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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (4)

NSP3 (1)


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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Plasmodium infection induces cross-reactive antibodies to carbohydrate epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD protein

    Authors: Sarah Lapidus; Feimei Liu; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; Yile Dai; John D. Huck; Carolina Lucas; Jon Klein; Renata B. Filler; Madison S. Strine; Mouhamad Sy; Awa B. Deme; Aida S. Badiane; Baba Dieye; Ibrahima Mbaye Ndiaye; Younous Diedhiou; Amadou Moctar Mbaye; Cheikh Tidiane Diagne; Inés Vigan-Womas; Alassane Mbengue; Bacary D. Sadio; Moussa M. Diagne; Adam J. Moore; Khadidiatou Mangou; Fatoumata Diallo; Seynabou D. Sene; Mariama N. Pouye; Rokhaya Faye; Babacar Diouf; Nivison Nery Jr; Federico Costa; Mitermayer Reis; M. Catherine Muenker; Daniel Z. Hodson; Yannick Mbarga; Ben Z. Katz; Jason R. Andrews; Melissa Campbell; Ariktha Srivathsan; Kathy Kamath; Elisabeth Baum-Jones; Ousmane Faye; Amadou Alpha Sall; Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Michael Cappello; Michael Wilson; Choukri Ben-Mamoun; Fabrice A. Somé; Roch K. Dabiré; Carole Else Eboumbou Moukoko; Jean Bosco Ouédraogo; Yap Boum II; John Shon; Daouda Ndiaye; Adam Wisnewski; Sunil Parikh; Akiko Iwasaki; Craig B. Wilen; Albert I. Ko; Aaron M. Ring; Amy K. Bei

    doi:10.1101/2021.05.10.21256855 Date: 2021-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    Individuals with acute malaria infection MESHD generated high levels of antibodies that cross-react with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN protein. Cross-reactive antibodies specifically recognized the sialic acid moiety on N-linked glycans of the Spike protein PROTEIN and do not neutralize in vitro SARS-CoV-2. Sero-surveillance is critical for monitoring and projecting disease burden and risk during the pandemic; however, routine use of Spike protein PROTEIN-based assays may overestimate SARS-CoV-2 exposure and population-level immunity in malaria MESHD-endemic countries.

    The Impact of Intervention to Routine Surveillance of Natural Focal Diseases During the Outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in Jiangsu Province, China

    Authors: Jianli Hu; Xiaoqing Cheng; Li Luo; Zeyu Zhao; Nan Zhang; Mikah Ngwanguong Hannah; Jia Rui; Shengnan Lin; Xingchun Liu; Yuanzhao Zhu; Yao Wang; Meng Yang; Jingwen Xu; Tianlong Yang; Weikang Liu; Peihua Li; Bin Deng; Zhuoyang Li; Chan Liu; Jiefeng Huang; Cangjun Bao; Tianmu Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-135563/v1 Date: 2020-12-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: With the strength intervention of China, the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had a great control effect. The measures may influence the development and progression of others infectious diseases MESHD.Method: The data of daily coronavirus virus disease MESHD 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) confirmed cases from January 3, 2020 to April 30, 2020 and natural focal disease cases from January, 2005 to April, 2020 were collected from Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Jiangsu Provincial CDC). We describe and compare the data of natural focal diseases from January to April, 2020 with the same months from 2015 to 2019 in the four aspects: trend of incidence, regional, age and sex distribution. Nonparametric tests were used to analyzed to the difference between the duration from onset of illness to date of diagnosis of natural focal diseases and the same period of the previous year. Results: The incidence of malaria MESHD in February (0.9 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (0.1 per 10,000,000 people) 2020 less than the lower limit for range of February (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people), March (0.8-3.3 per 10,000,000 people) and April (1.0-2.9 per 10,000,000 people) from 2015 to 2019 respectively. The incidence of brucellosis MESHD in February was 0.9 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.6-4.5 per 10,000,000 people). The incidence of hemorrhagic fever MESHD ( HF MESHD) in March was 1.0 (per 10,000,000 people), less than the lower limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (1.4-2.6 per 10,000,000 people). However, the incidence of Severe Fever MESHD with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome MESHD ( SEFT MESHD) in March was 0.3 (per 10,000,000 people), higher than the upper limit for the range from 2015 to 2019 (0.0-0.1 per 10,000,000 people). Furthermore, we respectively observed the incidence with various degree of reduction in male, 20-60 years old and both rural and urban areas. Conclusions: In Jiangsu province, the incidence of natural focal diseases decreased during the outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD in 2020, especially malaria MESHD, HF MESHD and SEFT. The impact of interventions were felt most by male individuals within the age group of 20-50 years. The interventions for COVID-19 MESHD may control the epidemics of natural focal diseases.

