found age, cerebrovascular disease MESHD, CRP HGNC, LDH and cTnI HGNC to be the most important risk-factors in predicting severe COVID-19 MESHD outcomes and will inform decision analytical tools to support clinical decision-making.

    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Early Predictors of Disease Progression in Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: A Case Control Study

    Authors: Qiang Tang; Yanwei Liu; Yingfeng Fu; Ziyang Di; Kailiang Xu; Bo Tang; Hui Wu; Maojun Di

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50527/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has become an unprecedented public health crisis with nearly 16 million confirmed cases and 630,000 deaths worldwide. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data of COVID-19 MESHD patients consecutively enrolled from January 18 to May 15, 2020, in Taihe and Jinzhou central hospital. Results: Of all 197 patients, the median age was 66.5 years (IQR 7-76), and 120 (60.9%) patients were males. We identified 88 (44.7%) of 197 COVID-19 MESHD patients as the disease progression (aggravation) cases. The aggravation cases tend to have more medical comorbidity: hypertension MESHD (34.1%), diabetes MESHD (30.7%), and presented with dyspnea MESHD (34.1%), neutrophilia (60.2%), and lymphocytopenia MESHD (73.9%), compared with those without. And the patients with disease progression showed significantly higher level of Fibrinogen HGNC (Fbg), D-dimer, IL-6 HGNC, C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), procalcitonin (PCT), and serum ferritin, and were more prone to develop organ damage in the liver, kidney, and heart (P<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that advanced age, comorbidities, lymphopenia MESHD, and elevated level of Fbg, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiac troponin ( CTnI HGNC), IL-6 HGNC, serum ferritin were the significant predictors of disease progression. Further, we investigated antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and found that the levels of IgM and IgG were significantly higher in the disease progression cases compared to non-progression cases from 3 weeks after symptom onset. In addition, the disease progression group tended to peak later and has a more vigorous IgM/IgG response against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that 61.6% of patients had not experienced ICU transfer or survival from hospital within 25 days from admission.Conclusions: Investigating the potential factors of advanced age, comorbidities and elevated level of IL-6 HGNC, serum ferritin and Kaplan-Meier analysis enables early identification and management of patients with poor prognosis. Detection of the dynamic antibody may offer vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 and provide prognostic value for patients infection.  

    Initial experience in Mexico with convalescent plasma in COVID-19 MESHD patients with severe respiratory failure, a retrospective case series

    Authors: Michel F. Martinez-Resendez; Fernando Castilleja-Leal; Alejandro Torres-Quintanilla; Augusto Rojas-Martinez; Gerardo Garcia-Rivas; Rocio Ortiz-Lopez; Victor Trevino; Reynaldo Lara-Medrano; Hiram Villanueva-Lozano; Teresa Ramirez-Elizondo; Victor Sanchez-Nava; Francisco Moreno-Hoyos; Alfonso Martinez-Thomae; Martin Hernandez-Torre; Carlos Diaz-Olachea; Servando Cardona-Huerta; Sylvia de la Rosa-Pacheco; Carlos Diaz-Garza; Paola Reynoso-Lobo; Alma R. Marroquin-Escamilla; Jessica G. Herrera-Gamboa; Fatima M. Alvarado-Monroy; Claudia D. Aguayo-Millan; Francisco F. Villegas-Macedo; Jesus E. Flores-Osorio; Daniel Davila-Gonzalez; Maria E. Diaz-Sanchez; Guillermo Torre-Amione

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20144469 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Hospital mortality due to COVID-19 MESHD in Mexico is high (32%) and as of today, effective treatment options are limited. More effective treatments that shorten hospital stay and reduce mortality are needed. Initial reports for the use of convalescent plasma (CP) therapy for COVID-19 MESHD appear promising. We describe a case series of eight patients with impending respiratory failure MESHD, who underwent CP therapy. Methods: Six male and two female (ages 31 to 79) patients that were admitted to the intensive-care unit for severe COVID-19 MESHD were transfused with two doses of CP (250 mL per dose, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers > 1:100). Donors were six SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD males who remained asymptomatic for > 7 days and were negative for two nasopharyngeal RT-PCR tests. Clinical characteristics, inflammatory and cellular injury markers, chest X-ray findings and viral loads were analyzed before and after CP administration. Viral load association to disease severity was further analyzed on a separate cohort of asymptomatic vs hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Results: Eight patients with respiratory failure MESHD were successfully discharged with a median length of stay of 22.5 (IQR 18.25-29.00). After CP therapy, we observed a reduction of C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) (median, 22.80 mg/dL vs. 1.63 mg/dL), and of procalcitonin (median, 0.27 ng/mL vs. 0.13 ng/mL). High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I (hs- cTnI HGNC), Brain Natriuretic Peptide ( BNP HGNC) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) were lower, and a mild reduction of pulmonary infiltrates by chest X-ray was observed. Lastly, a reduction of viral load was after CP therapy was found. (log, median [IQR], 1.2 [0.70-2.20] vs. 0.25 [0.00-1.78]). We observed no adverse effects. Conclusions: CP could potentially be an effective therapeutic option for patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD. Clinical benefit needs to be studied further through randomized controlled trials.

    Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of Mortality in Young Adults with Severe COVID-19 MESHD. A Retrospective Observational Study

    Authors: Yanjiao Lu; Zhenli Huang; Meijia Wang; Kun Tang; Shanshan Wang; Pengfei Gao; Jungang Xie; Tao Wang; Jinping Zhao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31386/v3 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background and objective: Little is yet known whether pathogenesis of COVID-19 MESHD is different between young and elder patients. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and provide predictors of mortality for young adults with severe COVID-19 MESHD.Methods: A total of 77 young adults with confirmed severe COVID-19 MESHD were recruited retrospectively at Tongji Hospital. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment and outcomes were obtained from electronic medical records. The prognostic effects of variables were analyzed using logistic regression model.Results: In this retrospective cohort, non-survivors showed higher incidence of dyspnea MESHD and co-existing laboratory abnormalities, compared with young survivals in severe COVID-19 MESHD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lymphopenia MESHD, elevated level of d-dimer, hypersensitive cardiac troponin I (hs- CTnI HGNC) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein HGNC (hs-CRP) were independent predictors of mortality in young adults with severe COVID-19 MESHD. Further analysis showed that severely young adults with two or more factors abnormalities above would be more prone to death. The similar predictive effect of above four factors had been observed in all-age patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD.Conclusion: Lymphopenia MESHD, elevated level of d-dimer, hs- CTnI HGNC and hs-CRP predicted clinical outcomes of young adults with severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    Clinical Decision Support Tool and Rapid Point-of-Care Platform for Determining Disease Severity in Patients with COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Michael P McRae; Glennon W Simmons; Nicolaos J Christodoulides; Zhibing Lu; Stella K Kang; David Fenyo; Timothy Alcorn; Isaac P Dapkins; Iman Sharif; Deniz Vurmaz; Sayli S Modak; Kritika Srinivasan; Shruti Warhadpande; Ravi Shrivastav; John T McDevitt

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.16.20068411 Date: 2020-04-22 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) which has reached pandemic levels resulting in significant morbidity and mortality affecting every inhabited continent. The large number of patients requiring intensive care threatens to overwhelm healthcare systems globally. Likewise, there is a compelling need for a COVID-19 MESHD disease severity test to prioritize care and resources for patients at elevated risk of mortality. Here, an integrated point-of-care COVID-19 MESHD Severity Score and clinical decision support system is presented using biomarker measurements of C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), N-terminus pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), myoglobin (MYO), D-dimer, procalcitonin (PCT), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I ( cTnI HGNC). The COVID-19 MESHD Severity Score combines multiplex biomarker measurements and risk factors in a statistical learning algorithm to predict mortality. The COVID-19 MESHD Severity Score was trained and evaluated using data from 160 hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients from Wuhan, China. Our analysis finds that COVID-19 MESHD Severity Scores were significantly higher for the group that died versus the group that was discharged with median (interquartile range) scores of 59 (40-83) and 9 (6-17), respectively, and area under the curve of 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.99). These promising initial models pave the way for a point-of-care COVID-19 MESHD Severity Score system to impact patient care after further validation with externally collected clinical data. Clinical decision support tools for COVID-19 MESHD have strong potential to empower healthcare providers to save lives by prioritizing critical care in patients at high risk for adverse outcomes.

