Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

There are no SARS-CoV-2 protein terms in the subcorpus


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Expansion of Cytotoxic CD4 HGNC+ T cells in the lungs in severe COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Naoki Kaneko; Julie Boucau; Hsiao-hsuan Kuo; Cory Perugino; Vinay Mahajan; Jocelyn Farmer; Hang Liu; Thomas Diefenbach; Alicja Piechocka-Trocha; Kristina Lefteri; Michael Waring; Katherine Premo; Bruce Walker; Jonathan Z. Li; Gaurav Gaiha; Xu Yu; Mathias Lichterfeld; Robert Padera; Shiv Pillai

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.23.21253885 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    The contributions of T cells infiltrating the lungs to SARS-CoV-2 clearance and disease progression are poorly understood. Although studies of CD8 HGNC+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage and blood have suggested that these cells are exhausted in severe COVID-19 MESHD, CD4 HGNC+ T cells have not been systematically interrogated within the lung parenchyma. We establish here that cytotoxic CD4 HGNC+ T cells ( CD4 HGNC+CTLs) are prominently expanded in the COVID-19 MESHD lung infiltrate. CD4 HGNC+CTL numbers in the lung increase with disease severity and progression is accompanied by widespread HLA-DR expression on lung epithelial and endothelial cells, increased apoptosis of epithelial cells and tissue remodeling. Based on quantitative evidence for re-activation in the lung milieu, CD4 HGNC+ CTLs are as likely to drive viral clearance as CD8 HGNC+ T cells and may also be contributors to lung inflammation MESHD and eventually to fibrosis MESHD in severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    Integrated single-cell analysis unveils diverging immune features of COVID-19 MESHD, influenza and other community-acquired pneumonia MESHD.

    Authors: Alex Schuurman; Tom Reijnders; Anno Saris; Ivan Ramirez-Moral; Michiel Schinkel; Justin de Brabander; Christine van Linge; Louis Vermeulen; Brendon Scicluna; Willem Wiersinga; Felipe A. Vieira Braga; Tom van der Poll

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    The exact immunopathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia MESHD (CAP) caused by SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) remains clouded by methodological heterogeneity and a lack of relevant disease controls. The absence of single-cell investigations in the broader population of patients with CAP renders it difficult to distinguish immune features unique to COVID-19 MESHD from the common characteristics of a dysregulated host response to pneumonia MESHD. We performed integrated single-cell transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in PBMCs from a matched cohort of eight patients with COVID-19 MESHD, eight patients with CAP MESHD caused by Influenza A or other pathogens, and four non-infectious control subjects. Using this balanced, multi-omics approach we describe shared and diverging transcriptional and phenotypic patterns – including increased levels of type I interferon stimulated NK cells in COVID-19 MESHD, cytotoxic CD8 HGNC T EMRA cells in both COVID-19 MESHD and influenza, and distinctive monocyte compositions between all groups – and thereby expand our understanding of the peripheral immune response in different etiologies of pneumonia MESHD.

    The CXCR6 HGNC/ CXCL16 HGNC axis links inflamm-aging to disease severity in COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Daniel J Payne; Surita Dalal; Richard Leach; Richard Parker; Stephen Griffin; Clive S McKimmie; Graham P Cook; Stephen J Richards; Peter Hillmen; Tal Munir; Kathryn Riley; Claire McKinley; Sandra Place; Richard L Baretto; Darren J Newton; Chantal Morrisseau; Philippe Begin; Valerie Martel-Laferriere; Cecile Tremblay; Jonathan Richard; Renee Bazin; Ralf Duerr; Daniel E Kaufmann; Andres Finzi; Xiaofang Jiang; Rolf U. Halden; Matthew Scotch; Arvind Varsani

