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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Immune characterization and profiles of SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients

    Authors: Martine Policard; Sidharth Jain; Samantha Rego; Sivanesan Dakshanamurthy

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.17.431721 Date: 2021-02-18 Source: bioRxiv

    The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the increasing mortality rates of COVID-19 MESHD create an urgent need for treatments, which are currently lacking. Although vaccines have been approved by the FDA for emergency use in the U.S., patients will continue to require pharmacologic intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality as vaccine availability remains limited. The rise of new variants makes the development of therapeutic strategies even more crucial to combat the current pandemic and future outbreaks. Evidence from several studies suggests the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD plays a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Consequently, host immune factors are becoming more recognized as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for COVID-19 MESHD. To develop therapeutic strategies to combat current and future coronavirus outbreaks, understanding how the coronavirus hijacks the host immune system during and after the infection is crucial. In this study, we investigated immunological patterns or characteristics of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that may contribute to the disease severity of COVID-19 MESHD patients. We analyzed large bulk RNASeq and single cell RNAseq data from COVID-19 MESHD patient samples to immunoprofile differentially expressed gene sets and analyzed pathways to identify human host protein targets. We observed an immunological profile of severe COVID-19 MESHD patients characterized by upregulated cytokines, interferon-induced proteins, and pronounced T cell lymphopenia MESHD, supporting findings by previous studies. We identified a number of host immune targets including PERK HGNC, PKR HGNC, TNF HGNC, NF-kB, and other key genes that modulate the significant pathways and genes identified in COVID-19 MESHD patients. Finally, we identified genes modulated by COVID-19 MESHD infection that are implicated in oncogenesis, including E2F7 HGNC and RB1 HGNC, suggesting a mechanism by which cancer MESHD may arise in patients infected with SARS-CoV2. Further clinical investigation of these targets may lead to bonafide therapeutic strategies to treat the current COVID-19 pandemic MESHD and protect against future outbreaks and viral escape variants.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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