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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (52)

ComplexRdRp (52)

NSP5 (18)

NSP3 (15)

ORF3a (8)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    A Combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Possibly Blocks the Viral Entry and Modulate the Innate Immune Response in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Dharmendra Kumar Maurya

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12630539.v1 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: ChemRxiv

    The current outbreak of the corona virus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD), has affected almost entire world and become pandemic now. Currently, there is neither any FDA approved drugs nor any vaccines available to control it. Very recently in Bangladesh, a group of doctors reported astounding success in treating patients suffering from COVID-19 MESHD with two commonly used drugs, Ivermectin and Doxycycline. In the current study we have explored the possible mechanism by which these drugs might have worked for the positive response in the COVID-19 MESHD patients. To explore the mechanism we have used molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation approach. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and doxycycline were evaluated against Main Protease PROTEIN ( Mpro PROTEIN), Spike (S) protein PROTEIN, Nucleocapsid (N PROTEIN), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN, NSP12 PROTEIN), ADP Ribose Phosphatase ( NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN), Endoribonuclease ( NSP15 PROTEIN) and methyltransferase ( NSP10 PROTEIN- NSP16 PROTEIN complex) of SARS-CoV-2 as well as human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) receptor. Our study shows that both Ivermectin and doxycycline have significantly bind with SARS-CoV-2 proteins but Ivermectin was better binding than doxycycline. Ivermectin showed a perfect binding site to the Spike-RBD and ACE2 HGNC interacting region indicating that it might be interfering in the interaction of spike with ACE2 HGNC and preventing the viral entry in to the host cells. Ivermectin also exhibited significant binding affinity with different SARS-CoV-2 structural and non-structural proteins (NSPs) which have diverse functions in virus life cycle. Significant binding of Ivermectin with RdRp PROTEIN indicate its role in the inhibition of the viral replication and ultimately impeding the multiplication of the virus. Ivermectin also possess significant binding affinity with NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP10 PROTEIN, NSP15 PROTEIN and NSP16 PROTEIN which helps virus in escaping from host immune system. Molecular dynamics simulation study shows that binding of the Ivermectin with Mpro PROTEIN, Spike, NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP16 PROTEIN and ACE2 HGNC was quiet stable. Thus, our docking and simulation studies reveal that combination of Ivermectin and doxycycline might be executing the effect by inhibition of viral entry and enhance viral load clearance by targeting various viral functional proteins.

    Genomic diversity and hotspot mutations in 30,983 SARS-CoV-2 genomes: moving toward a universal vaccine for the "confined virus"?

    Authors: Tarek Alouane; Meriem Laamarti; Abdelomunim Essabbar; Mohammed Hakmi; El Mehdi Bouricha; M.W. Chemao-Elfihri; Souad Kartti; Nasma Boumajdi; Houda Bendani; Rokia Laamarti; Fatima Ghrifi; Loubna Allam; Tarik Aanniz; Mouna Ouadghiri; Naima El Hafidi; Rachid El Jaoudi; Houda Benrahma; Jalil El Attar; Rachid Mentag; Laila Sbabou; Chakib Nejjari; Saaid Amzazi; Lahcen Belyamani; Azeddine Ibrahimi

