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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    A systematic review on Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children ( MIS HGNC-C) with COVID-19 MESHD: Development of a scoring system for clinical diagnosis

    Authors: Dr.Suchitra Vishwambhar Surve; Ms. Shaini Joseph; Dr. Rahul K Gajbhiye; Smita D Mahale; Dr. Deepak N Modi

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.23.21255879 Date: 2021-04-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background There is growing evidence of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children ( MIS HGNC-C) resembling Kawasaki disease in children infected with SARS-CoV-2. The review was undertaken to evaluate the case definition, the spectrum of clinical presentations and current management practices in children with COVID-19 MESHD presenting with or without MIS HGNC-C. Methods The individual patient data from 119 studies accounting for 333 children were analyzed. We devised a scoring system as per WHO criteria to classify the patients as MIS HGNC-C or without MIS HGNC-C. A score of 3 was given for the presence of fever MESHD (>24h) and a score of 1 for lab-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, a score of 1 was given for a) rash MESHD or conjunctivitis MESHD or muco-cutaneous inflammation MESHD signs, b) hypotension MESHD or shock, c) diarrhea MESHD, vomiting MESHD or abdominal pain MESHD, d) features of myocardial dysfunction MESHD as determined by abnormal eco-cardiography or elevated Troponin or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), e) evidence of coagulopathy MESHD as evidenced by elevated levels of prothrombin time PT, partial thromboplastin time PTT or D-dimer, f) laboratory evidence of inflammation MESHD as determined by elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) or procalcitonin. A negative score of (-3) was given when there was a diagnosis of sepsis MESHD, staphylococcal or streptococcal shock syndrome MESHD. Based on these criteria, a minimum score of 6 was essential to classify the child as MIS HGNC-C. Results Based on this score, 18% (52/289) of cases were identified to be MIS HGNC-C. A greater proportion of children with MIS HGNC-C had cardiac involvement ( MIS HGNC-C 80% vs Non- MIS HGNC-C 20%) and gastrointestinal involvement MESHD ( MIS HGNC-C 71% vs Non- MIS HGNC-C 12%). Lymphopenia MESHD was commonly reported in MIS-C ( MIS HGNC-C 54.2% vs Non- MIS HGNC-C 29.7%). In addition to routine inflammatory markers, significamtly greater proportion of children with MIS-C had elevated Ferritin, LDH, Fibrinogen HGNC and IL-6 HGNC. Children with MIS HGNC-C were less likely to have respiratory symptoms like cough ( MIS HGNC-C 25% vs Non- MIS HGNC-C 75%) and rhinorrhea MESHD ( MIS HGNC-C 4% vs Non- MIS HGNC-C 22.8%). A greater proportion of children with MIS HGNC-C required intensive care and aggressive treatment; and mortality rates were also higher in MIS-C group ( MIS HGNC-C 10% vs Non- MIS HGNC-C 1%). Conclusion The children with COVID-19 MESHD having cardiac and/or gastrointestinal involvement MESHD are more likely to develop MIS HGNC-C. The children with MIS HGNC-C have higher mortality rates. The scoring system developed herein will aid clinicians in patient diagnosis and timely management.

    The Prognostic Value of Myocardial Injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD Patients and Associated Characteristics

    Authors: jian he; Bicheng Zhang; Quan Zhou; Wenjing Yang; Jing Xu; Tingting Liu; Haijun Zhang; Zhiyong Wu; Dong Li; Qing Zhou; Jie Yan; Cuizhen Zhang; Robert G. Weiss; Guanshu Liu; Zhongzhao Teng; Arlene Sirajuddin; Haiyan Qian; Shihua Zhao; Andrew E. Arai; Minjie Lu; Xiaoyang Zhou

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-251810/v1 Date: 2021-02-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has emerged as an international pandemic. COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury MESHD might need special attention. However, understanding on this aspect remains unclear. This study aimed to illustrate clinical characteristics and the prognostic value of myocardial injury MESHD to COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods: This retrospective, single-center study finally included 304 hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD cases confirmed by real-time RT-PCR from January 11 to March 25, 2020. Myocardial injury MESHD was determined by serum high-sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI). The primary endpoint was COVID-19 MESHD associated mortality. Results: Of 304 COVID-19 MESHD patients (median age, 65 years; 52.6% males), 88 patients (27.3%) died (61 patients with myocardial injury MESHD, 27 patients without myocardial injury MESHD on admission). COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury MESHD had more comorbidities ( hypertension MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and cerebrovascular disease MESHD); lower lymphocyte counts, higher C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC, median, 84.9 vs 28.5 mg/L, p<0.001), procalcitonin levels (median, 0.29 vs 0.06 ng/ml, p<0.001), inflammatory and immune response markers; more frequent need for noninvasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation; and was associated with higher mortality incidence (hazard ratio, HR=7.02, 95% confidence interval, CI, 4.45-11.08, p<0.001) than those without myocardial injury MESHD. Myocardial injury MESHD (HR=4.55, 95% CI, 2.49-8.31, p<0.001), senior age, CRP HGNC levels, and novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) types on admission were independent predictors to mortality in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusions: COVID patients with myocardial injury MESHD on admission is associated with more severe clinical presentation and biomarkers. Myocardial injury MESHD and higher HsTNI are both strongest independent predictors to COVID related mortality after adjusting confounding factors. In addition, senior age, CRP HGNC levels and NCP PROTEIN types are also associated with mortality. Trial registration: Not applicable.