    Methylene Blue has a potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and H1N1 influenza virus in the absence of UV-activation in vitro

    Authors: Valeria Cagno1; Chiara Medaglia; Andreas Cerny; Thomas Cerny; Arnaud Zwygart; Erich Cerny; Caroline Tapparel

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-134789/v1 Date: 2020-12-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Methylene blue is an FDA (food and drug administration) and EMA (european medicines agency) approved drug with an excellent safety profile. It displays broad-spectrum virucidal activity in the presence of UV light and has been shown to be effective in inactivating various viruses in blood products prior to transfusions. In addition, its use has been validated for methemoglobinemia MESHD and malaria MESHD treatment. In this study, we first evaluated the virucidal activity of methylene blue against Influenza Virus H1N1 upon different incubation times and in the presence or absence of light activation, and then against SARS-CoV-2. We further assessed the therapeutic activity of methylene blue by administering it to cells previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we examined the effect of co-administration of the drug together with immune serum.  Our findings reveal that methylene blue displays virucidal preventive or therapeutic activity against Influenza Virus H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar concentrations and in the absence of UV activation. We also confirm that MB antiviral activity is based on several mechanisms of action as the degradation of genomic RNA is only observed in the presence of light and after long exposure. Our work supports the interest of testing methylene blue in clinical studies to confirm a preventive or therapeutic efficacy against both Influenza Virus H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD.

    Hydroxychloroquine-mediated inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 entry is attenuated by TMPRSS2

    Authors: Tianling Ou; Huihui Mou; Lizhou Zhang; Amrita Ojha; Hyeryun Choe; Michael Farzan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.22.216150 Date: 2020-07-22 Source: bioRxiv

    Hydroxychloroquine, used to treat malaria MESHD and some autoimmune disorders MESHD, potently inhibits viral infection of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD in cell-culture studies. However, human clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine failed to establish its usefulness as treatment for COVID-19 MESHD. This compound is known to interfere with endosomal acidification necessary to the proteolytic activity of cathepsins. Following receptor binding and endocytosis, cathepsin L HGNC can cleave the SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN ( S) proteins PROTEIN, thereby activating membrane fusion for cell entry. The plasma membrane-associated protease TMPRSS2 HGNC can similarly cleave these S proteins PROTEIN and activate viral entry at the cell surface. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 entry process is more dependent than that of SARS-CoV-1 on TMPRSS2 HGNC expression. This difference can be reversed when the furin-cleavage site of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein PROTEIN is ablated. We also show that hydroxychloroquine efficiently blocks viral entry mediated by cathepsin L HGNC, but not by TMPRSS2 HGNC, and that a combination of hydroxychloroquine and a clinically-tested TMPRSS2 HGNC inhibitor prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD more potently than either drug alone. These studies identify functional differences between SARS-CoV-1 and -2 entry processes, and provide a mechanistic explanation for the limited in vivo utility of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 MESHD. Author SummaryThe novel pathogenic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 MESHD and remains a threat to global public health. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been shown to prevent viral infection in cell-culture systems, but human clinical trials did not observe a significant improvement in COVID-19 MESHD patients treated with these compounds. Here we show that hydroxychloroquine interferes with only one of two somewhat redundant pathways by which the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN ( S) protein PROTEIN is activated to mediate infection. The first pathway is dependent on the endosomal protease cathepsin L HGNC and sensitive to hydroxychloroquine, whereas the second pathway is dependent on TMPRSS2 HGNC, which is unaffected by this compound. We further show that SARS-CoV-2 is more reliant than SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) on the TMPRSS2 HGNC pathway, and that this difference is due to a furin cleavage site present in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein PROTEIN. Finally, we show that combinations of hydroxychloroquine and a clinically tested TMPRSS2 HGNC inhibitor work together to effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry. Thus TMPRSS2 HGNC expression on physiologically relevant SARS-CoV-2 target cells may bypass the antiviral activities of hydroxychloroquine, and explain its lack of in vivo efficacy.