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.20.163188 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic has been ongoing since its onset in late November 2019 in Wuhan, China. Understanding and monitoring the genetic evolution of the virus, its geographical characteristics, and its stability are particularly important for controlling the spread of the disease and especially for the development of a universal vaccine covering all circulating strains. From this perspective, we analyzed 30,983 complete SARS-CoV-2 genomes from 79 countries located in the six continents and collected from December 24, 2019, to May 13, 2020, according to the GISAID database. Our analysis revealed the presence of 3,206 variant sites, with a uniform distribution of mutation types in different geographic areas. Remarkably, a low frequency of recurrent mutations has been observed; only 169 mutations (5.27%) had a prevalence greater than 1% of genomes. Nevertheless, fourteen non-synonymous hotspot mutations (> 10%) have been identified at different locations along the viral genome; eight in ORF1ab PROTEIN polyprotein (in nsp2 HGNC, nsp3 HGNC, transmembrane domain, RdRp PROTEIN, helicase, exonuclease, and endoribonuclease), three in nucleocapsid protein PROTEIN and one in each of three proteins: spike PROTEIN, ORF3a PROTEIN, and ORF8 PROTEIN. Moreover, 36 non-synonymous mutations were identified in the RBD of the spike protein PROTEIN with a low prevalence (<1%) across all genomes, of which only four could potentially enhance the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein to the human ACE2 HGNC receptor. These results along with mutational frequency dissimilarity and intra-genomic divergence of SARS-CoV-2 could indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 is not yet adapted to its host. Unlike the influenza virus or HIV viruses, the low mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 makes the development of an effective global vaccine very likely.

    An In-Silico Study on Selected Organosulfur Compounds as Potential Drugs for SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD via Binding Multiple Drug Targets

    Authors: Liya Thurakkal; Satyam Singh; Sushabhan Sadhukhan; Mintu Porel

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12505343.v1 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: ChemRxiv

    The emerging paradigm shift from ‘one molecule, one target, for one disease’ towards ‘multi-targeted small molecules’ has paved an ingenious pathway in drug discovery in recent years. This idea has been extracted for the investigation of competent drug molecules for the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic MESHD COVID-19 pandemic MESHD which became the greatest global health crisis now. Perceiving the importance of organosulfur compounds against SARS-CoV-2 from the drugs under clinical trials, a class of organosulfur compounds effective against SARS-CoV were selected and studied the interaction with multiple proteins of the SARS-CoV-2. One compound displayed inhibition against five proteins (both structural and non-structural) of the virus namely, main protease PROTEIN, papain-like protease PROTEIN, spike protein PROTEIN, helicase HGNC and RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN. Consequently, this compound emanates as a potential candidate for treating the virulent disease. The pharmacokinetics, ADMET properties and target prediction studies carried out in this work further inflamed the versatility of the compound and urge to execute in-vitro and in-vivo analysis on SARS-CoV-2 in the future.

    Searching for target-specific and multi-targeting organics for Covid-19 MESHD in the Drugbank database with a double scoring approach

    Authors: Murugan Natarajan Arul; Sanjiv Kumar; Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan; Vaibhav Srivastav

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36233/v1 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    The current outbreak of Covid-19 MESHD infection due to SARS-CoV-2, a virus from the coronavirus family, has become a major threat to human healthcare. The virus has already infected more than 5 M people and the number of deaths MESHD reported has reached more than 330 K which may be attributed to lack of medicine. The traditional drug discovery approach involves many years of rigorous research and development and demands for a huge investment which cannot be adopted for the ongoing pandemic infection MESHD. Rather we need a swift and cost-effective approach to inhibit and control the viral infection. With the help of computational screening approaches and by choosing appropriate chemical space, it is possible to identify lead drug-like compounds for Covid-19 MESHD. In this study, we have used the Drugbank database to screen compounds against the most important viral targets namely 3C-like protease ( 3CLpro PROTEIN), papain-like protease PROTEIN ( PLpro PROTEIN), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN) and the spike (S) protein PROTEIN. These targets play a major role in the replication/transcription and host cell recognition, therefore, are vital for the viral reproduction and spread of infection. As the structure based computational screening approaches are more reliable, we used the crystal structures for 3C-like main protease PROTEIN and spike protein PROTEIN. For the remaining targets, we used the structures based on homology modeling. Further, we employed two scoring methods based on binding free energies implemented in AutoDock Vina and molecular mechanics - Generalized Born surface area approach. Based on these results, we propose drug cocktails active against the three viral targets namely 3CL-pro, PLpro PROTEIN and RdRp PROTEIN. Interestingly, one of the identified compounds in this study i.e. Baloxavir marboxil has been under clinical trial for the treatment of Covid-19 MESHD infection. In addition, we identified a few compounds such as phthalocyanine, Tadalafil, Lonafarnib, Nilotinib, Dihydroergotamine, R-428 which can bind to all three targets simultaneously and can serve as multi-targeting drugs. Our study also included calculation of binding energies for various compounds currently under drug trials. Among these compounds, it is found that Remdesivir binds to targets, 3CLpro PROTEIN and RdRp PROTEIN with high binding affinity. Moreover, Baricitinib and Umifenovir were found to have superior target-specific binding while Darunavir is found to be a potential multi-targeting drug. As far as we know this is the first study where the compounds from the Drug-bank database are screened against four vital targets of SARS-CoV-2 and illustrates that the computational screening using a double scoring approach can yield potential drug-like compounds against Covid-19 MESHD infection.

    Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Genomes from Southern California Reveals Community Transmission Pathways in the Early Stage of the US COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Wenjuan Zhang; Jean Paul Govindavari; Brian Davis; Stephanie C Chen; Jong Taek Kim; Jianbo Song; Jean Lopategui; Jasmine T Plummer; Eric Vail

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.12.20129999 Date: 2020-06-13 Source: medRxiv

    Given the higher mortality rate and widespread phenomenon of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS CoV-2) within the United States (US) population, understanding the mutational pattern of SARS CoV-2 MESHD has global implications for detection and therapy to prevent further escalation. Los Angeles has become an epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the US. Efforts to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 require identifying its genetic and geographic variation and understanding the drivers of these differences. For the first time, we report genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 genome isolates in the Los Angeles population using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS). Samples collected at Cedars Sinai Medical Center were collected from patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. We identified and diagnosed 192 patients by our in-house qPCR assay. In this population, the highest frequency variants were in known mutations in the 5'UTR, AA193 protein, RdRp PROTEIN and the spike glycoprotein PROTEIN. SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the local community was tracked by integrating mutation data with patient postal codes with two predominant community spread clusters being identified. Notably, significant viral genomic diversity was identified. Less than 10 percent of the Los Angeles community samples resembled published mutational profiles of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from China, while >50 percent of the isolates shared closely similarities to those from New York State. Based on these findings we conclude SARS-CoV-2 was likely introduced into the Los Angeles community predominantly from New York State but also via multiple other independent transmission routes including but not limited to Washington State and China.

    Comparative Docking Studies on Curcumin with COVID-19 MESHD Proteins

    Authors: Renuka Suravajhala; Abhinav Parashar; Babita Malik; Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj; Govindarajan Padmanaban; PB Kavi Kishor; Rathnagiri Polavarapu; Prashanth Suravajhala

    id:10.20944/preprints202005.0439.v3 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: Preprints.org

    Corona virus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) is caused by a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is a positive strand RNA virus. The SARS-CoV-2 genome and its association to SAR-CoV-1 vary from ca. 66% to 96% depending on the type of betacoronavirdeae family members. With several drugs, viz. chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, artemisinin, remdesivir, azithromycin considered for clinical trials, there has been an inherent need to find distinctive antiviral mechanisms of these drugs. Curcumin, a natural bioactive molecule has been shown to have a therapeutic potential for various diseases, but its effect on COVID-19 MESHD has not been explored. In this study, we show the binding potential of curcumin targeted to a variety of SARS-CoV-2 proteins MESHD, viz. spike glycoproteins PROTEIN (PDB ID: 6VYB), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYO), membrane glycoprotein PROTEIN (PDB ID: 6M17) along with nsp10 (PDB ID: 6W4H) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN (PDB ID: 6M71) structures. Our results indicate that curcumin has high binding affinity towards nucleocapsid and nsp 10 proteins with potential antiviral activity.