    Lactate dehydrogenase, a Risk Factor of Severe COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Yi Han; Haidong Zhang; Sucheng Mu; Wei Wei; Chaoyuan Jin; Yuan Xue; Chaoyang Tong; Yunfei Zha; Zhenju Song; Guorong Gu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.24.20040162 Date: 2020-03-27 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) a public health emergency of global concern. Updated analysis of cases might help identify the characteristic and risk factors of the illness severity. METHODS We extracted data regarding 47 patients with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between February 1 and February 18, 2020. The degree of severity of COVID-19 MESHD patients (severe vs. non-severe) was defined at the time of admission according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia MESHD (CAP). RESULTS The median age was 64.91 years, 26 cases (55.31%) were male of which, and 70.83% were severe cases. Severe patients had higher APACHE II (9.92 vs 4.74) and SOFA (3.0 vs 1.0) scores on admission, as well as the higher PSI (86.13 vs 61.39), Curb-65 (1.14 vs 0.48) and CT semiquantitative scores (5.0 vs 2.0) when compared with non-severe patients. Among all univariable parameters, APACHE II, SOFA, lymphocytes, CRP HGNC, LDH, AST HGNC, cTnI HGNC, BNP HGNC, et al were significantly independent risk factors of COVID-19 MESHD severity. Among which, LDH was most positively related both with APACHE II (R = 0.682) and SOFA (R = 0.790) scores, as well as PSI (R = 0.465) and CT (R = 0.837) scores. To assess the diagnostic value of these selected parameters, LDH (0.9727) had maximum sensitivity (100.00%) and specificity (86.67%), with the cutoff value of 283. As a protective factor, lymphocyte counts less than 1.045 x 109 /L showed a good accuracy for identification of severe patients with AUC = 0.9845 (95%CI 0.959-1.01), the maximum specificity (91.30%) and sensitivity (95.24%). In addition, LDH was positively correlated with CRP HGNC, AST HGNC, BNP HGNC and cTnI HGNC, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte cells and its subsets, including CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that LDH coule be identified as a powerful predictive factor for early recognition of lung injury MESHD and severe COVID-19 MESHD cases. And importantly, lymphocyte counts, especially CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of COVID-19 MESHD patients, which was relevant with serum LDH, were also dynamically correlated with the severity of the disease. FUNDING Key Project of Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (2016ZB0202)

    Clinical characteristics of 25 death cases infected with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia: a retrospective review of medical records in a single medical center, Wuhan, China

    Authors: Xun Li; Luwen Wang; Shaonan Yan; Fan Yang; Longkui Xiang; Jiling Zhu; Bo Shen; Zuojiong Gong

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.20025239 Date: 2020-02-25 Source: medRxiv

    Summary Background The pneumonia MESHD caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious disease MESHD, which was occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. As of February 13, 2020, a total of 59883 cases of COVID-19 MESHD in China have been confirmed and 1368 patients have died from the disease. However, the clinical characteristics of the dyed patients were still not clearly clarified. This study aims to summarize the clinical characteristics of death cases with COVID-19 MESHD and to identify critically ill patients of COVID-19 MESHD early and reduce their mortality. Methods The clinical records, laboratory findings and radiologic assessments included chest X-ray or computed tomography were extracted from electronic medical records of 25 died patients with COVID-19 MESHD in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from Jan 14 to Feb 13, 2020. Two experienced clinicians reviewed and abstracted the data. Findings The mean age of the dead was 71.48 years, the average course of the disease was 10.56 days, all patients eventually died of respiratory failure MESHD. All of those who died had underlying diseases, the most common of which was hypertension MESHD (16/25, 64%), followed by diabetes MESHD (10/25, 40%), heart diseases MESHD (8/25, 32%), kidney diseases MESHD (5/25, 20%), cerebral infarction MESHD (4/25, 16%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD, 2/25, 8%), malignant tumors MESHD (2/25, 8%) and acute pancreatitis MESHD (1/25, 4%). The most common organ damage outside the lungs was the heart, followed by kidney and liver. In the patients' last examination before death MESHD, white blood cell and neutrophil counts were elevated in 17 patients (17/25, 68%) and 18 patients (18/25, 72%), lymphocyte counts were decreased in 22 patients (22/25, 88%). Most patients' PCT HGNC, CRP HGNC and SAA levels were elevated, the percentages were 90.5% (19/21), 85% (19/20) and 100% (21/21) respectively. The levels of the last test of neutrophils (15/16, 93.8%), PCT HGNC (11/11, 100%), CRP HGNC (11/13, 84.6%), cTnI HGNC (8/9, 88.9%), D-Dimer (11/12, 91.6%) and LDH (9/9, 100%) were increased as compared to the first test, while the levels of lymphocytes were decreased (14/16, 87.5%). Interpretation The age and underlying diseases ( hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, etc.) were the most important risk factors for death of COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD. Bacterial infections may play an important role in promoting the death of patients. Malnutrition MESHD was common to severe patients. Multiple organ dysfunction can be observed, the most common organ damage was lung, followed by heart, kidney and liver. The rising of neutrophils, SAA, PCT HGNC, CRP HGNC, cTnI HGNC, D-Dimer and LDH levels can be used as indicators of disease progression, as well as the decline of lymphocytes counts.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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