    The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 by an unusual genome reconstitution

    Authors: Seong-Tshool Hong; Md. Mehedi Hassan; Shirina Sharmin; Jinny Hong; Hoi-Seon Lee; Hyeon Jin Kim

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-33201/v1 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading remarkedly fast around the world since its emergence while the origin of the virus remains ambiguous. Here, we constructed all of the original prototype genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 by selecting the common nucleotide among the different virus strains with species. Phylogenetic analysis on the prototype sequences showed that SARS-CoV-2 was a direct descendant of Bat-CoV and was closely related to Pan-CoV, Bat-SL-CoV, and SARS-CoV MESHD. The pairwise comparison of SARS-CoV-2 with Bat-CoV showed an unusual replacement of the motif consisting of 7 amino acids within the spike protein PROTEIN of SARS-CoV-2. Database searches showed that the motif originated from a surface protein of Plasmodium malariae MESHD, suggesting that the SARS-CoV-2 was emerged after acquiring the motif of the malaria MESHD surface protein.

    A case of COVID - 19 with Imported Falciparum Malaria Infection is Reported

    Authors: Mingchao Zhu; Ya Zhu; Jue Zhang; Weiping Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32935/v1 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background During the COVID − 19 outbreak, limited medical resources in the short term and inadequate experience in dealing with major new public health events may lead to the neglect of some other infectious diseases MESHD, such as malaria MESHD, leading to the risk of the spread of infectious diseases MESHD.Therefore, it is particularly important to formulate classified guidance, take scientific prevention and control measures in a comprehensive manner, strengthen the screening of malaria MESHD patients and provide access to medical treatment during the outbreak.Methods Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for a falciparum malaria infection MESHD patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID − 19 pneumonia MESHD .Results Patient's serum novel coronavirus antibody tested positive for IgG and weakly positive for IgM that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2],the blood samples were classified as plasmodium falciparum by RT-PCR.Conclusions The patient when workers infected with p. falciparum in Africa, malaria MESHD recurrence after back to China, after antimalarial treatment in tianmen city first people's hospital, after an outbreak in wuhan will be coronavirus, and symptoms of COVID − 19, but soon be cured patients, to explore the diagnosis and treatment of antimalarial drugs in COVID − 19 patients with the role, for further in-depth study of COVID − 19 treatment provides a good example.

    Comparative analyses revealed reduced spread of COVID-19 MESHD in malaria endemic countries

    Authors: Azhar Muneer; Kiran Kumari; Manish Tripathi; Rupesh Srivastava; Asif Mohmmed; Sumit Rathore

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20097923 Date: 2020-05-14 Source: medRxiv

    In late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection MESHD started in Hubei province of China and now it has spread like a wildfire in almost all parts of the world except some. WHO named the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 as COVID-19 MESHD ( CoronaVirus Disease MESHD-2019). It is very intriguing to see a mild trend of infection in some countries which could be attributed to mitigation efforts, lockdown strategies, health infrastructure, demographics and cultural habits. However, the lower rate of infection and death MESHD rates in mostly developing countries, which are not placed at higher levels in terms of healthcare facilities, is a very surprising observation. To address this issue, we hypothesize that this lower rate of infection is majorly been observed in countries which have a higher transmission/prevalence of protozoan parasite borne disease MESHD, malaria MESHD. We compared the COVID-19 MESHD spread and malaria MESHD endemicity of 108 countries which have shown at least 200 cases of COVID-19 MESHD till 18th April 2020. We found that the number of COVID-19 MESHD cases per million population correlates negatively with the malaria MESHD endemicity of respective countries. The malaria MESHD free countries not only have higher density of COVID-19 MESHD infections but also the higher case fatality rates as compared to highly malaria MESHD endemic countries. We also postulate that this phenomenon is due to natural immune response against malaria infection MESHD, which is providing a heterologous protection against the virus. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 yet, but this information will be helpful in design of future strategies against fast spreading COVID-19 MESHD disease.

    The COVID-19 MESHD Gene and Drug Set Library

    Authors: Maxim V. Kuleshov; Daniel J.B. Clarke; Eryk Kropiwnicki; Kathleen M. Jagodnik; Alon Bartal; John E. Evangelista; Abigail Zhou; Laura B. Ferguson; Alexander Lachmann; Avi Ma'ayan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-28582/v1 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    The coronavirus (CoV) severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS)-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic has received rapid response by the research community to offer suggestions for repurposing of approved drugs as well as to improve our understanding of the COVID-19 MESHD viral life cycle molecular mechanisms. In a short period, tens of thousands of research preprints and other publications have emerged including those that report lists of experimentally validated drugs and compounds as potential COVID-19 MESHD therapies. In addition, gene sets from interacting COVID-19 MESHD virus-host proteins and differentially expressed genes when comparing infected to uninfected cells are being published at a fast rate. To organize this rapidly accumulating knowledge, we developed the COVID-19 MESHD Gene and Drug Set Library (https://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/ covid19 MESHD/), a collection of gene and drug sets related to COVID-19 MESHD research from multiple sources. The COVID-19 MESHD Gene and Drug Set Library is delivered as a web-based interface that enables users to view, download, analyze, visualize, and contribute gene and drug sets related to COVID-19 MESHD research. To evaluate the content of the library, we performed several analyses including comparing the results from 6 in-vitro drug screens for COVID-19 MESHD repurposing candidates. Surprisingly, we observe little overlap across these initial screens. The most common and unique hit across these screen is mefloquine, a malaria MESHD drug that should receive more attention as a potential therapeutic for COVID-19 MESHD. Overall, the library of gene and drug sets can be used to identify community consensus, make researchers and clinicians aware of the development of new potential therapies, as well as allow the research community to work together towards a cure for COVID-19 MESHD.