    Temporal evolution and adaptation of SARS-COV 2 codon usage

    Authors: Maddalena Dilucca; Sergio Forcelloni; Andrea Giansanti; Alexandros Georgakilas; Athanasia Pavlopoulou

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.29.123976 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: bioRxiv

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an unprecedented pandemic. Since the first sequenced whole-genome of SARS-CoV-2 on January 2020, the identification of its genetic variants has become crucial in tracking and evaluating their spread across the globe. In this study, we compared 15,259 SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from 60 countries since the outbreak of this novel coronavirus with the first sequenced genome in Wuhan to quantify the evolutionary divergence of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we compared the codon usage patterns, every two weeks, of 13 of SARS-CoV-2 genes encoding for the membrane protein (M PROTEIN), envelope (E), spike surface glycoprotein (S PROTEIN), nucleoprotein (N PROTEIN), non-structural 3C-like proteinase ( 3CLpro PROTEIN), ssRNA-binding protein ( RBP HGNC), 2-O-ribose methyltransferase (OMT), endoRNase (RNase), helicase HGNC, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN), Nsp7, Nsp8, and exonuclease ExoN. As a general rule, we find that SARS-CoV-2 genome tends to diverge over time by accumulating mutations on its genome and, specifically, on the coding sequences for proteins N PROTEIN and S. Interestingly, different patterns of codon usage were observed among these genes. Genes S, Nsp7, NSp8, tend to use a norrower set of synonymous codons that are better optimized to the human host. Conversely, genes E PROTEIN and M consistently use a broader set of synonymous codons, which does not vary with respect to the reference genome. We identified key SARS-CoV-2 genes (S, N, ExoN, RNase, RdRp PROTEIN, Nsp7 and Nsp8) suggested to be causally implicated in the virus adaptation to the human host.

    Shortlisting Phytochemicals Exhibiting Inhibitory Activity against Major Proteins of SARS-CoV-2 through Virtual Screening

    Authors: Saranya Nallusamy; Jayakanthan Mannu; Caroline Ravikumar; Kandavelmani Angamuthu; Bharathi Nathan; Kumaravadivel Nachimuthu; Gnanam Ramasamy; Raveendran Muthurajan; Mohankumar Subbarayalu; Kumar Neelakandan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31834/v1 Date: 2020-05-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) declared as a pandemic by WHO that has affected more than 40 lakh peoples and caused death MESHD of more than 2 lakh individuals across the globe. Limited availability of genomic information of SARS-CoV-2 and non-availability of vaccines and effective drugs are major problems responsible for the ineffective control and management of this pandemic. Several attempts have been made to explore repurposing existing drugs known for their anti-viral activities, and test the traditional herbal medicines known for their health benefiting and immune boosting activity against SARS-CoV-2.In this study, efforts were made to examine the potential of 721 phytochemicals of 37 plant species in inhibiting major protein targets namely, spike glycoprotein PROTEIN, main protease PROTEIN (MPro), NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, NSP9 PROTEIN, NSP15 PROTEIN, NSP10 PROTEIN- NSP16 PROTEIN and RNA dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN of SARS-CoV-2 through virtual screening approach. Results of our experiments revealed that SARS-CoV-2 MPro shared significant dissimilarities against SARS-CoVMPro and MERS-CoVMPro indicating the need for discovering novel drugs. This study has identified the phytochemical cyanin (Zingiber officinale) exhibiting broad spectrum inhibitory activity against main proteases PROTEIN of all the three Coronaviruses. Amentoflavone, agathisflavone, catechin-7-o-gallate and chlorogeninwere shown to exhibit multi target inhibitory activity. This study has identified Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Vitex negundo, Solanum nigrum, Pedalium murex, Terminalia chebula, Azadirachta indica, Cissus quadrangularis, Clerodendrum serratum and Ocimum basilicum as potential sources of phytochemicals combating n COVID-19 MESHD. More interestingly, this study has generated evidences for the anti-viral properties of the traditional herbal formulation “Kabasura kudineer” recommended by AYUSH, a unit of Government of India. Testing of short listed phytochemicals through clinical trials will help in developing effective formulation for management of this pandemic disease. Genomic analysis of identified herbal plants will help in unravelling molecular complexity of therapeutic and anti-viral properties and will pave way for designing synthetic drugs. 

