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MeSH Disease

Pneumonia (94)

COVID-19 (93)

Fever (27)

Death (18)

Lymphopenia (17)


HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Lixiang Lou Sr.; Hui Zhang Sr.; Baoming Tang Sr.; Ming Li; Zeqing Li; Haifang Cao; Jian Li; Yuliang Chong; Zhaowei Li

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253472 Date: 2021-03-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Although the number of COVID-19 MESHD ( coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD) cases continues to increase globally, there are few studies on the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD. Objective: To conduct a comprehensive systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD in children and adolescents to better guide the response to the current epidemic. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI (Chinese database), Clinical Trials.gov and chictr.org.cn (China). The methodological quality of the included literature was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Case Series Studies. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA 14.0. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified using I2. We used fixed-effects or random-effects models to pool clinical data in the meta-analysis. Publication bias was evaluated by the Begg's test. Results: We analyzed 49 studies involving 1627 patients. In the pooled data, the most common clinical symptoms were fever MESHD (56% [0.50-0.61]) and cough (45% [0.39-0.51]). The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated procalcitonin (40% [0.23-0.57]), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (31% [0.19-0.43]), increased lymphocyte count (28% [0.17-0.42]), increased creatine kinase (28% [0.18- 0.40]), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (26% [0.17-0.36]). The most common abnormalities determined by computed tomography were lower-lobe involvement (56% [0.42- 0.70]), ground-glass opacities (33% [0.25-0.42]), bilateral pneumonia MESHD (32% [0.24- 0.40]), patchy shadowing (31% [0.18- 0.45]), and upper lobe involvement MESHD (30% [0.20- 0.41]). Conclusion: Disease severity among children and adolescents with COVID-19 MESHD was milder than that among adult patients, with a greater proportion of mild and asymptomatic cases, and thus, the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD and control of the infection source are more challenging.

    Clinical course and risk factors for in-hospital mortality of 205 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD in Como, Lombardy Region, Italy

    Authors: Mauro Turrini; Angelo Gardellini; Livia Beretta; Lucia Buzzi; Stefano Ferrario; Sabrina Vasile; Raffaella Clerici; Andrea Colzani; Luigi Liparulo; Giovanni Scognamiglio; Gianni Imperiali; Giovanni Corrado; Antonella Strada; Marco Galletti; Nunzio Castiglione; Claudio Zanon

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.25.20134866 Date: 2021-03-05 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: With randomized clinical trials ongoing and vaccine still a long distance away, efforts to repurpose old medications used for other diseases provide hope for treatment of COVID-19 MESHD. Objectives: To examine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality and describe the effectiveness of different treatment strategies in a real-life setting of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia MESHD. Design: Real-life single-center study during the Lombardy COVID-19 MESHD outbreak. Setting: Valduce Hospital in Como, Lombardy Region, Italy. Participants: 205 laboratory-confirmed patients presenting with SARS-Cov-2 pneumonia MESHD requiring hospitalization. Interventions: All patients received best supportive care and, based on their clinical needs and comorbidities, specific interventions that included the main drugs being tested for repurposing to treat COVID-19 MESHD, such as hydroxychloroquine, anticoagulation, antiviral drugs, steroids or interleukin-6 HGNC pathway inhibitors. Main outcomes and measures: Clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics were analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to explore their impact on in-hospital mortality and compared with current literature data. Results: Univariate analyses for clinical variables showed prognostic significance for age equal or greater than 70 years (estimated 28-days survival: 21.4 vs 67.4%; p<0.0001), presence of 2 or more relevant comorbidities (35.3 vs 61.8%; p=0.0008), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (P/F) less than 200 at presentation (21-days survival: 14.7 vs 52.4%;p<0.0001), high levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (26.4 vs 65.3%; p=0.0001), and elevated C-reactive protein HGNC (CRP) values (25.4 vs 74.9%; p=0.0001), while no statistical significance was found for all the other clinical variables tested. At univariate analysis for the different treatment scheduled, prognostic significance for survival was showed for intermediate or therapeutic-dose anticoagulation (estimated 28-days survival: 37.1 vs 23.4%; p=0.0001), hydroxychloroquine (35.7 vs 27.3%; p=0.0029), early antiviral therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir (60.1 vs 22.4%; p<0.0001), late short-course of steroids (47.9 vs 18.2%; p<0.0001) or tocilizumab therapy (69.4 vs 29.4%; p=0.0059). Multivariable regression confirmed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with age older than 70 years (odds ratio 3.26, 95% CI 1.81 - 5.86; p<0.0001) and showed a reduction in mortality for patients treated with anticoagulant (-0.37, 0.49 - 0.95; p=0.0273), antiviral (-1.22, 0.16 - 0.54; p<0.0001), or steroids (-0.59, 0.35 - 0.87; p=0.0117) therapy.

