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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (6)

NSP3 (1)

ComplexRdRp (1)

ORF7a (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Plasmodium infection induces cross-reactive antibodies to carbohydrate epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD protein

    Authors: Sarah Lapidus; Feimei Liu; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; Yile Dai; John D. Huck; Carolina Lucas; Jon Klein; Renata B. Filler; Madison S. Strine; Mouhamad Sy; Awa B. Deme; Aida S. Badiane; Baba Dieye; Ibrahima Mbaye Ndiaye; Younous Diedhiou; Amadou Moctar Mbaye; Cheikh Tidiane Diagne; Inés Vigan-Womas; Alassane Mbengue; Bacary D. Sadio; Moussa M. Diagne; Adam J. Moore; Khadidiatou Mangou; Fatoumata Diallo; Seynabou D. Sene; Mariama N. Pouye; Rokhaya Faye; Babacar Diouf; Nivison Nery Jr; Federico Costa; Mitermayer Reis; M. Catherine Muenker; Daniel Z. Hodson; Yannick Mbarga; Ben Z. Katz; Jason R. Andrews; Melissa Campbell; Ariktha Srivathsan; Kathy Kamath; Elisabeth Baum-Jones; Ousmane Faye; Amadou Alpha Sall; Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Michael Cappello; Michael Wilson; Choukri Ben-Mamoun; Fabrice A. Somé; Roch K. Dabiré; Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko; Jean Bosco Ouédraogo; Yap Boum II; John Shon; Daouda Ndiaye; Adam Wisnewski; Sunil Parikh; Akiko Iwasaki; Craig B. Wilen; Albert I. Ko; Aaron M. Ring; Amy K. Bei

    doi:10.1101/2021.05.10.21256855 Date: 2021-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    Individuals with acute malaria infection MESHD generated high levels of antibodies that cross-react with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN protein. Cross-reactive antibodies specifically recognized the sialic acid moiety on N-linked glycans of the Spike protein PROTEIN and do not neutralize in vitro SARS-CoV-2. Sero-surveillance is critical for monitoring and projecting disease burden and risk during the pandemic; however, routine use of Spike protein PROTEIN-based assays may overestimate SARS-CoV-2 exposure and population-level immunity in malaria MESHD-endemic countries.

    Sequencing SARS-CoV-2 in a malaria MESHD research laboratory in Mali, West Africa: the road to sequencing the first SARS-CoV-2 genome in Mali

    Authors: Antoine Dara; Amadou Daou; Abdoul Karim Sangare; Djibril Kassogue; Charles Dara; Abdoulaye Djimde

    doi:10.1101/2021.05.05.442742 Date: 2021-05-05 Source: bioRxiv

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become a necessary tool for genomic epidemiology. Even though the utility of genomics in human health has been proved, the genomic surveillance has never been so important until the COVID 19 pandemic. This has been evidenced with the detection of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 in the United Kingdom, South Africa and Brazil recently using genomic surveillance. Until recently, Malian scientists did not have access to any local NGS platform and samples had to be shipped abroad for sequencing. Here, we report on how we adapted a laboratory setup for Plasmodium research to generate the first complete SARS-CoV-2 genome locally. Total RNA underwent a library preparation using an Illumina TruSeq stranded RNA kit. A metagenomics sequencing was performed on an Illumina MiSeq platform following by bioinformatic analyses on a local server in Mali. We recovered a full genome of SARS-CoV-2 of 29 kb with an average depth coverage of 200x. We have demonstrated our capability of generating a high quality genome with limited resources and highlight the need to develop genomics capacity locally to solve health problems. We discuss challenges related to access to reagents during a pandemic period and propose some home-made solutions.

