Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (55)

ProteinS1 (55)

ProteinN (7)

ORF10 (1)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 55
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    SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein S1 PROTEIN induces fibrin(ogen) resistant to fibrinolysis: Implications for microclot formation in COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Lize M Grobbelaar; Chantelle Venter; Mare Vlok; Malebogo Ngoepe; Gert J Laubscher; Petrus J Lourens; Janami Steenkamp; Douglas B Kell; Etheresia Pretorius; Douglas B Kell

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.05.21252960 Date: 2021-03-08 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation MESHD and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein S1 PROTEIN subunit as potential inflammagen sui generis. Using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy as well as mass spectrometry, we investigate the potential of this inflammagen to interact with platelets and fibrin(ogen) directly to cause blood hypercoagulation MESHD. Using platelet poor plasma (PPP), we show that spike protein PROTEIN may interfere with blood flow. Mass spectrometry also showed that when spike protein S1 PROTEIN is added to healthy PPP, it results in structural changes to {beta} and {gamma} fibrin(ogen), complement 3, and prothrombin. These proteins were substantially resistant to trypsinization, in the presence of spike protein S1 PROTEIN. Here we suggest that, in part, the presence of spike protein PROTEIN in circulation may contribute to the hypercoagulation MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD positive patients and may cause substantial impairment of fibrinolysis. Such lytic impairment may result in the persistent large microclots we have noted here and previously in plasma samples of COVID-19 MESHD patients. This observation may have important clinical relevance in the treatment of hypercoagulability MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Perturbation of ACE2 HGNC structural ensembles by SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein binding

    Authors: Arzu Uyar; Alex Dickson

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.02.433608 Date: 2021-03-02 Source: bioRxiv

    The human ACE2 HGNC enzyme serves as a critical first recognition point of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the extracellular domain of ACE2 HGNC interacts directly with the S1 tailspike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virion through a broad protein-protein interface. Although this interaction has been characterized by X-ray crystallography and Cryo-EM, these structures do not reveal significant differences in ACE2 HGNC structure upon S1 protein PROTEIN binding. In this work, using several all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show persistent differences in ACE2 HGNC structure upon binding. These differences are determined with the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) machine learning method and validated using independent training and testing datasets, including long trajectories generated by D. E. Shaw Research on the Anton 2 supercomputer. In addition, long trajectories for 78 potent ACE2 HGNC-binding compounds, also generated by D. E. Shaw Research, were projected onto the LDA classification vector in order to determine whether the ligand-bound ACE2 HGNC structures were compatible with S1 protein PROTEIN binding. This allows us to predict which compounds are "apo-like" vs "complex-like", as well as to pinpoint long-range ligand-induced allosteric changes of ACE2 HGNC structure.

    In vitro screening of herbal medicinal products for their supportive curing potential in the context of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Hoai Tran; Philipp Peterburs; Jan Seibel; Dimitri Abramov-Sommariva; Evelyn Lamy

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.01.433344 Date: 2021-03-01 Source: bioRxiv

    Background: Herbal medicinal products have a long-standing history of use in the therapy of common respiratory infections MESHD. In the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, they may have the potential for symptom relief in non-severe or moderate disease cases. Here we describe the results derived by in vitro screening of five herbal medicinal products with regard to their potential to i) interfere with the binding of the human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) receptor with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN S1 protein PROTEIN, ii) modulate the release of the human defensin HBD1 and cathelicidin LL-37 HGNC from human A549 lung cells upon Spike S1 protein PROTEIN stimulation and iii) modulate the release of IFN-{gamma HGNC} from activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The investigated extracts were: Sinupret extract (SINx), Bronchipret thyme-ivy (BRO TE), Bronchipret thyme-primrose (BRO TP), Imupret (IMU), and Tonsipret (TOP). Methods: The inhibitory effect of the herbal medicinal products on the binding interaction of Spike S1 protein PROTEIN and the human ACE2 receptor was measured by ELISA. The effects on intracellular IFN-{gamma HGNC} expression in stimulated human PBMCs were measured by flow cytometry. Regulation on HBD1 HGNC and LL-37 HGNC expression and secretion was assessed in 25d long-term cultured human lung A549 epithelial cells by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results: IMU and BRO TE concentration-dependently inhibited the interaction between spike protein PROTEIN and the ACE2 HGNC Receptor. However, this effect was only observed in the cell-free assay at a concentration range which was later on determined as cytotoxic to human PBMC. SINx, TOP and BRO TP significantly upregulated the intracellular expression of antiviral IFN{gamma HGNC} from stimulated PBMC. Co-treatment of A549 cells with IMU or BRO TP together with SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein significantly upregulated mRNA expression (IMU) and release (IMU and BRO TP) of HBD1 HGNC and LL-37 HGNC (BRO TP). Conclusions: The in vitro screening results provide first evidence for an immune activating potential of some of the tested herbal medicinal extracts in the context of SARS-CoV-2. Whether these could be helpful in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 invasion MESHD or supportive in recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD needs deeper understanding of the observations.

