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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    CD47 HGNC as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of severe COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Katie-May McLaughlin; Denisa Bojkova; Marco Bechtel; Joshua Kandler; Philipp Reus; Trang Le; Julian UG Wagner; Sandra Ciesek; Mark N Wass; Martin Michaelis; Jindrich N Cinatl Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.01.433404 Date: 2021-03-01 Source: bioRxiv

    The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. Most SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are mild or even asymptomatic. However, a small fraction of infected MESHD individuals develops severe, life-threatening disease, which is caused by an uncontrolled immune response resulting in hyperinflammation. Antiviral interventions are only effective prior to the onset of hyperinflammation. Hence, biomarkers are needed for the early identification and treatment of high-risk patients. Here, we show in a range of model systems and data from post mortem samples that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD results in increased levels of CD47 HGNC, which is known to mediate immune escape in cancer MESHD and virus-infected cells. Systematic literature searches also indicated that known risk factors such as older age and diabetes MESHD are associated with increased CD47 HGNC levels. High CD47 HGNC levels contribute to vascular disease MESHD, vasoconstriction, and hypertension MESHD, conditions which may predispose SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD individuals to COVID-19 MESHD-related complications such as pulmonary hypertension MESHD, lung fibrosis MESHD, myocardial injury MESHD, stroke MESHD, and acute kidney injury MESHD. Hence, CD47 HGNC is a candidate biomarker for severe COVID-19 MESHD. Further research will have to show whether CD47 HGNC is a reliable diagnostic marker for the early identification of COVID-19 MESHD patients requiring antiviral therapy.

    The Prognostic Value of Myocardial Injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD Patients and Associated Characteristics

    Authors: jian he; Bicheng Zhang; Quan Zhou; Wenjing Yang; Jing Xu; Tingting Liu; Haijun Zhang; Zhiyong Wu; Dong Li; Qing Zhou; Jie Yan; Cuizhen Zhang; Robert G. Weiss; Guanshu Liu; Zhongzhao Teng; Arlene Sirajuddin; Haiyan Qian; Shihua Zhao; Andrew E. Arai; Minjie Lu; Xiaoyang Zhou

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-251810/v1 Date: 2021-02-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Since December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has emerged as an international pandemic. COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury MESHD might need special attention. However, understanding on this aspect remains unclear. This study aimed to illustrate clinical characteristics and the prognostic value of myocardial injury MESHD to COVID-19 MESHD patients. Methods: This retrospective, single-center study finally included 304 hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD cases confirmed by real-time RT-PCR from January 11 to March 25, 2020. Myocardial injury MESHD was determined by serum high-sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI). The primary endpoint was COVID-19 MESHD associated mortality. Results: Of 304 COVID-19 MESHD patients (median age, 65 years; 52.6% males), 88 patients (27.3%) died (61 patients with myocardial injury MESHD, 27 patients without myocardial injury MESHD on admission). COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury MESHD had more comorbidities ( hypertension MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, and cerebrovascular disease MESHD); lower lymphocyte counts, higher C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC, median, 84.9 vs 28.5 mg/L, p<0.001), procalcitonin levels (median, 0.29 vs 0.06 ng/ml, p<0.001), inflammatory and immune response markers; more frequent need for noninvasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation; and was associated with higher mortality incidence (hazard ratio, HR=7.02, 95% confidence interval, CI, 4.45-11.08, p<0.001) than those without myocardial injury MESHD. Myocardial injury MESHD (HR=4.55, 95% CI, 2.49-8.31, p<0.001), senior age, CRP HGNC levels, and novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD ( NCP PROTEIN) types on admission were independent predictors to mortality in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusions: COVID patients with myocardial injury MESHD on admission is associated with more severe clinical presentation and biomarkers. Myocardial injury MESHD and higher HsTNI are both strongest independent predictors to COVID related mortality after adjusting confounding factors. In addition, senior age, CRP HGNC levels and NCP PROTEIN types are also associated with mortality. Trial registration: Not applicable.

