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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Neural epidermal growth factor-like 1 HGNC protein variant increases survival and modulates the inflammatory and immune responses in human ACE-2 HGNC transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Roopa Biswas; Shannon Eaker; Dharmendra Kumar Soni; Swagata Kar; Denae LoBato; Cymbeline Culiat

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.08.430254 Date: 2021-02-08 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is a viral illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and is a worsening global pandemic. COVID-19 MESHD has caused at least 1.7 million deaths worldwide and over 300,000 in the United States. Recently, two promising vaccines are being administered in several countries. However, there remains an urgent need for a therapeutic treatment for COVID-19 MESHD patients with severe respiratory damage MESHD that can lead to intensive care, prolonged hospitalization, or mortality. Moreover, an increasing population of patients manifest lingering disabling symptoms (called Long Haulers). Here, we tested the efficacy of a recombinant neural epidermal growth factor like 1 protein variant (NELL1-NV1) in a COVID-19 MESHD mouse model, transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) receptor (tg-mice hACE2 HGNC) infected with SARS-CoV-2. The administration of NELL1-NV1 to SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD tg-mice hACE2 HGNC significantly improved clinical health score and increased survival. Analyses of bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid demonstrated decreased levels of several cytokines and chemokines (IFN-{gamma}, IL-10, IL-12 p70, CXCL-10/IP-10, MIG and Rantes), in NV1-treated treated mice compared to controls. Cytokines including IL-1 HGNC, IL-9 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, LIX/ CXCL5 HGNC, KC/ CXCL1 HGNC, MIP-2 HGNC/ CXCL2 HGNC, MIP-1 HGNC/ CCL3 HGNC, and G-CSF HGNC, critical to immune responses such as neutrophil recruitment, viral clearance and vascularization, were increased compared to controls. Our data suggest the potential of NELL1 HGNC-NV1-based therapy to mitigate the cytokine storm, modulate the abnormal immune response and repair respiratory tissue damage in COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)

    Authors: Conor Gruber; Roosheel Patel; Rebecca Trachman; Lauren Lepow; Fatima Amanat; Florian Krammer; Karen M. Wilson; Kenan Onel; Daniel Geanon; Kevin Tuballes; Manishkumar Patel; Konstantinos Mouskas; Nicole Simons; Vanessa Barcessat; Diane Del Valle; Samantha Udondem; Gurpawan Kang; Sandeep Gangadharan; George Ofori-Amanfo; Adeeb Rahman; Seunghee Kim-Schulze; Alexander Charney; Sacha Gnjatic; Bruce Gelb; Miriam Merad; Dusan Bogunovic

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.04.20142752 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: medRxiv

    Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 MESHD caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease MESHD have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 MESHD epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome MESHD in Children ( MIS HGNC-C) cases. We document that all MIS HGNC-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation MESHD ( IL-18 HGNC and IL-6 HGNC), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation ( CCL3 HGNC, CCL4 HGNC, and CDCP1 HGNC) and mucosal immune dysregulation ( IL-17A HGNC, CCL20 HGNC, CCL28 HGNC). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 HGNC and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation MESHD and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS HGNC-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R HGNC antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.

    Increased Interleukin-6 HGNC and Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1 are associated with Respiratory Failure in COVID-19 MESHD 