    Central Contributions of Myocardial Injury to Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Hu Tan; Chuan Liu; Jie Yang; Yuanqi Yang; Yang Shen; Renzheng Chen; Xiaohan Ding; Xubin Gao; Jingbin Ke; Fangzhengyuan Yuan; Chunyan He; Qi Li; Mingdong Hu; Limin Zhang; Ping Li; Lan Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-99444/v1 Date: 2020-10-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: this study aimed to explore the impacts of myocardial injury MESHD on the clinical severity and outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD).Methods: we analyzed the electronic medical records of 1646 COVID-19 MESHD inpatients in Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital. Results: 327 (19.9%) developed into severe cases, 23 (1.4%) died. In comparison to common cases, severe cases showed older age, more comorbidities, abnormal immune responses, as well as liver, renal, cardiac and coagulation disorders MESHD. Multivariable logistic regression identified that older age , combining with arrhythmia MESHD, abnormal lymphocyte percentage, elevated hypersensitive C reactive protein HGNC (hs- CRP HGNC) and myocardial injury MESHD were the independent risk factors for the incidence of severe cases. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with myocardial injury MESHD had increasing risks of mortality, incidence of severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Particularly, myocardial injury MESHD patients co-existed with any other risk factor further deteriorated the clinical outcomes.Conclusion: The presence of myocardial injury MESHD and its co-existing with older age, arrhythmia MESHD, abnormal lymphocyte percentage, or elevated hs- CRP HGNC were greatly associated with the incidence of severe patients and poor clinical outcomes.

    Patient characteristics and predictors of mortality in 470 adults admitted to a district general hospital in England with Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Joseph V Thompson; Nevan Meghani; Bethan M Powell; Ian Newell; Roanna Craven; Gemma Skilton; Lydia J Bagg; Irha Yaqoob; Michael J Dixon; Eleanor J Evans; Belina Kambele; Asif Rehman; Georges Ng Man Kwong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20153650 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Understanding risk factors for death MESHD in Covid 19 is key to providing good quality clinical care. Due to a paucity of robust evidence, we sought to assess the presenting characteristics of patients with Covid 19 and investigate factors associated with death MESHD. Methods Retrospective analysis of adults admitted with Covid 19 to Royal Oldham Hospital, UK. Logistic regression modelling was utilised to explore factors predicting death. Results 470 patients were admitted, of whom 169 (36%) died. The median age was 71 years (IQR 57 to 82), and 255 (54.3%) were men. The most common comorbidities were hypertension MESHD (n=218, 46.4%), diabetes MESHD (n=143, 30.4%) and chronic neurological disease MESHD (n=123, 26.1%). The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury MESHD (n=157, 33.4%) and myocardial injury MESHD (n=21, 4.5%). Forty three (9.1%) patients required intubation and ventilation, and 39 (8.3%) received non-invasive ventilation Independent risk factors for death MESHD were increasing age (OR per 10 year increase above 40 years 1.87, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.27), hypertension MESHD (OR 1.72, 1.10 to 2.70), cancer MESHD (OR 2.20, 1.27 to 3.81), platelets <150x103/microlitre (OR 1.93, 1.13 to 3.30), C-reactive protein HGNC >100 micrograms/mL (OR 1.68, 1.05 to 2.68), >50% chest radiograph infiltrates, (OR 2.09, 1.16 to 3.77) and acute kidney injury MESHD (OR 2.60, 1.64 to 4.13). There was no independent association between death MESHD and gender, ethnicity, deprivation level, fever MESHD, SpO2/FiO2 (oxygen saturation index), lymphopenia MESHD or other comorbidities. Conclusions We characterised the first wave of patients with Covid 19 in one of Englands highest incidence areas, determining which factors predict death. These findings will inform clinical and shared decision making, including the use of respiratory support and therapeutic agents.