    Quantifying Antibodies Directed against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN Protein S1 PROTEIN Subunit

    Authors: Anna Schaffner; Lorenz Risch; Stefanie Aeschbacher; Corina Risch; Myriam C. Weber; Sarah L. Thiel; Katharina Jüngert; Michael Pichler; Kirsten Grossmann; Nadia Wohlwend; Thomas Lung; Dorothea Hillmann; Susanna Bigler; Thomas Bodmer; Mauro Imperiali; Harald Renz; Philipp Kohler; Pietro Vernazza; Christian R. Kahlert; Raphael Twerenbold; Matthias Paprotny; David Conen; Martin Risch

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    With the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD causing a global health crisis, accurate diagnosis is critical. Diagnosing acute disease MESHD relies on RT-PCR tests measuring the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sampled material but in patients with suspected COVID-19 MESHD with a negative RT-PCR result, measuring anti-viral antibodies can help clinicians identify infected individuals. Antibody testing can also determine if someone was previously infected and help to measure the prevalence of the virus in a community. A new study characterizes an assay measuring total antibodies – combined IgA, IgM, and IgG isotypes – against SARS-CoV-2. The assay, ECLIA, specifically measures antibodies against the S1 subunit of the viral spike, which carries the virus’s receptor binding domain. Researchers in Liechtenstein evaluated ECLIA in a population with 125 cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and 1159 individuals without evidence of COVID-19 MESHD. The results showed a test sensitivity of 97.6%, while the specificity was 99.8%. Antibody levels were highest in hospitalized patients and lower in symptomatic patients outside the hospital and those with asymptomatic infection. Following COVID-19 MESHD, smokers developed lower antibody titers than non-smokers, whereas patients without fever MESHD had lower antibody titers than patients with fever MESHD. Following COVID-19 MESHD, smokers developed lower antibody titers than non-smokers, whereas patients without fever MESHD had lower antibody titers than patients with fever MESHD suggesting that the assay may be able to test the association between clinical characteristics and antibody levels and help identify individuals with potential cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2.

    Laser-facilitated epicutaneous immunization with SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein induces ACE2 blocking antibodies in mice

    Authors: Sandra Scheiblhofer; Stephan Drother; Werner Braun; Reinhard Braun; Maximilian Boesch; Richard Weiss

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.22.432259 Date: 2021-02-22 Source: bioRxiv

    The skin represents an attractive target tissue for vaccination against respiratory viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. Laser-facilitated epicutaneous immunization (EPI) has been established as a novel technology to overcome the skin barrier, which combines efficient delivery via micropores with an inherent adjuvant effect due to the release of danger-associated molecular patterns. Here we delivered the S1 subunit of the Spike PROTEIN protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the skin of BALB/c mice via laser-generated micropores with or without CpG-ODN1826 or the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of E.coli (LT-B). EPI induced serum IgG titers of 1:3200 that could be boosted 5 to 10-fold by co-administration of LT-B and CpG, respectively. Sera were able to inhibit binding of the spike protein PROTEIN to its receptor ACE2. Our data indicate that delivery of recombinant spike protein PROTEIN via the skin may represent an alternative route for vaccines against Covid-19 MESHD.

