Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (1507)

ProteinN (430)

NSP5 (316)

ComplexRdRp (187)

ProteinE (102)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Clinicopathologic features of a feline SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD model parallel acute COVID-19 MESHD in humans

    Authors: Jennifer Rudd; Miruthula Tamil Selvan; Shannon Cowan; Cecily Midkiff; Jerry Ritchey; Craig A Miller

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.14.439863 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: bioRxiv

    The emergence and ensuing dominance of COVID-19 MESHD on the world stage has emphasized the urgency of efficient animal models for the development of therapeutics and assessment of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Shortcomings of current animal models for SARS-CoV-2 include limited lower respiratory disease MESHD, divergence from clinical COVID-19 MESHD disease, and requirements for host genetic modifications to permit infection. This study validates a feline model for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that results in clinical disease and histopathologic lesions consistent with severe COVID-19 MESHD in humans. Intra-tracheal inoculation of concentrated SARS-CoV-2 caused infected cats to develop clinical disease consistent with that observed in the early exudative phase of COVID-19 MESHD. A novel clinical scoring system for feline respiratory disease MESHD was developed and utilized, documenting a significant degree of lethargy MESHD, fever MESHD, dyspnea MESHD, and dry cough in infected MESHD cats. In addition, histopathologic pulmonary lesions MESHD such as diffuse alveolar damage MESHD, hyaline membrane formation, fibrin deposition, and proteinaceous exudates were observed due to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, imitating lesions identified in people hospitalized with ARDS from COVID-19 MESHD. A significant correlation exists between the degree of clinical disease identified in infected cats and pulmonary lesions MESHD. Viral loads and ACE2 expression were quantified in nasal turbinates, distal trachea, lung, and various other organs. Natural ACE2 HGNC expression, paired with clinicopathologic correlates between this feline model and human COVID-19 MESHD, encourage use of this model for future translational studies.

    Effect of COVID-19 MESHD on Lipid Profile and its Correlation with Acute Phase Reactants

    Authors: Jahanzeb Malik; Uzma Ishaq; Talha Laique; Amna Ashraf; Asmara Malik; Mommana Ali Rathore; Syed Muhammad Jawad Zaidi; Muhammad Javaid; Asad Mehmood

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.21255142 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) manifests as multiple clinical and pathological organ dysfunctions. It also disrupts metabolic profile due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines causing a systemic inflammation reaction MESHD. However, the development and correlation of dyslipidemia MESHD with acute phase reactants is unknown. This investigation was performed to assess the pathological alterations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods This was a prospective study performed on real-world patients to assess serum levels of LDL-C, HDL, TG, TC on COVID-19 MESHD patients (mild: 319; moderate: 391; critical: 357) hospitalized at our center between April 2020 through January 2021. Age- and gender-matched controls who had their lipid profiles in the same period were included as the control group. Results LDL-C, HDL, TG, and TC levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 MESHD patients when compared with the control group (P < 0.001, 0.047, 0.045, < 0.001, respectively). All parameters decreased gradually with COVID-19 MESHD disease severity (LDL-C: median (IQR), mild: 98 (91,134); moderate: 97 (81,113); critical: 68 (68,83); HDL: mild: 45 (37,50); moderate: 46 (41,50); critical: 40 (37,46); TG: mild: 186 (150,245); moderate: 156 (109,198); critical: 111 (98,154); TC: mild: 224 (212,238); moderate: 212 (203,213); critical: 154 (125,187)). LDL-C, TC, and TG were inversely correlated with acute phase reactants ( interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC), Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), and D-dimers). Logistic regression demonstrated lipid profile, thyroid profile, and acute phase reactants as predictors of severity of COVID-19 MESHD disease. Conclusion Hypolipidemia MESHD develops in increasing frequency with severe COVID-19 MESHD disease. It inversely correlates with levels of acute-phase reactants, indicating SARS-COV-2 as the causative agent for alteration in lipid and thyroid levels.

    A comprehensive analysis of outcomes between COVID-19 MESHD patients with an elevated serum lipase compared to those with pancreatitis MESHD.

