Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinE (147)

ProteinS (40)

ProteinN (33)

ComplexRdRp (18)

ProteinM (17)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 147
    records per page

    Comparative studies of the seven human coronavirus envelope proteins PROTEIN using topology prediction and molecular modelling to understand their pathogenicity

    Authors: Dewald Schoeman; Ruben Cloete; Burtram Fielding

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.434384 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: bioRxiv

    Human (h) coronaviruses (CoVs) 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 are less virulent and cause mild, self-limiting respiratory tract infections, while SARS-CoV MESHD, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, are more virulent and have caused severe outbreaks. The CoV envelope (E) protein PROTEIN, an important contributor to the pathogenesis of severe hCoVs infections MESHD, may provide insight into this disparate severity of the disease. Topology prediction programs and 3D modelling software was used to predict and visualize structural aspects of the hCoV E protein PROTEIN related to its functions. All seven hCoV E proteins PROTEIN largely adopted different topologies, with some distinction between the more virulent and less virulent ones. The 3D models refined this distinction, showing the PDZ-binding motif (PBM) of SARS-CoV MESHD, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 to be more flexible than the PBM of hCoVs 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. We speculate that the increased flexibility of the PBM may provide the more virulent hCoVs with a greater degree of freedom, which can allow them to bind to different host proteins and can contribute to a more severe form of the disease. This is the first paper to predict the topologies and model 3D structures of all seven hCoVs E proteins PROTEIN, providing novel insights for possible drug and/or vaccine development.

    Long-read sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 reveals novel transcripts and a diverse complex transcriptome landscape.

    Authors: Jennifer Li-Pook-Than; Selene Banuelos; Alexander Honkala; Malaya K Sahoo; Benjamin A Pinsky; Michael P Snyder

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.05.434150 Date: 2021-03-06 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD, SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD), is a positive single-stranded RNA virus with a 30 kb genome that is responsible for the current pandemic. To date, the genomes of global COVID-19 MESHD variants have been primarily characterized via short-read sequencing methods. Here, we devised a long-read RNA (IsoSeq) sequencing approach to characterize the COVID-19 MESHD transcript landscape and expression of its [~]27 coding regions. Our analysis identified novel COVID-19 MESHD transcripts including a) a short [~]65-70 nt 5-UTR fused to various downstream ORFs encoding accessory proteins such as the envelope PROTEIN, ORF 8, and ORF 9 HGNC ( nucleocapsid) proteins PROTEIN, that are relatively highly expressed, b) novel SNVs that are differentially expressed, whereby a subset are suggestive of partial RNA editing events, and c) SNVs at functional sites, whereby at least one is associated with a differentially expressed spike protein PROTEIN isoform. These previously uncharacterized COVID-19 MESHD isoforms, expressed genes, and gene variants were corroborated using ddPCR. Understanding this transcriptional complexity may help provide insight into the biology and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 compared to other coronaviruses.

    Redesigning SARS-CoV-2 clinical RT-qPCR assays for wastewater RT-ddPCR

    Authors: Raul Alexander Gonzalez; Allison Larson; Hannah Thompson; Errin Carter; Xavier Fernandez Cassi

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.02.21252754 Date: 2021-03-05 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD wastewater surveillance has gained widespread acceptance to monitor community infection trends. Wastewater samples primarily differ from clinical samples by having low viral concentrations due to dilution, and high levels of PCR inhibitors. Therefore, wastewater samples should have appropriately designed and optimized molecular assays. Digital PCR has proven to be more sensitive and resilient to matrix inhibition. However, most SARS-CoV-2 assays being used have been designed for clinical use on RT-qPCR instruments, then adopted to digital PCR platforms. But it is unknown whether clinical RT-qPCR assays are adequate to use on digital PCR platforms. Here we designed an N- and E- gene PROTEIN multiplex (ddCoV_N and ddCoV_E) specifically for RT-ddPCR and benchmarked them against the nCoV_N2 and E_Sarbeco assays. ddCoV_N and ddCoV_E have equivalent limits of detections and samples concentrations to NCoV_N2 and E_Sarbeco but showed improved signal-to-noise ratios that eased interpretation and ability to multiplex. From GISAID downloaded unique sequences analyzed, 2.12% and 0.83% present a mismatch or would not be detected by the used primer/probe combination for the ddCoV_N and ddCoV_E, respectively.