    Relative burdens of the COVID-19 MESHD, malaria MESHD, tuberculosis MESHD and HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa in 2020

    Authors: DAVID BELL; Kristian Schultz Hansen

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.27.21254483 Date: 2021-03-29 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: While the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD has had considerable global impact, recorded mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has been relatively low. Ensuring the public health response creates overall benefit is therefore critical. However, the highly age-dependent nature of COVID-19 MESHD mortality makes comparisons of disease burden challenging unless considered in terms of metrics that incorporate life years lost and time lived in adverse health. We therefore assessed the relative disease burdens of COVID-19 MESHD and the three major epidemic-causing pathogens; malaria MESHD, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS MESHD, in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: We compared estimates of 2020 disease burdens in sub-Saharan African populations in terms of mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years lost (DALYs) for COVID-19 MESHD, malaria MESHD, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS MESHD, applying known age-related mortality to UN estimates of sub-Saharan population age structure. We further compared exacerbations of these diseases predicted to occur through the COVID-19 MESHD public health response. Data was derived from public sources, predicted disease exacerbations from those published by international agencies. Main outcome measures: Mortality and DALYs lost Results: For sub-Saharan African populations north of South Africa, recorded COVID-19 MESHD DALYs lost in 2020 was 2.0%, 1.2% and 1.3% of those estimated for tuberculosis MESHD, HIV/ AIDS MESHD and malaria MESHD respectively. The predicted exacerbations alone of each of these comparator diseases were greater than the estimated COVID-19 MESHD burden. Including South Africa and Lesotho, COVID-19 MESHD DALYs lost were [≤]6% of each of these predicted disease burdens and dominated by them in all age groups below 70 years. Conclusions: The analysis here suggests a relatively low impact from COVID-19 MESHD. While all four epidemics continue, concentration on COVID-19 MESHD runs a high risk of increasing the overall health burden, further increasing global inequities in health and life expectancy, and needs to be guided by clear economic evaluation.

    Biomedical Research During the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD: Success in Sars-Cov-2 and Other Infectious Diseases

    Authors: Nuno S. Osório; Maria Isabel Veiga

    id:10.20944/preprints202102.0432.v1 Date: 2021-02-19 Source: Preprints.org

    It is known for decades that viruses from the Coronoviridae family can adapt to human-to-human transmission. In 2020, SARS-CoV-2 caused a global pandemic of unprecedented scale imposing the loss of millions of human lives and being at the heart of a global economic crisis. Thus, we overviewed key research advances generated from the identification of the etiological agent to a better understanding of its origin, evolution and factors underlying global spread. Furthermore, we analyze the scientific productivity using the PubMed database. We found that the total number of publications increased more than 8% in 2020 when compared with 2019 or the average publications per year in the previous quinquennial. Remarkably, 86,638 publications related with COVID-19 MESHD and SARS-CoV-2 were published in 2020. Furthermore, there was also an increase in 2020 of publications in other major infectious diseases MESHD, such as AIDS MESHD, tuberculosis MESHD, or malaria MESHD. This success is likely the result from the vigorous, international, collaborative, and multidisciplinary response by the research community. During 2020 it was demonstrated, that with adequate support, it is possible to boost the rate of scientific progress in infectious diseases MESHD. Sustained investment in science will be key to address existing and future pandemics as the human population increases.

    Discovery of re-purposed drugs that slow SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells

    Authors: Adam Pickard; Ben C Calverley; Joan Chang; Richa Garva; Yinhui Lu; Karl E Kadler