    Risk factors associated with failure of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Xiao-Huan Ma; Meng-Meng An; Fang Yin; Jie Zhang; Meng-Yun Peng; Hong Guan; Ping Gong

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41316/v2 Date: 2020-07-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure MESHD is prevalent in severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD). High-flow nasal canula oxygen therapy (HFNC) is currently one of the most common ventilation strategies for COVID-19 MESHD patients with respiratory failure MESHD. This study is to analyze the risk factors associated with HFNC failure MESHD in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD.Methods: In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled patients with confirmed severe COVID-19 MESHD admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan university (Wuhan, China) from 1 February 2020 to 26 March 26 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data, and treatments and outcomes upon hospital admission, were obtained from electronic medical records. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated.Results: Of 54 patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD, HFNC was successful in 28 (51.9%) and unsuccessful in 26 (48.1%). HFNC failure MESHD was seen more commonly in patients aged ≥60 years and in men. In addition, compared with patients successfully treated with HFNC, patients with HFNC failure MESHD had the following characteristics: higher percentage of fatigue MESHD and anorexia MESHD as well as cardiovascular disease MESHD; increased time from onset to diagnosis and SOFA scores; elevated body temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate; more complications including ARDS, septic shock MESHD, myocardial damage MESHD, and acute kidney injury MESHD; increased C-reactive protein HGNC, neutrophil counts and prothrombin time; and decreased arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) (all P < 0.05). However, binary logistic regression analysis showed that only male, PaO2/FiO2 and SOFA scores were independent risk factors significantly associated with HFNC failure MESHD (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD had a high HFNC treatment failure rate. Male, low PaO2/FiO2 and SOFA scores were independent risk factors associated with HFNC failure MESHD in severe COVID-19 MESHD patients. However, studies with larger sample sizes or multi-center studies are warranted. 

    Clinical Features of Hemodialysis (HD) patients confirmed with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): a Retrospective Case-Control Study

    Authors: Xiaohui Wang; Huan Zhou; Xiaofen Xiao; Xianhua Tan; Xin Zhang; Yong He; Jing Li; Guosheng Yang; Mingmei Li; Duan Liu; Shanshan Han; Haibo Kuang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147827 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD( COVID-19 MESHD) occurred in wuhan, China, and outbreaked rapidly into a global pandemic. This current poses great challenges to hemodialysis (HD) patients. Objective: To make a comprehensive evaluation and comparison between HD patients confirmed with COVID-19 MESHD and the general HD patients. Methods: HD patients confirmed with COVID-19 MESHD in Wuhan No.5 Hospital were admitted as confirmed group from Jan 10 to Mar 15, 2020. And HD patients not infected in our dialysis center were chosen as control group. General characteristics, laboratory indicators were retrospectively collected, analyzed and compared. Results: A total of 142 cases were admitted, including 43 cases in confirmed group and 99 in control group. Body mass index (BMI) was slightly lower in confirmed group than that in control group (P=0.011). The proportion of one or less underlying disease in confirmed group(51.16%) was higher than that in control group(14.14%)(P< 0.001), and the proportion of three or more underlying diseases in confirmed group(11.63%) was lower than that in control group(52.53%)(P< 0.001). Patients in confirmed group exhibited significantly lower hemoglobin, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte percentage, but higher neutrophil percentage, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase HGNC. There was no significant difference in age, gender, dialysis age, primary disease MESHD, the using of ACEI/ARB, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) , and other indicators between the two groups. Conclusions: Faced with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), HD patients with lower BMI and hemoglobin were more susceptible to be infected MESHD, which might be related to malnutrition. Once confirmed with COVID-19 MESHD, HD patients expressed obviously disregulated in inflammation MESHD and immune.

    Risk factors and electrocardiogram characteristics for mortality of critical inpatients with COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Lingzhi Li; Shudi Zhang; Bing He; Xiaobei Chen; Shihong Wang; Zhao Qingyan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33824/v1 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has subsequently spread worldwide. The number of death MESHD has increased rapidly. However, the possible risk factors that lead to death in critical inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) are not yet fully known. This study was to explore the risk factors for mortality of critical inpatients with COVID-19 MESHD.Methods In this single-centered, retrospective study, we enrolled 113 critical patients with COVID-19 MESHD in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between Feb 1, 2020 and Mar 15, 2020. Data were collected using a standard method including clinical records and laboratory findings. Outcomes of survivors and death were compared.Results A total of 113 critical patients (from 29 to 95 years) with COVID-19 MESHD were recruited, 50 (44.25%) died and 63 recovered (55.75%). The proportion of patients with ventricular arrhythmia MESHD was higher in the death group than the recovery group (24.0% vs 4.4%; p = 0.021), and was higher among myocardial damage MESHD cases than non-myocardial damage cases (26.1% vs 4.3%; p = 0.013). Multivariate analysis confirmed four independent predictors related to mortality of COVID-19 MESHD: age > 70 yrs (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.03–3.28), initial neutrophil count more than 6.5 × 109/L (HR 3.43, 95% CI 1.84–6.40), C-reactive protein HGNC greater more than 100 mg/L (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.04–3.59), and lactate dehydrogenase more than 300 U/L (HR 2.90, 95% CI 1.26–6.67). Immunoglobulin treatment (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21–0.73) can reduce the risk of death MESHD. There was no significant difference in the QT interval between patients with and without hydroxychloroquine treatment.Conclusions Old age (> 70 years), neutrophilia, C-reactive protein greater more than 100 mg/L and lactate dehydrogenase more than 300 U/L are high-risk factors for mortality of critical patients with COVID-19 MESHD. The incidence of ventricular arrhythmia MESHD was higher in deceased patients than survivors.