    Clinical Characteristics of Severe COVID-19 MESHD in China: A Case Series and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Geling Teng; Hua Hu; Xia Wang; Junsheng Wang; Hongmei Zhang; Ying Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-186426/v1 Date: 2021-01-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: There have been inconsistent reports regarding the unique manifestations of severe coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) occurring in China. This study analyzed the clinical manifestation of 13 severe COVID-19 MESHD cases at a single institution and compared the data to previously reported characteristics of severe COVID-19 MESHD in China. Methods: This retrospective case study included patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD who were admitted to the isolation ward of the Shandong Chest Hospital from January 2020 to February 2020. The clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory examination results, imaging features, treatment strategies, and patient prognoses were summarized. A database search was then conducted for studies published through December 2020 documenting characteristics of severe COVID-19 MESHD cases in China. The pooled results for severe COVID-19 MESHD patients in China were calculated by using the random-effects model.Results: A total of 4 severe and 9 critical patients were included from Shandong Chest Hospital. The average patient age was 55.3 (range 23-88) years, and 61.5% of patients were male. Chest computed tomography for all patients showed multiple lesions as ground-glass shadows in both lungs. All patients presented bacterial infection MESHD and various degrees of liver and myocardial injury MESHD. The treatment strategies for patients included antibiotics, immunoglobulin, and glucocorticoids, and mechanical ventilation was used in all patients for respiratory failure MESHD. Two patients died, and 11 recovered. In the pooled data for severe COVID-19 MESHD patients, the most common comorbidities were hypertension MESHD, diabetes mellitus MESHD, and coronary heart disease MESHD. The common signs in these patients were fever MESHD, cough MESHD, fatigue MESHD, chest tightness MESHD, and a leukocyte count > 10. Conclusions: Older males with hypertension MESHD, diabetes mellitus MESHD, and coronary heart disease MESHD may be at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 MESHD. Patients should be assessed for concomitant bacterial infections MESHD. Cardiac and liver enzymes, fever MESHD, cough MESHD, fatigue MESHD, chest tightness MESHD, and leukocytosis MESHD should be monitored for signs of disease progression. 

    Clinical features of COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbid coronary heart disease MESHD

    Authors: Hang Yang; RUI GUO; Lincheng Yang; Ruitao Zhang; Yunpeng Ling; Qinggang Ge

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-129449/v1 Date: 2020-12-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In addition to the lungs, the coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) also affects multiple organs throughout the body. The relationship between COVID-19 MESHD infection and cardiovascular disease MESHD, and the mechanisms by which this disease causes damage to the cardiovascular system are unclear. Coronary heart disease MESHD ( CHD MESHD) is one of the common comorbidities of COVID-19 MESHD, but there is insufficient evidence for its clinical features and impact on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbid CHD MESHD and the possible risk factors for the occurrence of critical illness. Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted to analyze COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted to the Sino-French New City Campus of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, Hubei Province and treated by the Peking University National Medical Assistance Team between January 29 and March 10 HGNC, 2020. Patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid in nasopharyngeal swab specimens and who had comorbid CHD MESHD, were included in the study. Clinical data and laboratory test results of eligible patients were collected, and the factors associated with the occurrence of critical illness among these patients were evaluated. Results: A total of 205 patients were enrolled in this study, including 20 CHD MESHD patients and 185 non- CHD MESHD patients. The mean age was 66.7 years. Compared to non- CHD MESHD patients, more CHD MESHD patients had comorbid hypertension MESHD and diabetes MESHD (P < 0.05). In terms of laboratory tests, the CHD MESHD group did not differ significantly from the non- CHD MESHD group in blood routine, blood chemistry, and various inflammatory cytokines. More CHD MESHD patients experienced myocardial injury MESHD (25% vs 8.1% P < 0.031) and CHD MESHD patients were more likely to progress to critical illness MESHD (40% vs 16.8%P = 0.012). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of CHD MESHD, occurrence of myocardial injury MESHD, high white blood cell (WBC) count, low lymphocyte count, and elevated levels of Cr, ferritin, IL-2R HGNC, IL-8 HGNC at admission were factors associated with the occurrence of critical illness. Multivariate regression analysis found that a history of CHD MESHD(OR=3.529, 95% CI =1.032-12.075, P =0.044),high WBC count(OR=1.289, 95% CI =1.136-1.463, P<0.001) and low lymphocyte count(OR=0.215, 95% CI =0.075-0.616, P =0.004)were independent factors for the occurrence of critical illness among COVID-19 MESHD patients. Conclusion: COVID-19 MESHD patients with comorbid CHD MESHD commonly exhibited myocardial injury MESHD and were prone to developing critical illness. Among COVID-19 MESHD patients, a history of CHD MESHD,high WBC count and low lymphocyte count were independent risk factors for the occurrence of critical illness. Greater attention and vigilance are needed in this regard during clinical practice.