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.31.428851 Date: 2021-02-01 Source: bioRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus that was first identified in Wuhan, China has caused the death of over 2 million people worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. Whilst effective vaccines have been developed and vaccination schedules are being rolled out, the identification of safe and inexpensive drugs to slow the replication of SARS-CoV-2 could help thousands of people worldwide whilst awaiting vaccination. Methods: Using SARS-CoV-2 tagged with nano-luciferase (SARS-CoV-2-{Delta} Orf7a PROTEIN-NLuc) we screened a variety of cells under optimised cell culture conditions for their ability to be infected by, and support the replication of, SARS-CoV-2. Electron microscopy was used to demonstrate generation of infectious virus particles. We assessed a library of 1971 FDA-approved drugs for their ability to inhibit or enhance viral replication in Vero (simian kidney cells) but also in the human hepatocyte cell, HUH7 HGNC. Initial hits were further tested to identify compounds that could suppress viral replication, post-viral infection. Dose response curves were obtained for a shortlist of 9 compounds of interest ( COI HGNC). Findings: Our SARS-CoV-2-{Delta} Orf7a PROTEIN-NLuc virus was as effective as wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in inducing CPE and replicating in Vero cells. Conventional electron microscopy showed the NLuc-tagged virus to be structurally indistinguishable from the wild-type virus, and both could be identified within the endosomal system of infected cells. SARS-CoV-2-{Delta} Orf7a PROTEIN-NLuc was used in experiments to robustly quantitate virus infection MESHD and replication. A wide variety of human cells including lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells were susceptible to infection but were not effective in supporting SARS-CoV-2-{Delta} Orf7a PROTEIN-NLuc replication. In contrast, human kidney epithelial cells and human hepatic cells were particularly susceptible and supported SARS-CoV-2-replication, which is in-line with reported proteinuria MESHD and liver damage MESHD in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Our screening of FDA approved compounds identified 35 COI HGNC that inhibited virus infection MESHD and replication in either Vero or human cell lines. Nine of these also inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication when treatment commenced after virus infection MESHD. Therapeutics approved for treatment of cancer MESHD, malaria MESHD, hypertension MESHD and viral infection MESHD were identified with atovaquone, manidipine, vitamin D3 and ebastine being well tolerated with minimal side effects. Only two COI HGNC were consistently found to enhance SARS-CoV-2 replication, aliskiren and lithocholic acid. Interpretation: Re-purposing of safe, well-tolerated FDA-approved drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication is an attractive strategy to reduce the risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection prior to receiving an effective vaccine. The COI HGNC identified here hold potential to contain COVID-19 MESHD whilst wide-scale vaccination proceeds. The identification of FDA-approved drugs that enhance SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells suggests that entry routes into cells can be made more accessible to the virus by certain medications. The information provided in this research paper is for information only and is not meant to be a substitute for advice provided by a doctor or other qualified health care professional.

    Targeting TGF-b HGNC pathway with COVID-19 MESHD Drug Candidate ARTIVeda/PulmoHeal Accelerates Recovery from Mild-Moderate COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Vuong Trieu; Saran Saund; Prashant Rahate; Viljay Barge; Sunil Nalk; Hitesh Windlass; Fatih Uckun

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.24.21250418 Date: 2021-02-01 Source: medRxiv

    Our COVID-19 MESHD drug candidate ARTIVeda/PulmoHeal is a novel gelatin capsule formulation of the Artemisia extract Ayurveda for oral delivery of TGF-b HGNC targeting anti- malaria MESHD phytomedicine Artemisinin with documented anti-inflammatory and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Here we report the safety and efficacy of ARTIVeda in adult COVID-19 MESHD patients with symptomatic mild-moderate COVID-19 MESHD, who were treated in a randomized, open-label Phase IV study in Bangalore, Karnataka, India (Clinical Trials Registry India identifier: CTRI/2020/09/028044). ARTIVeda showed a very favorable safety profile, and the only ARTIVeda-related adverse events were transient mild rash MESHD and mild hypertension MESHD. Notably, ARTIVeda, when added to the SOC, accelerated the recovery of patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 MESHD. While all patients were symptomatic at baseline (WHO score = 2-4), 31 of 39 (79.5%) of patients treated with ARTIVeda plus SOC became asymptomatic (WHO score = 1) by the end of the 5-day therapy, including 10 of 10 patients with severe dry cough MESHD 7 of 7 patients with severe fever MESHD. By comparison, 12 of 21 control patients (57.1%) treated with SOC alone became asymptomatic on day 5 (P=0.028, Fishers exact test). This clinical benefit was particularly evident when the treatment outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients (WHO score = 4) treated with SOC alone versus SOC plus ARTIVeda were compared. The median time to becoming asymptomatic was only 5 days for the SOC plus ARTIVeda group (N=18) but 14 days for the SOC alone group (N=10) (P=0.004, Log-rank test). These data provide clinical proof of concept that targeting the TGF-b HGNC pathway with ARTIVeda may contribute to a faster recovery of patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 MESHD when administered early in the course of their disease.