    Expression of SARS-CoV-2-related Receptors in Cells of the Neurovascular Unit: Implications for HIV-1 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Silvia Torices; Rosalba Cabrera; Michael Stangis; Oandy Naranjo; Daniel Adesse; Michal Toborek

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2021-02-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background. Neurological complications MESHD are common in patients affected by COVID-19 MESHD due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect brains. While the mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, it has been proposed that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the cells of the neurovascular units (NVU), which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of the current study was to analyze the expression pattern of the main SARS-CoV-2 receptors in naïve and HIV-1-infected MESHD cells of the NVU in order to elucidate a possible pathway of the virus entry into the brain and a potential modulatory impact of HIV-1 in this process. Methods. The gene and protein expression profile of ACE2, TMPRSS2, ADAM17 HGNC, BSG HGNC, DPP4 HGNC, AGTR2 HGNC, ANPEP HGNC, cathepsin B HGNC and cathepsin L HGNC was assessed by qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. In addition, we investigated if brain endothelial cells can be affected by the exposure to the S1 subunit of the S protein PROTEIN, the domain responsible for the direct binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptors. Results. The receptors involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are coexpressed in the cells of the NVU, especially in astrocytes and microglial cells. These receptors are functionally active as exposure of endothelial cells to the SARS CoV-2 S1 protein PROTEIN subunit altered the expression pattern of tight junction proteins, such as claudin-5 HGNC and ZO-1 HGNC. Additionally, HIV-1 infection MESHD upregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in brain astrocytes and microglia cells.Conclusions. These findings provide key insight into SARS-CoV-2 recognition by cells of the NVU and may help to develop possible treatment of CNS complications of COVID-19 MESHD.

    A novel antibody against the furin HGNC cleavage site of SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein: effects on proteolytic cleavage and ACE2 HGNC binding

    Authors: Michael G Spelios; Jeanne M Capanelli; Adam W Li

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.09.430451 Date: 2021-02-09 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 harbors a unique S1/S2 furin HGNC cleavage site within its spike protein PROTEIN, which can be cleaved by furin HGNC and other proprotein convertases. Proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein at the S1 PROTEIN/S2 boundary facilitates interaction with host ACE2 HGNC receptor for cell entry. To address this, high titer antibody was generated against the SARS-CoV-2-specific furin HGNC motif. Using a series of innovative ELISA-based assays, this furin HGNC site blocking antibody displayed high sensitivity and specificity for the S1/S2 furin HGNC cleavage site, and demonstrated effective blockage of both enzyme-mediated cleavage and spike- ACE2 HGNC interaction. The results suggest that immunological blocking of the furin HGNC cleavage site may afford a suitable approach to stem proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein and curtail viral infectivity.

    Exaggerated cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 and its inhibition by dexamethasone

    Authors: Olumayokun A Olajide; Victoria U Iwuanyanwu; Izabela Lepiarz-Raba; Alaa A Al-Hindawi

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.03.429536 Date: 2021-02-03 Source: bioRxiv

    An understanding of the pathological inflammatory mechanisms involved in SARS CoV-2 virus infection MESHD is necessary in order to discover new molecular pharmacological targets for SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein. In this study, the effects of a recombinant SARS CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Stimulation with spike glycoprotein S1 PROTEIN (100 ng/mL) resulted in significant elevation in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and IL-8 HGNC. However, pre-treatment with dexamethasone (100 nM) caused a significant reduction in the release of these cytokines. Further experiments revealed that S1 stimulation of PBMCs increased phosphorylation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC p65 HGNC and I{kappa}B, while increasing I{kappa}B degradation. DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B HGNC p65 HGNC was also significantly increased following stimulation with S1. Treatment of PBMCs with dexamethasone (100 nM) or BAY11-7082 (1 M) resulted in inhibition of S1-induced NF-{kappa}B HGNC activation. Activation of p38 HGNC MAPK by S1 was blocked in the presence of dexamethasone and SKF 86002. CRID3, but not dexamethasone pre-treatment produced significant inhibition of S1-induced activation of NLRP3 HGNC/ caspase 1 HGNC. Further experiments revealed that S1-induced increase in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and IL-8 HGNC was reduced in the presence of BAY11-7082 and SKF 86002, while CRID3 pre-treatment resulted in the reduction of IL-1{beta HGNC} production. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 stimulate PBMCs to release pro inflammatory cytokines through mechanisms involving activation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC, p38 MAPK and NLRP3 HGNC inflammasome. It is proposed that clinical benefits of dexamethasone in COVID-19 MESHD is possibly due to its anti-inflammatory activity in reducing SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm.

