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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism and immunopathology in lung tissues from fatal COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Suzane Ramos da Silva; Enguo Ju; Wen Meng; Alberto E. Paniz Mondolfi; Sanja Dacic; Anthony Green; Clare Bryce; Zachary Grimes; Mary E Fowkes; Emilia M. Sordillo; Carlos Cordon-Cardo; Haitao Guo; Shou-Jiang Gao

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.25.20195818 Date: 2020-09-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) prominently manifests with pulmonary symptoms histologically reflected by diffuse alveolar damage MESHD (DAD), excess inflammation MESHD, pneumocyte hyperplasia MESHD and proliferation, and formation of platelet aggregates or thromboemboli MESHD. However, the mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear. Methods We performed multicolor staining for viral proteins, and lineage cell markers to identify SARS-CoV-2 tropism MESHD and to define the lung pathobiology in postmortem tissues from five patients with fatal SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. Findings The lung parenchyma showed severe DAD MESHD with thromboemboli MESHD in all cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was found in an extensive range of cells including alveolar epithelial type II/pneumocyte type II MESHD (AT2) cells (HT2-280), ciliated cells (tyr--tubulin), goblet cells ( MUC5AC HGNC), club-like cells ( MUC5B HGNC) and endothelial cells ( CD31 HGNC and CD34 HGNC). Greater than 90% of infiltrating immune cells were positive for viral proteins including macrophages and monocytes ( CD68 HGNC and CD163 HGNC), neutrophils ( ELA-2 HGNC), natural killer (NK) cells ( CD56 HGNC), B-cells ( CD19 HGNC and CD20 HGNC), and T-cells (CD3{varepsilon}). Most but not all infected cells were positive for the viral entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC). The numbers of infected and ACE2 HGNC-positive cells correlated with the extent of tissue damage. The infected tissues exhibited low numbers of B-cells and abundant CD3{varepsilon}+ T-cells consisting of mainly T helper cells ( CD4 HGNC), few cytotoxic T cells (CTL, CD8 HGNC), and no T regulatory cell ( FOXP3 HGNC). Antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR of B and T cells was abundant in all cases. Robust interleukin-6 HGNC ( IL-6 HGNC) expression was present in most uninfected and infected cells, with higher expression levels observed in cases with more tissue damage. Interpretation In lung tissues from severely affected COVID-19 MESHD patients, there is evidence for broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms, activation of immune cells, and clearance of immunosuppressive cells, which could contribute to severe tissue damage, thromboemboli, excess inflammation MESHD and compromised adaptive immune responses.

    ALTERED MOLECULAR PATHWAYS OBSERVED IN NASO-OROPHARYNGEAL SAMPLES OF SARS-CoV-2 PATIENTS

    Authors: Emel Akgun; Mete B Tuzuner; Betul Sahin; Meltem Kilercik; Canan Kulah; Hacer N Cakiroglu; Mustafa Serteser; Ibrahim Unsal; Ahmet T Baykal

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20102558 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appeared throughout the World and currently affected more than 3.6 million people and caused the death of around 252,000 people. The novel strain of the coronavirus disease MESHD is transmittable at a devastating rate with a high rate of severe hospitalization even more so for the elderly population. Currently around 50,000 patients are in a seriously critical situation. Although 1.2 million patients recovered from the disease there are still more than 2.1 Million active cases. Naso-oro-pharyngeal swab samples as the first step towards detecting suspected infection of SARS-CoV-2 MESHD provides a non-invasive method for PCR testing at a high confidence rate. Furthermore, proteomics analysis of PCR positive and negative naso-oropharyngeal samples provides information on the molecular level which highlights disease pathology. Samples from 15 PCR positive cases and 15 PCR negative cases were analyzed with nanoLC-MS/MS to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Proteomic analyses identified 207 proteins across the sample set and 17 of them were statistically significant. Protein-protein interaction analyses emphasized pathways like Neutrophil degranulation, Innate Immune System, Antimicrobial Peptides. Neutrophil Elastase HGNC ( ELANE HGNC), Azurocidin HGNC ( AZU1 HGNC), Myeloperoxidase HGNC ( MPO HGNC), Myeloblastin HGNC ( PRTN3 HGNC), Cathepsin G HGNC ( CTSG HGNC) and Transcobalamine-1 ( TCN1 HGNC) were found to be significantly altered in naso-oropharyngeal samples of SARS-CoV-2 patients. The identified proteins are linked to alteration in the innate immune system specifically via neutrophil degranulation and NETosis.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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