    Authors: Marthe Jørgensen; Jan Cato Holter; Erik Egeland Christensen; Camilla Schjalm; Kristian Tonby; Søren Erik Pischke; Synne Jenum; Linda G Skeie; Sarah Nur; Andreas Lind; Hanne Opsand; Tone Burvald Enersen; Ragnhild Grøndahl; Anne Hermann; Susanne Dudman; Fredrik Müller; Thor Ueland; Tom Eirik Mollnes; Pål Aukrust; Lars Heggelund; Aleksander Rygh Holten; Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39162/v1 Date: 2020-06-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD ARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDthere is an urgent need to identify patients that will progress to severe COVID-19 MESHD and may benefit from targeted treatment.Objectives: Analyze plasma cytokines in COVID-19 MESHD patients and investigate their association with r espiratory failure MESHD(R F) MESHD and treatment in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Method: Hospitalized patients (n=34) with confirmed COVID-19 MESHD were recruited into a prospective cohort study. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at inclusion and after 2-5 and 7-10 days. R F MESHDwas defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio (P/F) <40kPa. Plasma cytokines were analyzed by a Human Cytokine 27-plex assay. Measurements and Results:  COVID-19 MESHD patients with R F MESHDand/or treated in ICU showed overall increased systemic cytokine levels. Plasma I L-6, HGNC I L-8, HGNC G -CSF, HGNC M CP-1, HGNC M IP-1α HGNClevels were negatively correlated with P/F, whereas combinations of I L-6, HGNC I P-10, HGNC I L-1ra HGNCand M CP-1 HGNCshowed the best association with R F MESHDin ROC analysis (AUC 0.79-0.80, p<0.05). During hospitalization the decline was most significant for I P-10 HGNC(P<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were present in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD. I L-6 HGNCand M CP-1 HGNCwere inversely correlated with P/F with the largest AUC in ROC analyses and should be further explored as biomarkers to identify patients at risk for severe R F MESHDand as targets for improved treatment strategies. 

    SARS-CoV-2 activates lung epithelia cell proinflammatory signaling and leads to immune dysregulation in COVID-19 MESHD patients by single-cell sequencing

    Authors: Huarong Chen; Weixin Liu; Dabin Liu; Liuyang Zhao; Jun Yu

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20096024 Date: 2020-05-13 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD has become a global health emergency. We aim to decipher SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD cell types, the consequent host immune response and their interplay in the lung of COVID-19 MESHD patients. Design: We analyzed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of lung samples from 17 subjects (6 severe COVID-19 MESHD patients, 3 mild patients who recovered and 8 healthy controls). The expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptors ( ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSS2 HGNC) was examined among different cell types in the lung. The immune cells infiltration patterns, their gene expression profiles, and the interplay of immune cells and SARS-CoV-2 target cells were further investigated. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the overall ACE2 HGNC (receptor of SARS-CoV-2) expression was significantly higher in lung epithelial cells of COVID-19 MESHD patients, in particular in ciliated cell, club cell and basal cell. Comparative transcriptome analysis of these lung epithelial cells of COVID-19 MESHD patients and healthy controls identified that SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD activated pro-inflammatory signaling including interferon pathway and cytokine signaling. Moreover, we identified dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 MESHD. In severe COVID-19 MESHD patients, significantly higher neutrophil, but lower T and NK cells in lung were observed along with markedly increased cytokines ( CCL2 HGNC, CCL3 HGNC, CCL4 HGNC, CCL7 HGNC, CCL3L1 HGNC and CCL4L2 HGNC) compared with healthy controls as well as mild patients who recovered. The cytotoxic phenotypes were shown in lung T and NK cells of severe patients as evidenced by enhanced IFN{gamma HGNC}, Granulysin HGNC, Granzyme B HGNC and Perforin expression. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD altered the community interplay of lung epithelial cells and immune cells: the interaction between epithelial cells with macrophage, T and NK cell was stronger, but their interaction with neutrophils was lost in COVID-19 MESHD patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD activates pro-inflammatory signaling in lung epithelial cells expressing ACE2 HGNC and causes dysregulation of immune response to release more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD breaks the interplay of lung epithelial cells and immune cells.

    An Update on SARS-COV-2/ COVID-19 MESHD with Particular Reference on Its Clinical Pathology, Pathogenesis, Immunopathology and Mitigation Strategies – A Review

    Authors: Kuldeep Dhama; Shailesh Kumar Patel; Mamta Pathak; Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo; Ruchi Tiwari; Yashpal Singh Malik; Rajendra Singh; Ranjit Sah; Ali A. Rabaan; D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana; Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

    id:10.20944/preprints202003.0348.v1 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia MESHD and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death MESHD is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death MESHD in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure MESHD associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation MESHD in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 MESHD patients. COVID-19 MESHD patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g HGNC, IL-1b HGNC, IP-10 HGNC, and MCP-1 HGNC. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 MESHD revealed higher levels of TNF-α HGNC, G-CSF HGNC, and MIP-1A HGNC. Blood profile of the COVID-19 MESHD patients exhibits lymphopenia MESHD, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia MESHD and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 MESHD clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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