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.25.428125 Date: 2021-01-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Advancing age and chronic health conditions, significant risk factors for severe COVID-19 MESHD, are associated with a pro-inflammatory state, termed inflamm-aging. CXCR6 HGNC+ T cells are known to traffic to the lung and have been reported to increase with age. The ligand of CXCR6 HGNC, CXCL16 HGNC, is constitutively expressed in the lung and upregulated during inflammatory responses and the CXCR6 HGNC/ CXCL16 HGNC axis is associated with severe lung disease MESHD and pneumonia MESHD. Genome-wide association studies have also recently identified 3p21.31, encompassing the CXCR6 HGNC gene, as a susceptibility locus for severe COVID-19 MESHD. We assessed numbers T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR6 and plasma levels of CXCL16 HGNC, in control and COVID-19 MESHD patients. Results demonstrated that circulating CD8 HGNC+ CXCR6 HGNC+ T cells were significantly elevated with advancing age, yet virtually absent in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD. Peripheral levels of CXCL16 HGNC were significantly upregulated in severe COVID-19 MESHD patients compared to either mild COVID-19 MESHD patients or SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. This study supports a significant role of the CXCR6 HGNC/ CXCL16 HGNC axis in the immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    Cell type-specific immune dysregulation in severely ill COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Changfu Yao; Stephanie A Bora; Tanyalak Parimon; Tanzira Zaman; Oren A Friedman; Joseph A Palatinus; Nirmala S Surapaneni; Yuri P Matusov; Giuliana Cerro Chiang; Alexander G Kassar; Nayan Patel; Chelsi ER Green; Adam W Aziz; Harshpreet Suri; Jo Suda; Andres A Lopez; Gislaine A Martins; Barry R Stripp; Sina A Gharib; Helen S Goodridge; Peter Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161182 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) has quickly become the most serious pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic. In extreme situations, patients develop a dysregulated inflammatory lung injury MESHD called acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD) that causes progressive respiratory failure MESHD requiring mechanical ventilatory support. Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction MESHD in severely ill COVID-19 MESHD patients. To further delineate the dysregulated immune response driving more severe clinical course from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, we used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients having mild disease (n = 5), developing ARDS MESHD (n = 6), and recovering from ARDS MESHD (n = 6). Our data demonstrated an overwhelming inflammatory response with select immunodeficiencies MESHD within various immune populations in ARDS MESHD patients. Specifically, their monocytes had defects in antigen presentation and deficiencies in interferon responsiveness that contrasted the higher interferon signals in lymphocytes. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity was suppressed in both NK and CD8 HGNC lymphocytes whereas B cell activation was deficient, which is consistent with the delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 MESHD patients. Finally, we identified altered signaling pathways in the severe group that suggests immunosenescence and immunometabolic changes could be contributing to the dysfunctional immune response. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 MESHD patients with ARDS MESHD have an immunologically distinct response when compared to those with a more innocuous disease course and show a state of immune imbalance in which deficiencies in both the innate and adaptive immune response may be contributing to a more severe disease course in COVID-19 MESHD.

    Viral shedding and immunological features of children COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Yang Yang; Haixia Zheng; Ling Peng; Jinli Wei; Yanrong Wang; Hexiao Li; Bo Peng; Shisong Fang; Mingxia Zhang; Yanjie Li; Hui Liu; Kai Feng; Li Xing; Jun Wang; Mengli Cao; Fuxiang Wang; Lei Liu; Yingxia Liu; Jing Yuan

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-24 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background SARS-CoV-2 could infect people at all ages, and the viral shedding and immunological features of children COVID-19 MESHD patients were analyzed.Methods Epidemiological information and clinical data were collected from 35 children patients. Viral RNAs in respiratory and fecal samples were detected. Plasma of 11 patients were collected and measured for 48 cytokines.Results 40% (14/35) of the children COVID-19 MESHD patients showed asymptomatic infections, while pneumonia MESHD shown by CT scan occurred in most of the cases (32/35, 91.43%). Elevated LDH, AST HGNC, CRP HGNC, neutropenia MESHD, leukopenia MESHD, lymphopenia MESHD and thrombocytopenia MESHD occurred in some cases, and CD4 HGNC and CD8 HGNC counts were normal. A total of 22 cytokines were significantly higher than the healthy control, and IP-10 HGNC, IFN-α2 HGNC of them in children were significantly lower than the adult patients. Meanwhile, MCP-3 HGNC, HGF HGNC, MIP-1α HGNC, and IL-1ra HGNC were similar or lower than healthy control, while significantly lower than adult patients. Viral RNAs were detected as early as the first day after illness onset (d.a.o) in both the respiratory and fecal samples. Viral RNAs decreased as the disease progression and mostly became negative in respiratory samples within 18 d.a.o, while maintained relatively stable during the disease progression and still detectable in some cases during 36~42 d.a.o. Conclusion COVID-19 MESHD in children was mild, and asymptomatic infection was common. Immune responses were relatively normal in children COVID-19 MESHD patients. Cytokine storm also occurred in children patients, while much weaker than adult patients. Positive rate of viral RNAs in fecal samples was high, and profile of viral shedding were different between respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