    Evidence for SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN Protein in the Urine of COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Santosh George; Anasuya Chattopadhyay Pal; Jacqueline Gagnon; Sushma Timalsina; Pallavi Singh; Pratap Vydyam; Muhammad Munshi; Joy E Chiu; Isaline Renard; Christina A Harden; Isabel M Ott; Anne E Watkins; Chantal B F Vogels; Peiwen Lu; Maria Tokuyama; Arvind Venkataraman; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; Anne L Wyllie; Veena Rao; Melissa Campbell; Shelli F Farhadian; Nathan D Grubaugh; Charles S Dela Cruz; Albert I Ko; Amalia Berna Perez; Elikplim H Akaho; Dennis G Moledina; Jeffrey Testani; Audrey R John; Michel Ledizet; Choukri Ben Mamoun

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.27.21250637 Date: 2021-01-31 Source: medRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD has so far affected over 42 million people worldwide, causing over 1.1 million deaths. With the large majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals being asymptomatic, major concerns have been raised about possible long-term consequences of the infection. We developed an antigen capture assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein in urine samples from COVID-19 MESHD patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs (NP-PCR+). The study used a collection of 233 urine samples from 132 participants from Yale New Haven Hospital and the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia obtained during the pandemic (106 NP-PCR+ and 26 NP-PCR-) as well as a collection of 20 urine samples from 20 individuals collected before the pandemic. Our analysis identified 23 out of 91 (25%) NP-PCR+ adult participants with SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN S1 protein PROTEIN in urine (Ur-S+). Interestingly, although all NP-PCR+ children were Ur-S-, 1 NP-PCR- child was found to be positive for spike protein PROTEIN in urine. Of the 23 Ur-S+ adults, only 1 individual showed detectable viral RNA in urine. Our analysis further showed that 24% and 21% of NP-PCR+ adults have high levels of albumin and cystatin C HGNC in urine, respectively. Among individuals with albuminuria MESHD (>0.3 mg/mg of creatinine) statistical correlation could be found between albumin and spike protein PROTEIN in urine. Together, our data showed that 1 of 4 of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals develop renal abnormalities MESHD such as albuminuria MESHD. Awareness about the long-term impact of these findings is warranted.

    An all-solid-state heterojunction oxide transistor for the rapid detection of biomolecules and SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN S1 protein PROTEIN

    Authors: Yen-Hung Lin; Yang Han; Abhinav Sharma; Wejdan S. AlGhamdi; Chien-Hao Liu; Tzu-Hsuan Chang; Xi-Wen Xiao; Akmaral Seitkhan; Alexander D. Mottram; Pichaya Pattanasattayavong; Hendrik Faber; Martin Heeney; Thomas D. Anthopoulos; Paola de Sessions; Andres Merits; Lin-Fa Wang; Roland G Huber; Catherine M. Green; Teresa Lambe; Peijun Zhang; Sarah C Gilbert; Max Crispin; Roshni Patel; Juan P Dizon; Irina Shimeliovich; Anna Gazumyan; Marina Caskey; Pamela J Bjorkman; Rafael Casellas; Theodora Hatziioannou; Paul D Bieniasz; Michel C Nussenzweig

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.19.427256 Date: 2021-01-19 Source: bioRxiv

    Solid-state transistor sensors that can detect biomolecules in real time are highly attractive for emerging bioanalytical applications. However, combining cost-effective manufacturing with high sensitivity, specificity and fast sensing response, remains challenging. Here we develop low-temperature solution-processed In2O3/ZnO heterojunction transistors featuring a geometrically engineered tri-channel architecture for rapid real-time detection of different biomolecules. The sensor combines a high electron mobility channel, attributed to the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2DEG) at the buried In2O3/ZnO heterointerface, in close proximity to a sensing surface featuring tethered analyte receptors. The unusual tri-channel design enables strong coupling between the buried q2DEG and the minute electronic perturbations occurring during receptor-analyte interactions allowing for robust, real-time detection of biomolecules down to attomolar (aM) concentrations. By functionalizing the tri-channel surface with SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD) antibody receptors, we demonstrate real-time detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN S1 protein PROTEIN down to attomolar concentrations in under two minutes.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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