    Authors: Petros Benias; Sumat Inamdar; Diana Wee; Yan Liu; Jonathan Buscaglia; Sanjaya Satapathy; Arvind J Trindade

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.21252871 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Aims: COVID-19 MESHD patients may have asymptomatic hyperlipasemia without abdominal imaging findings or abdominal pain MESHD. In addition, primary and secondary pancreatitis MESHD have been described in COVID-19 MESHD patients. There is limited information on how the groups compare in outcomes. The aim is to compare outcomes among these groups. Methods: This is a retrospective study from 12 hospitals within one healthcare system examining outcomes between hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients with a lipase <3x upper limit of normal (ULN), asymptomatic hyperlipasemia MESHD (>3x ULN), secondary pancreatitis MESHD (typical respiratory COVID-19 MESHD symptoms and found to have pancreatitis MESHD), and primary pancreatitis MESHD (presenting with pancreatitis MESHD). Results: Of 11,883 patients admitted with COVID-19 MESHD, 1,560 patients were included: 1,155 COVID-19 MESHD patients with a normal serum lipase (control group), 270 with an elevated lipase <3x ULN, 46 patients with asymptomatic hyperlipasemia MESHD with a lipase 3xULN, 57 patients with secondary pancreatitis MESHD, and 32 patients with primary pancreatitis MESHD. On adjusted multivariate analysis, the elevated lipase <3x ULN and asymptomatic hyperlipasemia groups had worse outcomes. The mortality was OR1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.2) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.5-2.3), respectively. The need for mechanical ventilation was OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.1) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2), respectively. Longer length of stay was OR 1.5 (95%CI 1.1-2.0) and 3.16 (95%CI 1.5-6.5), respectively. Conclusion: COVID-19 MESHD patients with an elevated lipase< 3x ULN and asymptomatic hyperlipasemia have generally worse outcomes than those with pancreatitis MESHD. This could be attributed to extrapancreatic causes ( liver failure MESHD, renal failure MESHD, enteritis MESHD, etc), which may signify a more severe course of clinical disease. Key words: pancreas; SARS-CoV-2; pancreatitis MESHD

    Neuropilin-1 HGNC Mediates SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages

    Authors: Gao Junjie; Mei Hong; Sun Jing; Li Hao; Huang Yuege; Tang Yanhong; Duan Linwei; Liu Delin; Wang Qiyang; Gao Youshui; Song Ke; Zhao Jincun; Zhang Changqing; Liu Jia

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.14.439793 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in human can cause medical complications across various tissues and organs. Despite of the advances to understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, its tissue tropism and interactions with host cells have not been fully understood. Existing clinical data have suggested possible SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in human skeleton system. In the present study, we found that authentic SARS-CoV-2 could efficiently infect human and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and alter the expression of macrophage chemotaxis and osteoclast-related genes. Importantly, in a mouse SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD model that was enabled by the intranasal adenoviral (AdV) delivery of human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( hACE2 HGNC), SARS-CoV-2 was found to be present in femoral BMMs as determined by in situ immunofluorescence analysis. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq), we characterized SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in BMMs. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 entry on BMMs appeared to be dependent on the expression of neuropilin-1 HGNC ( NRP1 HGNC) rather than the widely recognized receptor ACE2 HGNC. It was also noted that unlike brain macrophages which displayed aging-dependent NRP1 expression, BMMs from neonatal and aged mice had constant NRP1 expression, making BMMs constantly vulnerable target cells for SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, it was found that the abolished SARS-CoV-2 entry in BMM-derived osteoclasts was associated with the loss of NRP1 expression during BMM-to-osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, our study has suggested that NRP1 HGNC can mediate SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in BMMs, which precautions the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on human skeleton system.

    Occupational risks of COVID-19 MESHD in NHS workers in England

    Authors: Diana van der Plaat; Ira Madan; David Coggon; Martie van Tongeren; Rhiannon Edge; Rupert Muiry; Vaughan Parsons; Paul Cullinan

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.08.21255099 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objective To quantify occupational risks of Covid-19 MESHD among healthcare staff during the first wave of the pandemic in England Methods Using pseudonymised data on 902,813 individuals continuously employed by 191 National Health Service trusts during 1.1.19 to 31.7.20, we explored demographic and occupational risk factors for sickness absence ascribed to Covid-19 MESHD during 9.3.20 to 31.7.20 (n = 92,880). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) by multivariate logistic regression. Results With adjustment for employing trust, demographic characteristics, and previous frequency of sickness absence, risk relative to administrative/clerical occupations was highest in additional clinical services (a group that included care assistants) (OR 2.31), registered nursing and midwifery professionals ( OR 2.28 HGNC) and allied health professionals ( OR 1.94 HGNC), and intermediate in doctors and dentists ( OR 1.55 HGNC). Differences in risk were higher after the employing trust had started to care for documented Covid-19 MESHD patients, and were reduced, but not eliminated, following additional adjustment for exposure to infected MESHD patients or materials, assessed by a job-exposure matrix. For prolonged Covid-19 MESHD sickness absence (episodes lasting >14 days), the variation in risk by staff group was somewhat greater. Conclusions After allowance for possible bias and confounding by non-occupational exposures, we estimated that relative risks for Covid-19 MESHD among most patient-facing occupations were between 1.5 and 2.5. The highest risks were in those working in additional clinical services, nursing and midwifery and in allied health professions. Better protective measures for these staff groups should be a priority. Covid-19 MESHD may meet criteria for compensation as an occupational disease MESHD in some healthcare occupations.

