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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Assessment of a serological diagnostic kit HGNC of sars-cov-2 availble in Iran

    Authors: hamid reza shamsollahi; Mostafa Amini; Shaban Alizadeh; Saharnaz Nedjat; Ali Akbari-Sari; Mehdi Rezaei; Seyed Farshad Allameh; Akbar Fotouhi; Masud Yunesian

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.04.20090209 Date: 2020-05-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic broke MESHD out in December 2019 and now is characterized as a pandemic. The effective control of this infectious disease requires access to diagnostic techniques, both for case finding and epidemic size estimation. The molecular technique is routinely being used worldwide. Although it is the standard case detection and management method, it has its own shortcomings. Thus, some easy-to-use rapid serological tests were developed. Methods: One hundred and fourteen positive RT-PCR-diagnosed patients were tested by VivaDiag Kit HGNC, a brand of rapid serological kits available in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. Frozen serum specimens taken from healthy people in summer and autumn 2019, were also tested as negative controls. Results: The test sensitivity was 47.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.8-56.9) for IgM and 47.0% (95% CI: 38.0-56.0) for IgG. There was no difference between IgG and IgM seropositivity except in one case. Specificity was calculated as 99.0% (95% CI: 96.4-99.9) for IgM and of 100.0% (95% CI: 0.98.2-100.0) for IgG. Sensitivity was higher in men and older participants. Conclusion: This test can be used for epidemiological investigations especially for the estimation of the level of infection in the community, after it is properly corrected for sensitivity and specificity. The low sensitivity could be attributed to the technical limitation of the kits or low levels of antibodies after infection. The different sensitivity in age and sex groups supports the hypothesis that different people show different immune responses to this virus.

    Adjusted age-specific case fatality ratio during the COVID-19 MESHD epidemic in Hubei, China, January and February 2020

    Authors: Anthony Hauser; Michel J Counotte; Charles C Margossian; Garyfallos Konstantinoudis; Nicola Low; Christian L Althaus; Julien Riou

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.04.20031104 Date: 2020-03-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background. As of 16 May 2020, more than 4.5 million cases and more than 300,000 deaths MESHD from disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported. Reliable estimates of mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are essential to understand clinical prognosis, plan health care capacity and for epidemic forecasting. The case fatality ratio (CFR), calculated from total numbers of reported cases and reported deaths MESHD, is the most commonly reported metric, but can be a misleading measure of overall mortality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) simulate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 using publicly available surveillance data; 2) infer estimates of SARS-CoV-2 mortality adjusted for biases and examine the CFR, the symptomatic case fatality ratio ( sCFR HGNC) and the infection fatality ratio (IFR) in different geographic locations. Method and Findings. We developed an age-stratified susceptible-exposed- infected-removed (SEIR) compartmental model describing the dynamics of transmission and mortality during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Our model accounts for two biases: preferential ascertainment of severe cases and right-censoring of mortality. We fitted the transmission model to surveillance data from Hubei province, China and applied the same model to six regions in Europe: Austria, Bavaria (Germany), Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany), Lombardy (Italy), Spain and Switzerland. In Hubei, the baseline estimates were: CFR 2.4% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 2.1-2.8%), sCFR HGNC 3.7% (3.2-4.2%) and IFR 2.9% (2.4-3.5%). Estimated measures of mortality changed over time. Across the six locations in Europe estimates of CFR varied widely. Estimates of sCFR HGNC and IFR, adjusted for bias, were more similar to each other but still showed some degree of heterogeneity. Estimates of IFR ranged from 0.5% (95% CrI 0.4-0.6%) in Switzerland to 1.4% (1.1-1.6%) in Lombardy, Italy. In all locations, mortality increased with age. Among 80+ year olds, estimates of the IFR suggest that the proportion of all those infected with SARS-CoV-2 who will die ranges from 20% (95% CrI: 16-26%) in Switzerland to 34% (95% CrI: 28-40%) in Spain. A limitation of the model is that count data by date of onset are required and these are not available in all countries. Conclusions. We propose a comprehensive solution to the estimation of SARS-Cov-2 mortality from surveillance data during outbreaks. The CFR is not a good predictor of overall mortality from SARS-CoV-2 and should not be used for evaluation of policy or comparison across settings. Geographic differences in IFR suggest that a single IFR should not be applied to all settings to estimate the total size of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic MESHD in different countries. The sCFR HGNC and IFR, adjusted for right-censoring and preferential ascertainment of severe cases, are measures that can be used to improve and monitor clinical and public health strategies to reduce the deaths from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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