    Pericarditis and myocarditis long after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: a cross-sectional descriptive study in health-care workers

    Authors: Rocio Eiros; Manuel Barreiro-Perez; Ana Martin-Garcia; Julia Almeida; Eduardo Villacorta; Alba Perez-Pons; Soraya Merchan; Alba Torres-Valle; Clara Sanchez-Pablo; David Gonzalez-Calle; Oihane Perez-Escurza; Ines Toranzo; Elena Diaz-Pelaez; Blanca Fuentes-Herrero; Laura Macias-Alvarez; Guillermo Oliva-Ariza; Quentin Lecrevisse; Rafael Fluxa; Jose L Bravo-Grandez; Alberto Orfao; Pedro L Sanchez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.12.20151316 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Cardiac sequelae of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are still poorly documented. We conducted a cross-sectional study in health-care workers to report evidence of pericarditis MESHD and myocarditis MESHD after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods We studied 139 health-care workers with confirmed past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (103 diagnosed by RT-PCR and 36 by serology). Participants underwent clinical assessment, electrocardiography, laboratory tests including immune cell profiling and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Pericarditis MESHD was diagnosed when classical criteria were present, and the diagnosis of myocarditis MESHD was based on the updated CMR Lake-Louise-Criteria. Results: Median age was 52 years (IQR 41-57), 100 (72%) were women, and 23 (16%) were previously hospitalized for Covid-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD. At examination (10.4 [9.3-11.0] weeks after infection-like symptoms), all participants presented hemodynamic stability. Chest pain MESHD, dyspnoea MESHD or palpitations were observed in 58 (42%) participants; electrocardiographic abnormalities in 69 (50%); NT-pro- BNP HGNC was elevated in 11 (8%); troponin in 1 (1%); and CMR abnormalities MESHD in 104 (75%). Isolated pericarditis MESHD was diagnosed in 4 (3%) participants, myopericarditis in 15 (11%) and isolated myocarditis MESHD in 36 (26%). Participants diagnosed by RT-PCR were more likely to still present symptoms than participants diagnosed by serology (73 [71%] vs 18 [50%]; p=0.027); nonetheless, the prevalence of pericarditis MESHD or myocarditis MESHD was high in both groups (44 [43%] vs 11 [31%]; p=0.238). Most participants (101 [73%]) showed altered immune cell counts in blood, particularly decreased eosinophil (37 [27%]; p<0.001) and increased CD4 HGNC- CD8 HGNC-/loT alpha beta-cell numbers (24 [17%]; p<0.001). Pericarditis MESHD was associated with elevated CD4 HGNC- CD8 HGNC-/loT alpha beta-cell numbers (p=0.011), while participants diagnosed with myopericarditis or myocarditis MESHD had lower (p<0.05) plasmacytoid dendritic cell, NK-cell and plasma cell counts and lower anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibody levels (p=0.027). Conclusions: Pericarditis MESHD and myocarditis MESHD with clinical stability are frequent long after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, even in presently asymptomatic subjects. These observations will probably apply to the general population infected and may indicate that cardiac sequelae might occur late in association with an altered (delayed) innate and adaptative immune response.

    Discriminating Mild from Critical COVID-19 MESHD by Innate and Adaptive Immune Single-cell Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavages

    Authors: Els Wauters; Pierre Van Mol; Abhishek D. Garg; Sander Jansen; Yannick Van Herck; Lore Vanderbeke; Ayse Bassez; Bram Boeckx; Bert Malengier-Devlies; Anna Timmerman; Thomas Van Brussel; Tina Van Buyten; Rogier Schepers; Elisabeth Heylen; Dieter Dauwe; Christophe Dooms; Jan Gunst; Greet Hermans; Philippe Meersseman; Dries Testelmans; Jonas Yserbyt; Patrick Matthys; Sabine Tejpar; - CONTAGIOUS collaborators; Johan Neyts; Joost Wauters; Junbin Qian; Diether Lambrechts

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.196519 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: bioRxiv