    Impact of Early Corticosteroids on 60-day Mortality in Critically MESHD Ill Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: A Multicenter Cohort Study of the OUTCOMEREA Network

    Authors: Claire Dupuis; Etienne de Montmollin; Niccolò Buetti; Dany Goldgran-Toledano; Jean Reignier; Carole Schwebel; Julien Domitile; Mathilde Neuville; Moreno Ursino; Shidasp Siami; Stéphane Ruckly; Corinne Alberti; Bruno Mourvillier; Sebastien Bailly; Virginie Laurent; Marc Gainnier; Bertrand Souweine; Jean-François Timsit

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-293856/v1 Date: 2021-03-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    ObjectivesIn severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD, the appropriate timing and dosing of corticosteroids(CS) is not known. Patient subgroups for which CS could be more beneficial also need appraisal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of early CS in COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD patients admitted to the ICU on the occurrence of 60-day mortality, ICU-acquired-bloodstream infections(ICU-BSI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia MESHD and ventilator-associated pneumonia MESHD(HAP-VAP).MethodsWe included patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD admitted to 11 ICUs belonging to the French OutcomeReaTM network from January to May 2020. We used survival models with ponderation with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Inflammation MESHD was defined as Ferritin >1000 µg/l or D-Dimers >1000 µg/l or C-Reactive Protein HGNC >100 mg/dL.ResultsThe study population comprised 302 patients having a median age of 61.6(53-70) years of whom 78.8% were male and 58.6% had at least one comorbidity. The median SAPS II MESHD was 33(25-44). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 34.8% of the patients. Sixty-six (21.8%) patients were in the Early-CS-subgroup. Most of them (n=55, 83.3%) received high doses of steroids. Overall, 60-day mortality was 29.4%. The risks of 60-day mortality (IPTWHR =0.88;95% CI 0.55 to 1.39, p=0.58), ICU-BSI and HAP-VAP were similar in the two groups. Importantly, early CS treatment was associated with a lower mortality rate in patients aged 60 years or more (IPTWHR, 0.51;95% CI, 0.29 – 0.91; p=0.02). But, CS was associated with an increased risk of death for the patients younger than 60 years without inflammation MESHD on admission (IPTWHR =8.17;95% CI, 1.76, 37.85; p=0.01).ConclusionFor patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD, early CS treatment was not associated with patient survival. Interestingly, inflammation MESHD and age can significantly influence the effect of CS.

    Compassionate use of rectal Ozone (O3) in severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD: a case-control study.

    Authors: Marcos Edgar Fernández-Cuadros; María Jesús Albaladejo-Florín; Sandra Alava-Rabasa; Juan Gallego-Galiana; Gerardo Fabiel Pérez-Cruz; Isabel Usandizaga-Elio; Enrique Pacios; David Torres-Garcia; Daiana Peña-Lora; Luz Casique-Bocanegra; María Jesús López-Muñoz; Javier Rodríguez-de-Cía; Olga Susana Pérez-Moro

