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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism and immunopathology in lung tissues from fatal COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Suzane Ramos da Silva; Enguo Ju; Wen Meng; Alberto E. Paniz Mondolfi; Sanja Dacic; Anthony Green; Clare Bryce; Zachary Grimes; Mary E Fowkes; Emilia M. Sordillo; Carlos Cordon-Cardo; Haitao Guo; Shou-Jiang Gao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.20195818 Date: 2020-09-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) prominently manifests with pulmonary symptoms histologically reflected by diffuse alveolar damage MESHD (DAD), excess inflammation MESHD, pneumocyte hyperplasia MESHD and proliferation, and formation of platelet aggregates or thromboemboli MESHD. However, the mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear. Methods We performed multicolor staining for viral proteins, and lineage cell markers to identify SARS-CoV-2 tropism MESHD and to define the lung pathobiology in postmortem tissues from five patients with fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. Findings The lung parenchyma showed severe DAD MESHD with thromboemboli MESHD in all cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was found in an extensive range of cells including alveolar epithelial type II/pneumocyte type II MESHD (AT2) cells (HT2-280), ciliated cells (tyr--tubulin), goblet cells ( MUC5AC HGNC), club-like cells ( MUC5B HGNC) and endothelial cells ( CD31 HGNC and CD34 HGNC). Greater than 90% of infiltrating immune cells were positive for viral proteins including macrophages and monocytes ( CD68 HGNC and CD163 HGNC), neutrophils ( ELA-2 HGNC), natural killer (NK) cells ( CD56 HGNC), B-cells ( CD19 HGNC and CD20 HGNC), and T-cells (CD3{varepsilon}). Most but not all infected cells were positive for the viral entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC). The numbers of infected and ACE2 HGNC-positive cells correlated with the extent of tissue damage. The infected tissues exhibited low numbers of B-cells and abundant CD3{varepsilon}+ T-cells consisting of mainly T helper cells ( CD4 HGNC), few cytotoxic T cells (CTL, CD8 HGNC), and no T regulatory cell ( FOXP3 HGNC). Antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR of B and T cells was abundant in all cases. Robust interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) expression was present in most uninfected and infected cells, with higher expression levels observed in cases with more tissue damage. Interpretation In lung tissues from severely affected COVID-19 MESHD patients, there is evidence for broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms, activation of immune cells, and clearance of immunosuppressive cells, which could contribute to severe tissue damage, thromboemboli, excess inflammation MESHD and compromised adaptive immune responses.

    Clinical Features and Histopathological Changes of Skeletal Muscle in Patients with COVID-19 MESHD: Two Case reports

    Authors: Mei-Yan Liao; Ping Duan; Zhen-Yu Pan; Yu-Xiang Cai; Wei Fan; An-Song Ping

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45595/v1 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundTo the best of our knowledge, muscle soreness MESHD is a common manifestation for the coronavirus disease-19 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients, but the mechanism of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) injury MESHD to skeletal muscle remains unclear, there has been no publication focused on muscle involvement in COVID-19 MESHD patients.Case presentationWe present the case of two Chinese men with COVID-19 MESHD, whose common symptoms were fatigue MESHD and muscle soreness. They went through different treatments, patient 1, 81-year-old, eventually died of multi-organ failure MESHD, and patient 2, 53-year-old, underwent amputation of the mid-lower section of left thigh. Laboratory tests in both patients showed abnormal biochemical parameters associated with skeletal muscle injury MESHD. We obtained skeletal muscle samples from these two patients, one from postmortem biopsy of gastrocnemius muscle and the other from a resected left lower limb due to thrombosis MESHD. The pathological findings in patient 1 were mainly scattered atrophic muscles MESHD, while fiber necrosis MESHD and minor inflammation MESHD were identified in patient 2, and the mild infiltrations were confirmed by CD68 HGNC and LCA staining to be predominantly macrophages and lymphocytes.ConclusionsWe report the clinical and laboratory features together with histopathological findings in skeletal muscle tissues from two COVID-19 MESHD cases and speculate that the SARS-CoV-2 may cause skeletal muscle injury MESHD. Due to the particularity of individual differences in case reports, the background of chronic neuromuscular disease MESHD in patient 1 and a minimal compartment syndrome MESHD caused by thrombosis MESHD in patient 2 need to be excluded prior to the conclusion that the skeletal muscles have been involved in COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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