    In silico Proteome analysis of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

    Authors: Chittaranjan Baruah; Papari Devi; Dhirendra K Sharma

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.104919 Date: 2020-05-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus. The virus is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) and is contagious through human-to-human transmission. The present study reports sequence analysis, complete coordinate tertiary structure prediction and in silico sequence-based and structure-based functional characterization of full SARS-CoV-2 proteome based on the NCBI reference sequence NC_045512 (29903 bp ss-RNA) which is identical to GenBank entry MN908947 and MT415321. The proteome includes 12 major proteins namely orf1ab polyprotein (includes 15 proteins), surface glycoprotein, ORF3a PROTEIN protein, envelope PROTEIN envelope protein HGNC, membrane glycoprotein PROTEIN, ORF6 PROTEIN protein, ORF7a PROTEIN protein, orf7b, ORF8 PROTEIN, Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein and ORF10 PROTEIN protein. Each protein of orf1ab polyprotein group has been studied separately. A total of 25 polypeptides have been analyzed out of which 15 proteins are not yet having experimental structures and only 10 are having experimental structures with known PDB IDs MESHD. Out of 15 newly predicted structures six (6) were predicted using comparative modeling and nine (09) proteins having no significant similarity with so far available PDB structures were modeled using ab-initio modeling. Structure verification using recent tools QMEANDisCo 4.0.0 and ProQ3 for global and local (per-residue) quality estimates indicate that the all-atom model of tertiary structure of high quality and may be useful for structure-based drug designing targets. The study has identified nine major targets ( spike protein PROTEIN, envelop protein, membrane protein, nucleocapsid PROTEIN protein, 2-O-ribose methyltransferase, endoRNAse, 3-to-5 exonuclease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN and helicase HGNC) for which drug design targets could be considered. There are other 16 nonstructural proteins PROTEIN (NSPs), which may also be percieved from the drug design angle. The protein structures have been deposited to ModelArchive. Tunnel analysis revealed the presence of large number of tunnels in NSP3 HGNC NSP3 PROTEIN, ORF 6 protein and membrane glycoprotein PROTEIN indicating a large number of transport pathways for small ligands influencing their reactivity.

    Virtual Screening of Plant Metabolites against Main protease PROTEIN, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN and Spike protein PROTEIN of SARS-CoV-2: Therapeutics option of COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Md Sorwer Alam Parvez; Kazi Faizul Azim; Abdus Shukur Imran; Topu Raihan; Aklima Begum; Tasfia Saiyara Shammi; Sabbir Howlader; Farhana Rumzum Bhuiyan; Mahmudul Hasan

    id:2005.11254v1 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: arXiv

    Covid-19 MESHD, a serious respiratory complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the global threat to human healthcare system. The present study evaluated the possibility of plant originated approved 117 therapeutics against the main protease PROTEIN protein (MPP), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PROTEIN ( RdRp PROTEIN) and spike protein (S PROTEIN) of SARS-CoV-2 including drug surface analysis by using molecular docking through drug repurposing approaches. The molecular interaction study revealed that Rifampin (-16.3 kcal/mol) were topmost inhibitor of MPP where Azobechalcone were found most potent plant therapeutics for blocking the RdRp PROTEIN (-15.9 kcal /mol) and S (-14.4 kcal/mol) protein of SARS-CoV-2. After the comparative analysis of all docking results, Azobechalcone, Rifampin, Isolophirachalcone, Tetrandrine and Fangchinoline were exhibited as the most potential inhibitory plant compounds for targeting the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2. However, amino acid positions; H41, C145, and M165 of MPP played crucial roles for the drug surface interaction where F368, L371, L372, A375, W509, L514, Y515 were pivotal for RdRP PROTEIN. In addition, the drug interaction surface of S proteins PROTEIN also showed similar patterns with all of its maximum inhibitors. ADME analysis also strengthened the possibility of screened plant therapeutics as the potent drug candidates against SARS-C with the highest drug friendliness.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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