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-231696/v1 Date: 2021-02-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objectives: To evaluate effect of rectal Ozone in severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD and to compare to Standard-of-care (SOC). Material and Methods: In a case-control study, 14 patients with severe bilateral COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD (positive RT-PCR), treated with SOC and rectal Ozone, were evaluated before-and-after treatment and compared with SOC (14 patients) in a 10 day follow-up period. Ozone-protocol consisted of 8 sessions (1 session/day) of intra-rectal Ozone, (150mL volume, 35mg/ml concentration [5.25mg total dose]). The SOC-protocol included O 2- supply, antivirals (Remdesivir), corticosteroids (Dexamethasone/Metilprednisolone), monoclonal antibodies (Anakinra/Tocilizumab), antibiotics (Azytromicine), anticoagulants (Enoxaparine) and hyperimmune serum (if necessary). Primary outcome variables: a) clinical (O 2- saturation and O 2- supply); b) biochemical (Lymphocyte count, Fibrinogen HGNC, D-Dimer, Urea, Ferritin, LDH, IL-6 HGNC and CRP HGNC); c) radiological Taylor Scale. Secondary outcome variables: a) hospitalization length-of-stay, b) mortality-rate. Results: At baseline, Ozone/SOC-groups were not different on age, comorbidities, O 2 -saturation and O 2 -supply. Patients in Ozone-Group improved O 2- saturation and decrease O 2- supply. SOC maintained O 2- saturation and required more O 2- supply. Lymphocyte-count improved only in Ozone-group and with statistical difference (p<0.05). Biomarkers of inflammation MESHD ( Fibrinogen HGNC, D-Dimer, Urea, LDH, CRP HGNC and IL-6 HGNC) decreased in both groups, but only significantly in favor of Ozone-group (p<0.05). Ferritin showed a significant decrease in the Ozone-group but an increase on the SOC-Group. Radiological pneumonitis MESHD decreased on both groups but the decrease was only significant in the Ozone-Group (p<0.0001). Mortality and length-of-stay, although not significant, were inferior in Ozone-Group. Conclusion: Compassionate use of Rectal Ozone improved O 2 -saturation, reduced O 2 -supply, decreased inflammation MESHD biomarkers and improved Taylor’s radiological scale significantly when compared to SOC-Group. Mortality and length-of-stay was inferior in the Ozone-group, but this difference was not significant.

    Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Adding Ivermectin to Treatment in Severe COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Nurullah Okumuş; Nese Demirtürk; Rıza Aytaç ÇETİNKAYA; Rahmet GÜNER; İsmail Yaşar Avcı; Semiha ORHAN; Petek KONYA; Bengü ŞAYLAN; Ayşegül Karalezli; Levent YAMANEL; Bircan Kayaaslan; Gülden Yılmaz; Ümit Savaşçı; Fatma ESER; Gürhan TAŞKIN

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-224203/v1 Date: 2021-02-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:An effective treatment option is not yet available for SARS-CoV2, which causes the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and whose effects are felt more and more every day. Ivermectin is among the drugs whose effectiveness in treatment has been investigated. In this study; it was aimed to investigate the presence of gene mutations that alter ivermectin metabolism and cause toxic effects in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD, and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ivermectin use in the treatment of patients without mutation.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with severe COVID19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD were included in the study, which was planned as a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind phase 3 study. Two groups, the study group and the control group, took part in the study. Ivermectin 200 mcg/kg/day for five days in the form of a solution prepared for enteral use added to the reference treatment protocol -hydroxychloroquine + favipiravir + azithromycin- of patients included in the study group. Patients in the control group were given only reference treatment with 3 other drugs without ivermectin. The presence of mutations was investigated by performing sequence analysis in the mdr1 HGNC/abcab1 gene with the Sanger method in patients included in the study group according to randomization. Patients with mutations were excluded from the study and ivermectin treatment was not continued. Patients were followed for 5 days after treatment. At the end of the treatment and follow-up period, clinical response and changes in laboratory parameters were evaluated.RESULTS: A total of 66 patients, 36 in the study group and 30 in the control group were included in the study. Mutations affecting ivermectin metabolism was detected in genetic tests of six (16.7%) patients in the study group and they were excluded from the study. At the end of the 5-day follow-up period, the clinical improvement rate was higher in the study group [22/30 (73.3%)] compared to the control group [16/30 (53.3%)] (p=0.10). At the end of the study, mortality developed in 6 patients (20%) in the study group and in 9 (30%) patients in the control group (p=0.37). At the end of the follow-up period, the average peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2)  values of the study and control groups were found to be 93.5% and 93.0%, respectively. Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratios were determined as 236.3 ± 85.7 and 220.8 ± 127.3 in the study and control groups, respectively. While the blood lymphocyte count was higher in the study group compared to the control group (1698±1438 and 1256±710, respectively) at the end of the follow-up period (p=0.24); reduction in serum C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), ferritin and D-dimer levels was more pronounced in the study group (p=0.02, p=0.005 and p=0.03, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings obtained, ivermectin can provide an increase in clinical recovery, improvement in prognostic laboratory parameters and a decrease in mortality rates even when used in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD. Consequently, ivermectin should be considered as an important alternative to the treatment of COVID-19 disease MESHD or as an additional option to existing protocols.