    COVID-19 MESHD COVID-19 MESHD pandemic: examining the faces of spatial differences in the morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and USA.

    Authors: Adebayo A Otitoloju; Ifeoma P Okafor; Mayowa Fasona; Kafilat Adebola Bawa-Allah; Chukwuemeka Isanbor; Chukwudozie Solomon Onyeka; Olawale S Folarin; Taiwo O Adubi; Temitope O Sogbanmu; Anthony E Ogbeibu

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072322 Date: 2020-04-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD, the disease associated with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is currently a global pandemic with several thousands of confirmed cases of infection and death MESHD. However, the death rate across affected countries shows variation deserving of critical evaluation. Methods: In this study, we evaluated differentials in COVID-19 MESHD confirmed cases of infection and associated deaths MESHD of selected countries in Sub-Sahara Africa (Nigeria and Ghana), South Africa, Europe (Italy, Spain, Sweden and UK) and USA. Data acquired for various standard databases on mutational shift of the SARS-CoV-2 virus based on geographical location, BCG vaccination policy, malaria endemicity MESHD, climatic conditions (temperature), differential healthcare approaches were evaluated over a period of 45 days from the date of reporting the index case. Results: The number of confirmed cases of infection and associated deaths in Sub-Sahara Africa were found to be very low compared to the very high values in Europe and USA over the same period. Recovery rate from COVID-19 MESHD is not correlated with the mutational attributes of the virus with the sequenced strain from Nigeria having no significant difference (p>0.05) from other geographical regions. Significantly higher (p<0.05) infection rate and mortality from COVID-19 MESHD were observed in countries (Europe and USA) without a current universal BCG vaccination policy compared to those with one (Sub-Sahara African countries). Countries with high malaria burden MESHD had significantly lower (p<0.05) cases of COVID-19 MESHD than those with low malaria burden MESHD. A strong negative correlation (-0.595) between mean annual temperature and COVID-19 MESHD infection and death was observed with 14.8% variances between temperature and COVID-19 MESHD occurrence among the countries. A clear distinction was observed in the COVID-19 MESHD disease management between the developed countries (Europe and USA) and Sub-Sahara Africa. Conclusions: The study established that the wide variation in the outcome of the COVID-19 MESHD disease burden in the selected countries are attributable largely to climatic condition (temperature) and differential healthcare approaches to management of the disease. We recommend consideration and mainstreaming of these findings for urgent intervention and management of COVID-19 MESHD across these continents.

    Natural Product Compounds in Alpinia officinarum and Ginger are Potent SARS-CoV-2 Papain-like Protease PROTEIN Inhibitors

    Authors: Dibakar Goswami; Mukesh Kumar; Sunil K. Ghosh; Amit Das

    doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12071997.v1 Date: 2020-04-06 Source: ChemRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 MESHD has caused more than 10,00,000 infections and ~55,000 deaths worldwide spanning over 203 countries, and the numbers are exponentially increasing. Due to urgent need of treating the SARS infection MESHD, many approved, pre-clinical, anti-viral, anti- malarial MESHD and anti-SARS drugs are being administered to patients. SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease PROTEIN ( PLpro PROTEIN) has a protease domain which cleaves the viral polyproteins a/b, necessary for its survival and replication, and is one of the drug target against SARS-CoV-2. 3D structures of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro PROTEIN were built by homology modelling. Two models having partially open and closed conformations were used in our study. Virtual screening of natural product compounds was performed. We prepared an in house library of compounds found in rhizomes, Alpinia officinarum, ginger and curcuma, and docked them into the solvent accessible S3-S4 pocket of PLpro PROTEIN. Eight compounds from Alpinia officinarum and ginger bind with high in silico affinity to closed PLpro PROTEIN conformer, and hence are potential SARS-CoV-2 PLpro PROTEIN inhibitors. Our study reveal new lead compounds targeting SARS-CoV-2. Further structure based modifications or extract formulations of these compounds can lead to highly potent inhibitors to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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