    The second wave of COVID-19 MESHD incidence and deaths MESHD in Germany - driven by values, social status and migration background? A county-scale explainable machine learning approach

    Authors: Gabriele Doblhammer; Constantin Reinke; Daniel Kreft

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.14.21255474 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    There is a general consensus that SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD deaths MESHD have hit lower social groups the hardest, however, for Germany individual level information on socioeco-nomic characteristics of infections and deaths does not exist. The aim of this study was to identify the key features explaining SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD deaths during the upswing of the second wave in Germany. We considered information on COVID-19 MESHD diagnoses and deaths from 1. October to 15. De-cember 2021 on the county-level, differentiating five two-week time periods. We used 155 indicators to characterize counties in nine geographic, social, demographic, and health do-mains. For each period, we calculated directly age-standardized COVID-19 MESHD incidence and death MESHD rates on the county level. We trained gradient boosting models to predict the inci-dence and death rates with the 155 characteristics of the counties for each period. To ex-plore the importance and the direction of the correlation of the regional indicators we used the SHAP HGNC procedure. We categorized the top 20 associations identified by the Shapley values into twelve categories depicting the correlation between the feature and the outcome. We found that counties with low SES were important drivers in the second wave, as were those with high international migration and a high proportion of foreigners and a large nurs-ing home population. During the period of intense exponential increase in infections, the proportion of the population that voted for the Alternative for Germany (AfD) party in the last federal election was among the top characteristics correlated with high incidence and death MESHD rates. We concluded that risky working conditions with reduced opportunities for social distancing and a high chronic disease burden put populations in low-SES counties at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD deaths. In addition, noncompliance with Corona measures and spill-over effects from neighbouring counties increased the spread of the virus. To fur-ther substantiate this finding, we urgently need more data at the individual level.

    A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Mental Illness Symptoms in Spain in the COVID-19 MESHD Crisis

    Authors: Richard Z Chen; Stephen X. Zhang; Wen Xu; Allen Yin; Rebecca Kechen Dong; Bryan Z Chen; Andrew Delios; Roger S McIntyre; Saylor Miller; Xue Wan

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.11.21255274 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: This paper systematically reviews and assesses the prevalence of anxiety MESHD, depression MESHD, and insomnia symptoms MESHD in the general population, frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), and adult students in Spain during the COVID-19 MESHD crisis. Data sources: Articles in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and medRxiv from March 2020 to February 6, 2021. Results: The pooled prevalence of anxiety symptoms MESHD in 23 studies comprising a total sample of 85,560 was 20% (95% CI: 15% - 25%, I2 = 99.9%), that of depression symptoms MESHD in 23 articles with a total sample comprising of 86,469 individuals was 23% (95% CI: 18% - 28%, I2 = 99.8%), and that of insomnia symptoms MESHD in 4 articles with a total sample of 915 were 52% (95% CI: 42-64%, I2 = 88.9%). The overall prevalence of mental illness symptoms MESHD in frontline HCWs, general population, and students in Spain are 42%, 19%, and 50%, respectively. Discussion: The accumulative evidence from the meta-analysis reveals that adults in Spain suffered higher prevalence rates of mental illness symptoms MESHD during the COVID-19 MESHD crisis with a significantly higher rate relative to other countries such as China. Our synthesis reveals high heterogeneity, varying prevalence rates and a relative lack of studies in frontline and general HCWs in Spain, calling future research and interventions to pay attention to those gaps to help inform evidence-based mental health policymaking and practice in Spain during the continuing COVID-19 MESHD crisis. The high prevalence rates call for preventative and prioritization measures of the mental illness symptoms during the Covid-19 pandemic MESHD.