    Patient characteristics and predictors of mortality in 470 adults admitted to a district general hospital in England with Covid-19 MESHD

    Authors: Joseph V Thompson; Nevan Meghani; Bethan M Powell; Ian Newell; Roanna Craven; Gemma Skilton; Lydia J Bagg; Irha Yaqoob; Michael J Dixon; Eleanor J Evans; Belina Kambele; Asif Rehman; Georges Ng Man Kwong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20153650 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Understanding risk factors for death MESHD in Covid 19 is key to providing good quality clinical care. Due to a paucity of robust evidence, we sought to assess the presenting characteristics of patients with Covid 19 and investigate factors associated with death MESHD. Methods Retrospective analysis of adults admitted with Covid 19 to Royal Oldham Hospital, UK. Logistic regression modelling was utilised to explore factors predicting death. Results 470 patients were admitted, of whom 169 (36%) died. The median age was 71 years (IQR 57 to 82), and 255 (54.3%) were men. The most common comorbidities were hypertension MESHD (n=218, 46.4%), diabetes MESHD (n=143, 30.4%) and chronic neurological disease MESHD (n=123, 26.1%). The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury MESHD (n=157, 33.4%) and myocardial injury MESHD (n=21, 4.5%). Forty three (9.1%) patients required intubation and ventilation, and 39 (8.3%) received non-invasive ventilation Independent risk factors for death MESHD were increasing age (OR per 10 year increase above 40 years 1.87, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.27), hypertension MESHD (OR 1.72, 1.10 to 2.70), cancer MESHD (OR 2.20, 1.27 to 3.81), platelets <150x103/microlitre (OR 1.93, 1.13 to 3.30), C-reactive protein HGNC >100 micrograms/mL (OR 1.68, 1.05 to 2.68), >50% chest radiograph infiltrates, (OR 2.09, 1.16 to 3.77) and acute kidney injury MESHD (OR 2.60, 1.64 to 4.13). There was no independent association between death MESHD and gender, ethnicity, deprivation level, fever MESHD, SpO2/FiO2 (oxygen saturation index), lymphopenia MESHD or other comorbidities. Conclusions We characterised the first wave of patients with Covid 19 in one of Englands highest incidence areas, determining which factors predict death. These findings will inform clinical and shared decision making, including the use of respiratory support and therapeutic agents.

    Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Evolution of Patients Attended with COVID-19 MESHD in a National Reference Hospital from Lima, Peru

    Authors: Germán V. Valenzuela; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales; Roxana Mamani; Ricardo Ayala; Katherine Pérez; Cynthia Sarmiento; Jessica Calcino; Luis García; José Amado