    How innate and adaptive lung immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 synchronize during COVID-19 MESHD pneumonitis MESHD and regulate disease severity is poorly established. To address this, we applied single-cell profiling to bronchoalveolar lavages from 44 patients with mild or critical COVID-19 MESHD versus non- COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD as control. Viral RNA-tracking delineated the infection phenotype to epithelial cells, but positioned mainly neutrophils at the forefront of viral clearance activity during COVID-19 MESHD. In mild disease, neutrophils could execute their antiviral function in an immunologically controlled fashion, regulated by fully-differentiated T-helper-17 (TH17)-cells, as well as T-helper-1 ( TH1 HGNC)-cells, CD8 HGNC+ resident-memory (TRM) and partially-exhausted (TEX) T-cells with good effector functions. This was paralleled by orderly phagocytic disposal of dead/stressed cells by fully-differentiated macrophages, otherwise characterized by anti-inflammatory and antigen-presenting characteristics, hence facilitating lung tissue repair. In critical disease MESHD, CD4 HGNC+ TH1 HGNC- and CD8 HGNC+ TEX-cells were characterized by inflammation MESHD-associated stress and metabolic exhaustion, while CD4 HGNC+ TH17- and CD8 HGNC+ TRM-cells failed to differentiate. Consequently, T-cell effector function was largely impaired thereby possibly facilitating excessive neutrophil-based inflammation MESHD. This was accompanied by impaired monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, with monocytes exhibiting an ATP-purinergic signalling-inflammasome footprint, thereby enabling COVID-19 MESHD associated fibrosis MESHD and worsening disease severity. Our work represents a major resource for understanding the lung-localised immunity and inflammation MESHD landscape during COVID-19 MESHD.

    Laboratory findings in coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Mohammad Karimian; Amirreza Jamshidbeigi; Gholamreza Badfar; Milad Azami

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.07.20124602 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In early December 2019, the first patient with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Recent studies have suggested the role of primary laboratory tests in addition to clinical symptoms for suspected patients, which play a significant role in the diagnosis of COVID-19 MESHD. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate laboratory findings in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Material and methods: The present meta-analysis was reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. This protocol is registered with the code CRD42019145410 in PROSPERO International Database. Results: Finally, 52 studies involving 5490 patients with COVID-19 MESHD entered the meta-analysis process. The prevalence of leukopenia MESHD, lymphopenia MESHD, elevated c-reactive protein HGNC ( CRP HGNC), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), elevated serum amyloid A, elevated ferritin was estimated to be 20.9% (95%CI: 17.9-24.3), 51.6% (95%CI: 44.0-59.1), 63.6% (95%CI: 57.0-69.8), 62.5% (95%CI: 50.1-73.5), 63.6% (95%CI: 57.0-69.8), 62.5% (95%CI: 50.1-73.5), 74.7% (95%CI: 50.0-89.7), and 72.6% (95%CI: 58.1-83.5), respectively. The prevalence of elevated interleukin-6 HGNC was 59.9% (95%CI: 48.2-70.5), CD3 was 68.3% (95%CI: 50.1-82.2), reduced CD4 HGNC was 62.0% (95%CI: 51.1-71.6), reduced CD8 HGNC was 42.7% (95%CI: 32.2-53.9). The prevalence of elevated troponin-I was 20.6% (95%CI: 9.0-40.5), elevated creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) was 14.7% (95%CI: 7.1-28.0), elevated brain natriuretic peptide ( BNP HGNC) was 48.9% (95%CI: 30.4-67.7), elevated blood urea nitrogen was 13.1% (95%CI: 6.6-24.4),, elevated creatinine was 7.2% (95%CI: 4.4-11.8), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 53.1% (95%CI: 43.6-62.4), hyperglycemia MESHD was 41.1% (95% CI: 28.2-55.5), elevated total bilirubin was 48.9% (95%CI: 30.4-67.7), reduced albumin was 54.7% (95%CI: 38.1-70.2), reduced pre-albumin was 49.0% (95%CI: 26.6-71.8), and reduced PT was 53.1% (95% CI: 43.6-62.4), and D-dimer was 44.9% (95%CI: 31.0-59.6). Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive description of laboratory characteristics in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. The results show that lymphopenia MESHD, elevated CRP HGNC, elevated ESR, elevated ferritin, elevated serum amyloid A, elevated BNP HGNC, reduced albumin, reduced pre-albumin, reduced CD3, reduced CD4 HGNC, reduced CD8 HGNC, elevated D-dimer, reduced PT, elevated interleukin-2 HGNC, elevated interleukin-6 HGNC, elevated LDH and hyperglycemia MESHD are the common findings at the time of admission.