    Impact of COVID-19 MESHD on Malaria MESHD Elimination: Juxtaposing Indoor Residual Spraying and Mobile Phones in Buhera Rural District, Zimbabwe

    Authors: Elliot Mbunge; Richard Millham; Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya; Sam Takavarasha

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-173130/v2 Date: 2021-01-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundGlobally, malaria MESHD remains one of the leading health problems decimating population in Africa with an estimated 228 million cases of malaria MESHD and 405 000 deaths occurred worldwide in 2018. In Zimbabwe, like other sub-Saharan countries, is fighting both elusive malaria MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD that continues to overwhelm the already overburdened healthcare system. Zimbabwean rural healthcare centres including Buhera district experience dire impact of malaria MESHD and COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. Therefore, the study presents the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on malaria MESHD control measures and reflects on indoor residual spraying ( IRS HGNC) activities pre and post the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD while introspecting milestones and challenges encountered when executing IRS HGNC activities; and opportunities to integrate mobile technologies into malaria MESHD elimination.MethodsA retrospective study of malaria MESHD cases and IRS HGNC reports was carried out. Malaria MESHD cases per each health centre from 2015-2020 were collected from DHIS in Buhera rural district.ResultsThe study shows that the overall IRS HGNC acceptance rate in 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 was 100%, 58.5%, 66.6%, 52.8% and 83.3%, respectively. The absolute rooms sprayed in 2017 are 2.55% above those sprayed in 2016 but are 8.46% below those sprayed in 2015. The coverage failed to reach impact levels in most of the wards due but not lack of resources, limited to inadequate community sensitization, and competing programmes which were running concurrently with IRS HGNC.  Also, the study revealed that malaria MESHD confirmed cases increased tremendously in 2020 as compared to the previous years, particularly from 2015-2019 because of delayed IRS HGNC coverage, COVID-19 MESHD restrictions, heavy rains, differed and inconsistent social and behaviour change communication, lack of community engagement, delayed procurement of equipment and lack of funding among others.   ConclusionsThe study revealed that moving from malaria MESHD prevention to elimination is possible in low malaria MESHD incidence areas in Buhera rural district. However, new challenges including cyclones and COVID-19 MESHD, disrupts of movements of medical equipment, delayed IRS HGNC activities, social and behaviour change communication and IEC campaigns and mandatory national lockdowns. It is therefore imperative to integrate mobile phones into malaria MESHD control strategies during COVID-19 pandemic MESHD to strengthen awareness campaigns while maintaining COVID-19 MESHD regulations.

    COVID-19 MESHD Mortality in Malaria Endemic MESHD Countries: An Ecological Study

    Authors: Michael, U. Anyanwu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-152325/v1 Date: 2021-01-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    IntroductionThe number of persons infected with COVID-19 MESHD continue to increase with deaths MESHD reported daily across the globe. High income countries such as the US, the UK, Italy and Belgium have reported high COVID-19 MESHD related deaths but low-and-middle-income countries have recorded fewer deaths despite having poor healthcare system. This study aimed to investigate the association between malaria MESHD prevalence and COVID-19 MESHD mortality.MethodsThis is an ecological study with data from 195 countries. Spearman’s correlation was used to test the association between the population variables and COVID-19 MESHD mortality. Generalized linear model with Poisson distribution was used to determine the significant predictors of COVID-19 MESHD mortality. ResultsThere was a significant positive correlation between median age, life expectancy, 65+ mortality and COVID-19 MESHD mortality while malaria MESHD prevalence, sex ratio and cardiovascular mortality were negatively correlated with COVID-19 MESHD mortality. Malaria MESHD prevalence, life expectancy and mortality rate were significant on multivariate regression analysis.ConclusionThe results of this study support the hypotheses that there is reduced COVID-19 MESHD deaths in malaria MESHD endemic countries, although the results need to be proved further by clinical trials.