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0237.v1 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) fatal outcomes have been associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. In new epidemic areas, such as Latin America, there is a lack of studies about this. Here, we evaluated those factors in a retrospective cohort of patients in a national reference hospital of Lima, Peru. Design. A retrospective cohort observational study was done. For this study, information was obtained from clinical records of the hospital for the cases that were laboratory-diagnosed and related, during March 6 HGNCth and April 30th, 2020. rRT-PCR was used for the detection of the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 following the protocol Charité, Berlin, Germany, from nasopharyngeal swabs at the National Institute of Health. Calculation of the odds ratio (OR) with the respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was done, also logistic regression for adjusted OR (multivariate) was done. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for all analyses. Results. One hundred six hospitalized patients were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 61.58 years (SD 16.81). Cardiovascular risk factors among them were hypertension MESHD (46.2%), diabetes MESHD (28.3%), and obesity MESHD (28.3%), among others. Fifty-six patients died (52.8%). Mortality associated factors at the multivariate analysis were arterial hypertension MESHD (OR=1.343, 95% 1.089-1.667), myocardial injury MESHD (OR=1.303, 95% 1.031-1.642), and mechanical ventilation (OR 1.262, 95% 1.034-1.665), as associated factors. Conclusion. As observed in other regions of the world, cardiovascular risk factors represent a significant and independent threat to be considered in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Further studies and interventions in Peru and Latin America are expected.

    Myocardial Injury at Early Stage and Its Association with Death Risk of Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: A Hospital-Based Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    Authors: Lin Fu; Xiu-Yong Li; Jun Fei; Ying Xiang; Hui-Xian Xiang; Meng-Die Li; Fang-Fang Liu; Ying Li; Hui Zhao; De-Xiang Xu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34902/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: There are growing evidence demonstrating that coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is companied by acute myocardial injury MESHD. However, the association of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury MESHD with death risk of COVID-19 MESHD is unclear.Methods: This prospective case-cohort study analyzed 355 COVID-19 MESHD patients from two hospitals in different regions. Clinical and demographic information were collected. Myocardial injury MESHD was evaluated and its prognosis was followed up. Results: Of 355 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 MESHD, 213 were mild, 90 severe and 52 critically ill MESHD patients. On admission, 220 (62.0%) patients were with myocardial injury MESHD. Myocardial injury MESHD was more popular in critically ill MESHD patients. Using multivariate logistic regression, male, older age and comorbidity with hypertension MESHD were three crucial independent risk factors predicting myocardial injury MESHD of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Among 220 COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury MESHD, 33 (15.0%) died on mean 10.9 day after hospitalization. Mortality was increased among COVID-19 MESHD patients with myocardial injury MESHD (15.0% vs 1.74%, RR=8.625, P<0.001). Follow-up study observed that at least one myocardial index of 21.3% patients remained abnormal 14 days after discharge. Conclusion: Myocardial injury MESHD at early stage elevates mortality of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Male elderly patients with hypertension MESHD are more vulnerable to myocardial injury MESHD. SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury MESHD has not completely recovered 14 days after discharge.

    THE LOW-HARM SCORE FOR PREDICTING MORTALITY IN PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH COVID-19 MESHD: A MULTICENTRIC VALIDATION STUDY

    Authors: Adrian Soto-Mota; Braulio A. Marfil Garza; Erick Martinez Rodriguez; Jose Omar Barreto Rodriguez; Alicia Estela Lopez Romo; Paolo Alberti Minutti; Juan Vicente Alejandre Loya; Felix Emmanuel Perez Talavera; Freddy Jose Avila-Cervera; Adriana Nohemi Velazquez Burciaga; Oscar Morado Aramburo; Luis Alberto Pina Olguin; Adrian Soto-Rodriguez; Andres Castaneda Prado; Patricio Santillan-Doherty; Juan O Galindo Galindo; Daniel Hernandez Gordillo; Juan Gutierrez Mejia