    Analysis of the Clinical Characteristics of 77 COVID-19 MESHD Deaths

    Authors: Kaige Wang; Zhixin Qiu; Dan Liu; Jianfei Luo; Jiasheng Liu; Tao Fan; Chunrong Liu; Panwen Tian; Ye Wang; Zhong Ni; Shumin Zhang; Weimin Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23960/v1 Date: 2020-04-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: For the emerging pandemic Coronavirus Disease MESHD Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), no clear description on its deaths’ clinical characteristics and causes of death MESHD is available. Hence, this study analyzed clinical characteristics of 77 COVID-19 MESHD deaths, providing data support to further understand this disease.Method: A retrospective analysis of 77 COVID-19 MESHD deaths in East Branch, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 1 to March 7, 2020 was performed in clinical characteristics, laboratory results, causes of death MESHD, and subgroup comparison. Results: Totally 72.7% of the deaths (male-female ratio: 51:26, average age at death: 71, mean survival time: 17.4 days) had hypertension MESHD, heart disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, chronic lung disease MESHD, and other comorbidities. Acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD) and sepsis MESHD were the main causes of death MESHD. Increases in C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and lactic acid (LAC), and decreases in lymphocyte, cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ and CD8+ cells were common in laboratory results. Subgroup analysis showed: 1) Most female deaths had cough MESHD and diabetes MESHD. 2) The male proportion in young and middle-aged deaths was higher; while elderly deaths were more prone to myocardial injury MESHD and elevated CRP. 3 HGNC) There was no statistical difference between short-term and non-short-term survival subgroups. 4) CRP HGNC and LDH increased and CD4+ and CD8+ cells decreased significantly in patients with hypertension MESHD.Conclusions: The majority of COVID-19 MESHD deaths are males, especially the elderly with underlying diseases. The main causes of death include ARDS MESHD and sepsis MESHD. Most female deaths have cough MESHD and diabetes MESHD. Myocardial injury MESHD is common in elderly deaths. Patients with hypertension MESHD are prone to increased inflammatory index, tissue hypoxia MESHD and cellular immune injury.Authors Kaige Wang and Zhixin Qiu contributed equally to this work.

    Acute Myocardial Injury of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD

    Authors: Huayan Xu; Keke Hou; Hong Xu; Zhenlin Li; Huizhu Chen; Na Zhang; Rong Xu; Hang Fu; Ran Sun; Lingyi Wen; Linjun Xie; Hui Liu; Kun Zhang; Joseph B Selvanayagam; Chuan Fu; Shihua Zhao; Zhigang Yang; Ming Yang; Yingkun Guo

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.05.20031591 Date: 2020-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Since the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in China, respiratory manifestations of the disease have been observed. However, as a fatal comorbidity, acute myocardial injury MESHD ( AMI MESHD) in COVID-19 MESHD patients has not been previously investigated in detail. We investigated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients with AMI MESHD and determined the risk factors for AMI MESHD in them. Methods: We analyzed data from 53 consecutive laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients (28 men, 25 women; age, 19-81 years). We collected information on epidemiological and demographic characteristics, clinical features, routine laboratory tests (including cardiac injury MESHD biomarkers), echocardiography, electrocardiography, imaging findings, management methods, and clinical outcomes. Results: Cardiac complications were found in 42 of the 53 (79.25%) patients: tachycardia MESHD (n=15), electrocardiography abnormities (n=11), diastolic dysfunction MESHD (n=20), elevated myocardial enzymes (n=30), and AMI MESHD (n=6). All the six AMI MESHD patients were aged >60 years; five of them had two or more underlying comorbidities ( hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) severity was higher in the AMI MESHD patients than in patients with non-definite AMI MESHD (p<0.001). All the AMI MESHD patients required care in intensive care unit; of them, three died, two remain hospitalized. Multivariate analyses showed that C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC) levels, NCP PROTEIN severity, and underlying comorbidities were the risk factors for cardiac abnormalities MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusions: Cardiac complications MESHD are common in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Elevated CRP HGNC levels, underlying comorbidities, and NCP PROTEIN severity are the main risk factors for cardiac complications in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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