    Clinical Characteristics and CT Manifestations of 143 Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) in Taizhou City, Zhejiang, China

    Authors: Yani Kuang; Susu He; Shuangxiang Lin; Rui Zhu; Rongzhen Zhou; Shuying Ying; Renzhan Li; Haiyong Lin; Zhibang Zhang; Peipei Pang; Wenbin Ji

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-06-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, the first case of pneumonia MESHD associated with the SARS-CoV-2 was found in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China, so data are needed on the affected patients. The purpose of our study was to find the clinical manifestations and CT features of COVID-19 MESHD.Methods: All patients with COVID-19 MESHD in Taizhou city were retrospectively included and divided into non-severe group and severe group according to the severity of the disease. The clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and imaging features of COVID-19 MESHD patients were analyzed, and the differences between the two groups were compared.Results: A total of 143 laboratory-confirmed cases were included in the study, including 110 non-severe patients and 33 severe patients. The median age of patients was 47 (range 4–86 years). Fever MESHD (73.4%) and cough (63.6%) were the most common initial clinical symptoms. Between two groups of cases, the results of aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin HGNC, CR, glomerular filtration rate, amyloid protein A, fibrinogen HGNC, calcitonin level and oxygen partial pressure, IL – 10 HGNC, absolute value of CD3, CD4 HGNC, CD8 HGNC were different, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Therefore, these quantitative indicators can be used to help assess the severity. On admission, the CT showed that the lesions were mostly distributed in the periphery of the lung or subpleural (135 cases (98%)), and most of lesions presented as patchy (81%), mixed density (63%) shadow. Consolidation (68% vs 41%), bronchial inflation signs (59% vs 41%), and bronchiectasis (71% vs 39%) were more common in the severe group.Conclusions: Most of the cases of COVID-19 MESHD in Taizhou have mild symptoms and no death. In addition to clinical symptoms, some laboratory tests (such as absolute values of CD4 HGNC and CD8 HGNC) and CT findings can be used to assess the severity of the disease.

    Inflammation Level Severity and Death in Patients With COVID-19 MESHD: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Xiao Liu; Chuyan Long; Qinmei Xiong; Jianyong Ma; Chen Chen; Yuhao Su; Kui Hong

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20108399 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: An association among the use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme(ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers(ARBs) with the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is unclear. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the preprint databases MedRxiv and BioRxiv were searched for relevant studies that assessed the association among inflammation MESHD level, application of ACEI/ARB, infection severity and death MESHD in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. Odd risks(OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were combined using random-effects or fixed models depending on heterogeneity. Results: Eleven studies were included with a total of 33,483 patients. Our review showed ACEI/ARB therapy might be associated with the reduced inflammatory factor ( interleukin-6 HGNC) and elevated level of immune cells(CD3, CD8 HGNC). Meta-analysis showed no significant increase in the risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection(OR:0.95, 95%CI:0.89-1.05) in patients receiving ACEI/ARB therapy, and ACEI/ARB therapy was associated with a decreased risk of severe COVID-19 MESHD (OR:0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.96) and mortality (OR:0.52, 95%CI: 0.35-0.79). Subgroup analyses showed that, among the general population, application of ACEI/ARB therapy was associated with reduced risks of all-cause death MESHD(OR:0.31, 95%CI: 0.13-0.75), and the risk of severe COVID-19 MESHD(OR:0.79, 95%CI: 0.60-1.05) infection and COVID-19 MESHD infection(OR:0.85, 95% CI: 0.66-1.08) were not increased. Among patients with hypertension MESHD, the use of an ACEI/ARB was associated with a lower severity of COVID-19 MESHD(OR:0.73, 95%CI: 0.51-1.03) and lower mortality(OR:0.57, 95%CI: 0.37-0.87), without evidence of an increased risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection(OR:1.00, 95%CI: 0.90-1.12). Conclusion: On the basis of the available evidence, this is the first meta-analysis showed that, in general population, the use of ACEI/ARB therapy was safe without an increased risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection and with a decreasing trend of severe COVID-19 infection MESHD and lower mortality. In patients with hypertension MESHD, the use of ACEI/ARB therapy should be encouraged, without increased risk of COVID-19 MESHD inflection, and better prognosis (a decreasing trends of severe COVID-19 MESHD and reduced all-cause death MESHD). Overall, ACEI/ARB therapy should be continued in patients who are at risk for, or have COVID-19 MESHD, either in general population or hypertension MESHD patients. Our results need to be interpreted with caution considering the potential for residual confounders, and more well-designed studies that control the clinical confounders are necessary to confirm our findings. Key Words COVID-19 MESHD; ACEI/ARB; SARS-COV-2; pneumonia MESHD; infectious disease MESHD; lung, hypertension MESHD

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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