    Altered Sub-Genomic RNA Expression in SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 Infections

    Authors: Matthew D Parker; Benjamin B Lindsey; Dhruv R Shah; Sharon Hsu; Alexander James Keeley; David G Partridge; Shay Leary; Alison Cope; Amy State; Katie Johnson; Nasar Ali; Rasha Raghei; Joe Heffer; Nikki Smith; Peijun Zhang; Marta Gallis; Stavroula F Louka; Max Whiteley; Benjamin H Foulkes; Stella Christou; Paige Wolverson; Manoj Pohare; Sam E Hansford; Luke R Green; Cariad Evans; Mohammad Raza; Dennis Wang; Silvana Gaudieri; Simon Mallal; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) consortium; Thushan I de Silva

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.02.433156 Date: 2021-03-03 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 viruses are more transmissible, may lead to greater clinical severity, and result in modest reductions in antibody neutralization. subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) is produced by discontinuous transcription of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and is a crucial step in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Applying our tool (periscope) to ARTIC Network Oxford Nanopore genomic sequencing data from 4400 SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical samples, we show that normalised sgRNA expression profiles are significantly increased in B.1.1.7 infections (n=879). This increase is seen over the previous dominant circulating lineage in the UK, B.1.177 (n=943), which is independent of genomic reads, E gene PROTEIN cycle threshold and day of illness when sampling occurred. A noncanonical subgenomic RNA which could represent ORF9b PROTEIN is significantly enriched in B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, potentially as a result of a triple nucleotide mutation leading to amino acid substitution D3L in nucleocapsid in this lineage which increases complementarity with the genomic leader sequence. These findings provide a unique insight into the biology of B.1.1.7 and support monitoring of sgRNA profiles in sequence data to evaluate emerging potential variants of concern.

    High-content screening of coronavirus genes for innate immune suppression revealsenhanced potency of SARS-CoV-2 proteins

    Authors: Erika J Olson; David M Brown; Timothy Z Chang; Lin Ding; Tai L Ng; H. Sloane Weiss; Peter Koch; Yukiye Koide; Nathan Rollins; Pia Mach; Tobias Meisinger; Trenton Bricken; Joshus Rollins; Yun Zhang; Colin Molloy; Yun Zhang; Briodget N Queenan; Timothy Mitchison; Debora Marks; Jeffrey C Way; John I Glass; Pamela A Silver

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.02.433434 Date: 2021-03-02 Source: bioRxiv

    Suppression of the host intracellular innate immune system is an essential aspect of viral replication. Here, we developed a suite of medium-throughput high-content cell-based assays to reveal the effect of individual coronavirus proteins on antiviral innate immune pathways. Using these assays, we screened the 196 protein products of seven coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2,SARS-CoV-1, 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1 and MERS). This includes a previously unidentified gene in SARS-CoV-2 encoded within the Spike gene. We observe immune-suppressing activity in both known host-suppressing genes (e PROTEIN.g., NSP1, Orf6, NSP3 PROTEIN, and NSP5 PROTEIN) as well as other coronavirus genes, including the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 protein. Moreover, the genes encoded by SARS-CoV-2 are generally more potent immune suppressors than their homologues from the other coronaviruses. This suite of pathway-based and mechanism-agnostic assays could serve as the basis for rapid in vitro prediction of the pathogenicity of novel viruses based on provision of sequence information alone.

    Evaluation of a Sample Pooling Strategy for Sars-cov-2 Using Real Time PCR

    Authors: Annet M Nankya; Luke Nyakarahuka; Stephen Balinandi; John Kayiwa; Julius Lutwama; Andrew Tamale; Joseph M Kungu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-03-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Back ground: Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID 19) in Uganda was first reported in a male traveler from Dubai on 21st March, 2020 shortly after WHO had announced the condition as a global pandemic. Timely laboratory diagnosis of COVID -19 for all samples from both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients was observed as key in containing the pandemic and breaking the chain of transmission. However, there was a challenge of limited resources required for testing SARS-COV-2 in low and middle income countries. To mitigate this, a study was conducted to evaluate a sample pooling strategy for COVI-19 using real time PCR. The cost implication and the turn around time of pooled sample testing versus individual sample testing were also compared.Methods: In this study, 1260 randomly selected samples submitted to Uganda Virus Research Institute for analysis were batched in pools of 5, 10, and 15. The pools were then extracted using a Qiagen kit. Both individual and pooled RNA were screened for the SARS-COV-2 E gene PROTEIN using a Berlin kit. Results: Out of 1260 samples tested, 21 pools were positive in pools of 5 samples, 16 were positive in pools of 10 and 14 were positive in pools of 15 samples. The study also revealed that the pooling strategy helps to save a lot on resources, time and expands diagnostic capabilities without affecting the sensitivity of the test in areas with low SARS-COV-2 prevalence.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the pooling strategy for COVID-19 MESHD reduced on the turnaround time and there was a substantial increase in the overall testing capacity with limited resources as compared to individual testing.