    Viral Shedding Time of SARS-CoV-2 and the Factors Involved: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Authors: Guixian Wu; Ling Lin; Susu He; Qian Chen; Xiaomai Wu; Shuangquan Yan; Yongpo Jiang; Weijia Pan; Dongqin Lv

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-154418/v1 Date: 2021-01-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, the discovery of the novel coronavirus was first reported in Wuhan, China, which subsequently and rapidly spread throughout the country and worldwide, resulting in a pandemic.After a year of intense research, our knowledge of the new coronaviruses has gradually improved; however, knowledge regarding the time of their complete clearance from the body and the factors influencing clearance are currently inadequate. Results: We conducted a retrospective observational study comprising 135 patients above the age of 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of  COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD, who were admitted to the Public Health Center of Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University from January 23, 2020, to March 11 HGNC, 2020. The findings regarding the duration of the infection from the time of onset to the time of being asymptomatic (whichever was observed first) indicated that novel coronaviruses were cleared from the respiratory tract in a maximum of 84 days and a minimum of 1 day with a median clearance time (quartile) of 20 (13, 30) days. Moreover, viruses were cleared from the digestive tract in a maximum of 72 days and a minimum of 5 days with a median clearance time (quartile) of 25 (20.75, 31) days. The viral shedding time of SARS in the digestive tract was found to be longer than that in the respiratory tract (p = 0.03). Severe disease (P < 0.001), advanced age (P < 0.001), lymphopenia MESHD (P = 0.01) and elevated CRP HGNC (P = 0.036) were significantly associated with longer clearance time in the respiratory tract. Gender (P = 0.754), novel coronavirus antibodies (P = 0.75), and antibiotic use (P = 0.093) were not associated with the time span required for the novel coronavirus to be cleared from the respiratory tract. Conclusions: Independent risk factors for the longer clearance time of novel coronaviruses in the digestive tract versus that in the respiratory tract were compared. Severe disease MESHD, advanced age, lymphopenia MESHD, and elevated CRP HGNC were determined to be factors prolonging the clearance of novel coronaviruses.

    Feasibility of Non-Rebreather Masks and Nasal Cannula as a Substitute for High Flow Nasal Oxygen in Patients with Severe COVID-19 MESHD Infection

    Authors: mehmet kabak; Baris Cil

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-140464/v1 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: Severe pneumonia MESHD and respiratory failure MESHD may develop in patients with coronavirus infection MESHD, placing a very significant burden on healthcare systems due to the need for both emergency and intensive care treatment. Therefore, treatment of hypoxemia MESHD is a clinical priority in the treatment of such patients. In this regard, newer strategies such as High Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) and non-invasive mechanical ventilators that can provide non-invasive high fraction of inspired oxygen are gaining clinical significance. Our objective was to compare oxygen supply by HFNO with Non-Rebreather Masks and Nasal Cannula (NRMs + NC) in terms of treatment costs and mortality in a group of COVID-19 MESHD patients requiring intensive care unit admission. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective and single-center study involving 54 patients who were admitted to an Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD infection between July 2020 and August 2020. Results: HFNO was compared with NMRs + NC in terms of mortality and duration of hospital stay. The two groups were comparable in age (p=0.45), gender (p=0.33), and mortality (p=0.43). Also, there was no significant difference in oxygen saturation at admission (p=0.63), duration of intensive care (p=0.35), total length of hospital stay (p=0.057), and need for invasive mechanical ventilator (p=0.39) between the study groups. The levels of WBC (p=0.36), platelets (p=0.12), lymphocytes (p=0.98), CRP HGNC (p=0.11), pro-calcitonin (p=0.20), D-dimer (p=0.74), ferritin (p=0.14), urea (p=0.74), and creatinine (p=0.35) were also similar between the two groups. Conclusion: Oxygen support by NRMs + NC was comparable to HFNO in terms of mortality, need for invasive mechanic ventilation, length of intensive care, and length of hospital stay. We believe that NRMs + NC may represent an inexpensive and easily accessible therapeutic substitute for HFNO, particularly when the risk of transmission and costs related with HFNO use are considered. 

    Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in patients with COVID-19 MESHD treated with tocilizumab in a randomised controlled trial

    Authors: Jennifer Tom; Min Bao; Larry Tsai; Aditi Qamra; David Summers; Montserrat Carrasco-Triguero; Jacqueline McBride; Carrie M Rosenberger; Celia J F Lin; William Stubbings; Kevin G Blyth; Jordi Carratala; Bruno Francois; Thomas Benfield; Derrick Haslem; Paolo Bonfanti; Cor H van der Leest; Nidhi Rohatgi; Lothar Wiese; Charles Edouard Luyt; Farrah Kheradmand; Ivan O Rosas; Fang Cai