    Malaria MESHD or COVID-19 MESHD? A case report highlighting a diagnostic challenge in Africa

    Authors: Menelas Nkeshimana; Sabin Nsanzimana

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-144340/v1 Date: 2021-01-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    A 40 years old woman previously healthy was diagnosed and treated for malaria MESHD without any significant improvement. At the concern of an increase in shortness of breath MESHD, she consulted the nearby hospital where an additional diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD infection was made. She died shortly after due to severe COVID-19 MESHD Pneumonia. In countries like Rwanda where 70% of malaria MESHD cases are treated at community level by community health workers, typical malaria MESHD signs and symptoms ( fever MESHD, shivering, headache MESHD, fatigue MESHD, muscle aches MESHD, diarrhea MESHD, vomiting MESHD) are well known by lay providers and even by patients themselves. These overlap with common COVID-19 MESHD symptoms. It is very likely that unrecognized COVID-19 MESHD disease transmitters will lead to a much wider virus spread, especially by those patients for whom a concurrent malarial disease MESHD is easily confirmed using the widely available malaria MESHD rapid tests. There is a growing need to reinforce the ability of fragile health systems to discriminate between multiple common causes for common symptoms, especially for malaria MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD infection.

    Competing Health Risks Associated with the COVID-19 Pandemic MESHD and Response: A Scoping Review

    Authors: Stefan D. Baral; Amrita Rao; Jean Olivier Twahirwa Rwema; Carrie Lyons; Muge Cevik; Anna E. Kågsten; Daouda Diouf; Annette H. Sohn; Refilwe Phaswana-Mafuya; Adeeba Kamarulzaman; Gregorio Millett; Julia L. Marcus; Sharmistha Mishra

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.07.21249419 Date: 2021-01-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 MESHD has rapidly emerged as a global public health threat with infections recorded in nearly every country. Responses to COVID-19 MESHD have varied in intensity and breadth, but generally have included domestic and international travel limitations, closure of non-essential businesses, and repurposing of health services. While these interventions have focused on testing, treatment, and mitigation of COVID-19 MESHD, there have been reports of interruptions to diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for other public health threats. We conducted a scoping review to characterize the impact of COVID-19 MESHD on HIV, tuberculosis MESHD, malaria MESHD, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition MESHD. Methods A scoping literature review was completed using searches of PubMed and preprint servers (medRxiv/bioRxiv) from January 1st to October 31st, 2020, using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 MESHD and HIV MESHD, tuberculosis MESHD, malaria MESHD, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition MESHD. Empiric studies reporting original data collection and mathematical models were included, and available data synthesized by region. Studies were excluded if they were not written in English. Results A total of 1604 published papers and 205 preprints met inclusion criteria, including 8.2% (132/1604) of published studies and 10.2% (21/205) of preprints: 7.3% (68/931) on HIV MESHD, 7.1% (24/339) on tuberculosis MESHD, 11.6% (26/224) on malaria MESHD, 7.8% (13/166) on sexual and reproductive health, and 12.1% (16/132) on malnutrition MESHD. Thematic results were similar across competing health risks, with substantial indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and response on diagnostic, prevention, and treatment services for HIV MESHD, tuberculosis MESHD, malaria MESHD, sexual and reproductive health, and malnutrition MESHD. Discussion COVID-19 MESHD emerged in the context of existing public health threats that result in millions of deaths every year. Thus, effectively responding to COVID-19 MESHD while minimizing the negative impacts of COVID-19 MESHD necessitates innovation and integration of existing programs that are often siloed across health systems. Inequities have been a consistent driver of existing health threats; COVID-19 MESHD has worsened disparities, reinforcing the need for programs that address structural risks. Data reviewed here suggest that effective strengthening of health systems should include investment in public health with adequate funding to ensure continuity of care for emergent and existing public health threats.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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