    Targeted Drug Repurposing Against the SARS-CoV-2 E Channel Identifies Blockers With in vitro Antiviral Activity

    Authors: Prabhat Pratap Singh Tomar; Miriam Krugliak; Isaiah T Arkin

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.24.432490 Date: 2021-02-24 Source: bioRxiv

    It is difficult to overstate the impact that COVID-19 MESHD had on humankind. The pandemic's etiological agent, SARS-CoV-2, is a member of the Coronaviridae, and as such, is an enveloped virus with ion channels in its membrane. Therefore, in an attempt to provide an option to curb the viral spread, we searched for blockers of its E protein PROTEIN viroporin. Using three bacteria-based assays, we identified eight compounds that exhibited activity after screening a library of ca. 3000 approved-for-human-use drugs. Reassuringly, analysis of viral replication in tissue culture indicated that most of the compounds could reduce infectivity to varying extents. In conclusion, targeting a particular channel in the virus for drug repurposing may increase our arsenal of treatment options to combat COVID-19 MESHD virulence.

    Structural Basis for SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein PROTEIN in Recognition of Human Cell Junction Protein PALS1

    Authors: Jin Chai; Yuanheng Cai; Changxu Pang; Liguo Wang; Sean McSweeney; John Shanklin; Qun Liu

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.22.432373 Date: 2021-02-23 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has created a global health and economic emergency. SARS-CoV-2 viruses hijack human proteins to promote their spread and virulence including the interactions involving the viral envelope (E) protein PROTEIN and human proteins. To understand the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 viral-host recognition, we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine a structure for the human cell junction protein PALS1 HGNC and SARS-CoV-2 E protein PROTEIN complex. The structure shows that the E protein PROTEIN C-terminal DLLV motif recognizes a pocket formed exclusively by hydrophobic residues from the PDZ and SH3 domains in PALS1 HGNC. Our structural analysis provides an explanation for the observation that the viral E protein PROTEIN recruits PALS1 HGNC from lung epithelial cell junctions resulting in vascular leakage, lung damage MESHD, viral spread, and virulence. In addition, our structure provides novel targets for peptide- and small-molecule inhibitors that could block the PALS1 HGNC-E interactions to reduce the E-mediated damage to vascular structures.

    Delivery of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein PROTEIN into human cells


    doi:10.1101/2021.02.18.431684 Date: 2021-02-19 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein PROTEIN (S2-E) is a conserved membrane protein that is essential to coronavirus assembly and budding. Here, we describe the recombinant expression and purification of S2-E into amphipol-class amphipathic polymer solutions. The physical properties of amphipols underpin their ability to solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins without disrupting membranes. Amphipol delivery of S2-E to pre-formed planar bilayers results in spontaneous membrane integration and formation of viroporin ion channels. Amphipol delivery of the S2- E protein PROTEIN to human cells results in membrane integration followed by retrograde trafficking to a location adjacent to the endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and the Golgi, which are the sites of coronavirus replication. Delivery of S2-E to cells enables both chemical biological approaches for future studies of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis MESHD and development of "Trojan Horse" anti-viral therapies. This work also establishes a paradigm for amphipol-mediated delivery of membrane proteins to cells.

    Harnessing recombinase polymerase amplification for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 in resource-limited settings

    Authors: Dounia Cherkaoui; Da Huang; Benjamin Miller; Rachel A McKendry

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.17.21251732 Date: 2021-02-19 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD has challenged testing capacity worldwide. The mass testing needed to stop the spread of the virus requires new molecular diagnostic tests that are faster and with reduced equipment requirement, but as sensitive as the current gold standard protocols based on polymerase chain reaction. We developed a fast (25-35 minutes) molecular test using reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification for simultaneous detection of two conserved regions of the virus, targeting the E and RdRP PROTEIN genes. The diagnostic platform offers two complementary detection methods: real-time fluorescence or visual dipstick. The analytical sensitivity of the test by real-time fluorescence was 9.5 (95% CI: 7.0-18) RNA copies per reaction for the E gene PROTEIN and 17 (95% CI: 11-93) RNA copies per reaction for the RdRP PROTEIN gene. The analytical sensitivity for the dipstick readout was 130 (95% CI: 82-500) RNA copies per reaction. The assay showed high specificity with both detection methods when tested against common seasonal coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV MESHD model samples. The dipstick readout demonstrated potential for point-of-care testing, with simple or equipment-free incubation methods and a user-friendly prototype smartphone application was proposed with data capture and connectivity. This ultrasensitive molecular test offers valuable advantages with a swift time-to-result and it requires minimal laboratory equipment compared to current gold standard assays. These features render this diagnostic platform more suitable for decentralised molecular testing.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
The web page can also be accessed via API.



MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

Export subcorpus as...

This service is developed in the project nfdi4health task force covid-19 which is a part of nfdi4health.

nfdi4health is one of the funded consortia of the National Research Data Infrastructure programme of the DFG.