    Behavioral nudges increase COVID-19 MESHD vaccinations: Two randomized controlled trials

    Authors: Hengchen Dai; Silvia Saccardo; Maria A Han; Lily Roh; Naveen Raja; Sitaram Vangala; Hardikkumar Modi; Shital Pandya; Daniel M Croymans

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.12.21254876 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Fighting the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD requires quick and effective strategies to maximize vaccine uptake. We present two sequential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tackle this challenge with behavioral science insights. We deliver text-based nudges to UCLA Health patients one day (first RCT; N=113,229) and eight days (second RCT; N=90,662) after they receive notifications of vaccine eligibility. In the first RCT, text messages designed to make vaccination salient and easy to schedule boost appointment and vaccination rates by 86% and 26%, respectively. Nudges that make patients feel endowed with the vaccine heighten these effects, but addressing vaccine hesitancy via a video-based information intervention does not yield benefits beyond simple text. These results hold across ethnicity and age groups. By contrast, online experiments (N=2,003) soliciting hypothetical responses to the same messages reveal the opposite patterns, underscoring the importance of pilot-testing behavioral nudges in the real world before scaling them up. In the second RCT, we further find that receiving a second reminder boosts appointment and vaccination rates by 52% and 16%, respectively. Our findings suggest that text-based nudges can substantially increase and accelerate COVID-19 MESHD vaccinations at almost zero marginal cost, highlighting the promising role of behavioral science in addressing a critical component of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD response.

    Analysis on Action Tracking Reports of COVID-19 MESHD Informs Control Strategies and Vaccine Delivery in Post-Pandemic Era

    Authors: Xiaofei Sun; Tianjia Guan; Tao Xue; Chun Fan; Meng Yang; Yuxian Meng; Tianwei Zhang; Bahabaike Jiangtulu; Fei Wu; Jiwei Li

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.08.21254953 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Understanding the spread of SARS-CoV-2 provides important insights for control policies such as social-distancing interventions and vaccine delivery in the post-pandemic era HGNC. In this work, we take the advantage of action tracking reports of confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients, which contain details regarding the mobility trajectory of a patient, along with the people with whom the patient has interacted, the timing of diagnosis, and personal information (e.g., age and sex). We analyzed reports of 4,410 patients from April 2020 to February 2021 in China, a country where the residents are well-prepared for the "new normal" world following COVID-19 MESHD spread. We developed natural language processing ( NLP HGNC) tools to transform the unstructured text of action-tracking reports to a structured network of social contacts. A SEIR model was built on top of the network, and was able to capture important aspects regarding coronavirus transmissions such as location category, age, sex and socioeconomic status. Our analysis provides important insights for the development of control policies. Under the "new normal" conditions, we find that restaurants, locations less protected by mask-wearing, have a greater risk than any other location categories, including locations where people are present at higher densities (e.g., flight). We find that discouraging railway transports is crucial to avoid another wave of breakout during the Chunyun season (a period of travel in China with extremely high traffic load around the Chinese New Year). By formalizing the challenge of finding the optimal vaccine delivery among various different population groups (e.g., sex, age and socioeconomic groups) as an optimization problem, our analysis helps to maximize the efficiency of vaccine delivery under the general situation of vaccine supply shortage. We are able to reduce the numbers of infections and deaths by 7.4% and 10.5% respectively with vaccine supply for only 1% of the population. Furthermore, with 10% vaccination rate, the numbers of infections and deaths further decrease by 52.6% and 78.1% respectively. Our work will be helpful in the design of effective policies regarding interventions, reopening, contact tracing and vaccine delivery in the "new normal" world following COVID-19 MESHD spread.

    An Ecological Study to Investigate Links Between Atmospheric Pollutants From Farming and SARS-CoV-2 Mortality

    Authors: Paolo Contiero; Alessandro Borgini; Martina Bertoldi; Anna Abita; Giuseppe Cuffari; Paola Tomao; Maria Concetta Dovidio; Stefano Reale; Silvia Scibetta; Giovanna Tagliabue; Roberto Boffi; Vittorio Krogh; Fabio Tramuto; Carmelo Massimo Maida; Walter Mazzucco

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.12.21254610 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: medRxiv

    Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide has been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and death. We hypothesized that an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and exposure to farming-related atmospheric pollutants worsens the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on mortality. Our objective was investigate this hypothesis by performing an ecological study in five Italian Regions (Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Sicily) linking all-cause mortality, by province (administrative entities within regions), to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) mainly produced by agricultural activities. Study outcome was change in all-cause mortality during March-April 2020, compared to March-April 2015-2019 (period) as assessed by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) estimated using multivariate negative binomial regression models that adjusted for air temperature, humidity and population density. The MRR for the interaction of period with NH3 exposure, considering all pollutants together was 1.133, equivalent to a 13.3% increase in mortality over and above that due to period (proxy for COVID-19 MESHD mortality) for each ton/km2 increase in NH3 emissions. Although the study was ecological, and did not provide evidence of a causal link between SARS-CoV-2 and farming-related pollutants, in accord with the precautionary principle we recommend application of measures to limit NH3 exposure particularly while the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD continues.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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