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.26.20111120 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT - Importance: Many COVID-19 MESHD prognostic factors for disease severity have been identified and many scores have already been proposed to predict death MESHD and other outcomes. However, hospitals in developing countries often cannot measure some of the variables that have been reported as useful. - Objective: To assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the novel LOW-HARM score ( Lymphopenia MESHD, Oxygen saturation, White blood cells, Hypertension MESHD, Age, Renal injury MESHD, and Myocardial injury MESHD). - Design: Demographic and clinical data from patients with known clinical outcomes ( death MESHD or discharge) was obtained. Patients were grouped according to their outcome. The LOW-HARM score was calculated for each patient and its distribution, potential cut-off values and demographic data were compared. - Setting: Thirteen hospitals in ten different cities in Mexico. - Participants: Data from 438 patients was collected. A total of 400 (200 per group) was included in the analysis. - Exposure: All patients had an infection with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by PCR. - Main Outcome: The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of different cut-offs of the LOW-HARM score to predict death. - Results: Mean scores at admission and their distributions were significantly lower in patients who were discharged compared to those who died during their hospitalization 10 (SD: 17) vs 71 (SD: 27). The overall AUC of the model was 95%. A cut-off > 65 points had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 96%. More than a third of the cases (34%) in the sample had a LOW-HARM score > 65 points. - Conclusions and relevance: The LOW-HARM score measured at admission is highly specific and useful for predicting mortality. It is easy to calculate and can be updated with individual clinical progression. The proposed cut-off can assist the decision-making process in more than a third of the hospital admissions.

    Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease in United States Population at High Risk for Severe COVID-19 MESHD Infection

    Authors: Adnan I Qureshi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20089714 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Purpose There is increasing recognition of a relatively high burden of pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD in Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID 19) infected MESHD patients. We determined the burden of pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD in persons residing in United States (US) who are at risk for severe COVID-19 MESHD infection. Methods Age (60 years or greater), presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, mellitus MESHD, hypertension MESHD, and/or malignancy were used to identify persons at risk for admission to intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation, or death MESHD with COVID-19 MESHD infection. Persons were classified as low risk (no risk factors), moderate risk (1 risk factor), and high risk (two or more risk factors present) using nationally representative sample of US adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017 and 2018 survey. Results Among a total of 5856 participants, 2386 (40.7%) were considered low risk, 1325 (22.6%) moderate risk, and 2145 persons (36.6%) as high risk for severe COVID-19 MESHD infection. The proportion of patients who had pre-existing stroke MESHD increased from 0.6% to 10.5% in low risk patients to high risk patients (odds ratio [OR]19.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]11.6-34.3). The proportion of who had pre-existing myocardial infection MESHD ( MI MESHD) increased from 0.4% to 10.4% in low risk patients to high risk patients (OR 30.6, 95% CI 15.7-59.8). Conclusions A large proportion of persons in US who are at risk for developing severe COVID 19 infection are expected to have pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD. Further studies need to identify whether targeted strategies towards cardiovascular diseases MESHD can reduce the mortality in COVID-19 MESHD infected MESHD patients.

    Favorable outcomes of elderly COVID-19 MESHD patients in Guangzhou, China: a retrospective, observational study

    Authors: Gang Xu; Jun Zhao; Fuchun Zhang; Feng Liu; Congrui Feng; Yudong Hu; Yuluo Chen; Liuqian Wang; Yuwei Tong; Yueping Li; Haiyan Shi; Wei Ma

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26511/v1 Date: 2020-05-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To clarify the outcomes of elderly patients with COVID-19 MESHD.Methods: All 265 confirmed adult patients with COVID-19 MESHD were included in this retrospective study, 43 (16.2%) of whom were 65 years and older. Electronic medical records of the subjects were reviewed to obtain information on clinical characteristics and outcomes. The allocations of medical resource were also recorded.Results: Only one death case occurred in the elderly. The mortality of elderly patients was no higher than that of young patients (2.3% vs. 0%, P = 0.126). The cure rate was 95.3% in elderly patients and 99.5% in young patients (P = 0.067), and the duration of hospitalization is 27 days in elderly patients and 18 days in young patients (P = 0.001). The elderly suffered from more comorbidities (67.4% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.001), most of which is hypertension MESHD. Significantly more severe cases occurred in elderly patients compared with young patients (37.2% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.004). The elderly were more likely to present with complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD, acute myocardial injury MESHD, septic shock MESHD and acute kidney injury MESHD (all P < 0.05), respectively. No medical staffs were infected during the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD.Conclusion: The cure rate and the mortality of the elderly seemed to be no worse than that of the young, though the elderly were with longer hospitalization. Elderly patients with COVID-19 MESHD could be treatable if handled properly. More severe cases and complications in elderly patients should prompt for more complex treatment and special considerations.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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