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.23.20247379 Date: 2020-12-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Retrospective observational studies suggest that interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, D-dimer, and platelets are associated with disease progression, treatment outcomes, or both, in patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD. We explored these candidate prognostic and predictive biomarkers with efficacy outcomes after treatment with tocilizumab, an anti- IL-6 HGNC receptor antibody using data from the COVACTA trial for patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD. Methods Candidate biomarkers were measured in 295 patients in the tocilizumab arm and 142 patients in the placebo arm. Efficacy outcomes assessed were clinical status on a seven-category ordinal scale (1, discharge; 7, death), mortality, time to hospital discharge, and mechanical ventilation (if not receiving it at randomisation) through day 28. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers were evaluated continuously with proportional odds, binomial or Fine-Gray models, and additional sensitivity analyses. Findings Modelling in the placebo arm showed all candidate biomarkers except LDH and D-dimer were strongly prognostic for day 28 clinical outcomes of mortality, mechanical ventilation, clinical status, and time to hospital discharge. Modelling in the tocilizumab arm showed a predictive value of ferritin for day 28 clinical outcomes of mortality (predictive interaction p=0.03), mechanical ventilation (predictive interaction p=0.01), and clinical status (predictive interaction p=0.02) compared with placebo. Interpretation Multiple biomarkers prognostic for clinical outcomes were confirmed in COVACTA. Ferritin was identified as a predictive biomarker for the effects of tocilizumab in the COVACTA patient population; high ferritin levels were associated with better clinical outcomes for tocilizumab compared with placebo at day 28.

    Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 MESHD patients in Latvia under low incidence in Spring 2020

    Authors: Ludmila Viksna; Oksana Kolesova; Aleksandrs Kolesovs; Ieva Vanaga; Seda Arutjunana; Sniedze Laivacuma; Jelena Storozenko; Ieva Tolmane; Ilze Berzina; Baiba Rozentale

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.22.20239392 Date: 2020-12-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD is a new infectious disease MESHD with severe disease course and high mortality in some groups. Blood tests on admission to the hospital can be useful for stratification of patients and timely correction. Our study investigated the clinical features of COVID-19 MESHD patients in Latvia and differences in blood tests in groups with different disease severity. Methods: The retrospective study included 100 patients hospitalized in Riga East Clinical University Hospital in Spring 2020. The severity of the disease course was classified by the presence of pneumonia MESHD and its combination with respiratory failure MESHD. We have assessed blood cells' count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), alanine aminotransferase HGNC, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin T, electrolytes, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), D-dimer, prothrombin time, prothrombin index, oxygen saturation, and temperature on admission to the hospital. Results: Patients were from 18 to 99, 57% males. Comorbidities were found in 74% of patients. The mild, moderate, and severe groups included 35, 44, and 16 patients, respectively. In the severe group, the mortality rate was 50%. The progression to severe COVID-19 MESHD was associated positively with temperature, ESR, CRP HGNC, creatinine, LDH, and troponin T and negatively associated with oxygen saturation, eosinophils, and GFR on admission to the hospital. Conclusions: COVID-19 MESHD severity associates with lower renal function and a higher level of inflammation MESHD and tissue damage. Eosinophils, CRP HGNC, ESR, LDH, troponin T, creatinine, and GFR are blood indicators for monitoring patients' condition.

    Effects of obesity on serum levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Daniela Frasca; Lisa Reidy; Carolyn Cray; Alain Diaz; Maria Romero; Kristin Kahl; Bonnie B Blomberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.18.20248483 Date: 2020-12-20 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 MESHD), cause of COVID-19 MESHD (Coronavirus Disease of 2019), represents a significant risk to people living with pre-existing conditions associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses and consequent dysfunctional immunity. In this paper, we have evaluated the effects of obesity MESHD, a condition associated with chronic systemic inflammation MESHD, on the secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in the blood of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Results have shown that SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies are negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in COVID-19 MESHD obese MESHD patients, as expected based on the known effects of obesity MESHD on humoral immunity. Antibodies in COVID-19 MESHD obese MESHD patients are also negatively associated with serum levels of pro-inflammatory and metabolic markers of inflammaging and pulmonary inflammation MESHD, such as SAA ( serum amyloid A protein HGNC), CRP HGNC ( C-reactive protein HGNC) and ferritin, but positively associated with NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids). These results altogether could help to identify an inflammatory signature with strong predictive value for immune dysfunction MESHD that could be targeted to improve humoral immunity in individuals with obesity MESHD as well as with other chronic inflammatory conditions.

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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