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MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Antibody and T-cell responses to a single dose of the AZD1222/Covishield vaccine in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD and naive health care workers in Sri HGNC Lanka

    Authors: Chandima Jeewandara; Achala Kamaladasa; Pradeep D Pushpakumara; Deshni Jayathilaka; Inoka Sepali; Saubhagyagya Danasekara; Dinuka Guruge; Thushali Ranasinghe; Shashika Dayaratne; Thilagaraj T Padmanadan; Gayasha Somathilaka; Deshan Madusanka; Shyrar Tanussiya; Tibutius Jayadas; Heshan Kuruppu; Ayesha Wijesinghe; Nimasha Thashmi; Dushantha Milroy; Achini Nandasena; Nilanka Sanjeewani; Ruwan Wijayamuni; Sudath Samaraweera; Lisa Schimanski; Tiong Tan; Tao Dong; Graham Ogg; Alain Townsend; Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.09.21255194 Date: 2021-04-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: In order to determine the immunogenicity of a single dose of the AZD1222/Covishield vaccine in a real-world situation, we assessed the immunogenicity, in a large cohort of health care workers in Sri HGNC Lanka. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was carried out in 607 naive and 26 previously infected health care workers (HCWs) 28 to 32 days following a single dose of the vaccine. Haemagglutination test (HAT) for antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the wild type virus, B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and the surrogate neutralization assay (sVNT) was carried out in 69 naive and 26 previously infected individuals. Spike protein PROTEIN (pools S1 and S2) specific T cell responses were measured by ex vivo ELISpot IFNg HGNC; assays in 76 individuals. Results: 92.9% of previously naive HCWs seroconverted to a single dose of the vaccine, irrespective of age and gender; and ACE2 HGNC blocking antibodies were detected in 67/69 (97.1%) previously naive vaccine recipients. Although high levels of antibodies were found to the RBD of the wild type virus, the titres for B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 were lower in previously naive HCWs. Ex vivo T cell responses were observed to S1 in 63.9% HCWs and S2 in 31.9%. The ACE2 HGNC blocking titres measured by the sVNT significantly increased (p<0.0001) from a median of 54.1 to 97.9 % of inhibition, in previously infected HCWs and antibodies to the RBD for the variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 also significantly increased. Discussion: a single dose of the AZD1222/Covishield vaccine was shown to be highly immunogenic in previously naive individuals inducing antibody levels greater than following natural infection. In infected individuals, a single dose induced very high levels of ACE2 HGNC blocking antibodies and antibodies to RBDs of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

    T-cell responses as a correlate of COVID-19 MESHD vaccination. A pilot study in Health Care Workers.

    Authors: Monica Martinez-Gallo; Juliana Esperalba-Ezquerra; Ricardo Pujol-Borrell; Victor Sanda; Iria Arrese-Munoz; Candela Fernandez-Naval; Andres Anton-Pagarolas; Victoria Cardona; Moises Labrador-Horrillo; Tomas Pumarola-Sune; Manuel Hernandez-Gonzalez

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.31.21254472 Date: 2021-04-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Clinical trials on the different vaccines to SARS-CoV-2 have demonstrated protection efficacy, but it is urgent to assess the levels of protection generated with real-world data, especially in individuals professionally exposed. Measuring T-cell responses may complement antibody tests currently in use as correlates of protection but there are not validated T-cell responses applicable to large number of samples. Objective: To assess the feasibility of using T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD peptides by commercially available whole blood interferon-gamma HGNC release assays (IGRA) as a correlate of protection. Patients: Twenty health care workers before and after vaccination. Methods: Antibody test to SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD and S proteins PROTEIN in parallel with one IGRA assay and two detection techniques than can be automated. Results: IGRA test detected T-cell responses in naturally exposed and vaccinated HCW already after first vaccination dose. the correlation by the two detection methods, CLIA and ELISA, very high (R>0.9) and sensitivity and specificity ranged between 100 and 86% and 100-73% respectively. Even though there was a very high concordance between antibody and the IGRA assay in the ability to detect immune response to SARS-CoV-2 there was a relatively low quantitative correlation. In the small group primed by natural infection, one vaccine dose was sufficient to reach immune response plateau. IGRA was positive in one Ig (S) antibody negative vaccinated immunosuppressed HCW illustrating another advantage of the IGRA test. Conclusion: Whole blood IGRA tests amenable to automation, as the one here reported, constitute a promising additional tool for measuring the state of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2; they are applicable to large number of samples and may become valuable correlates of protection to COVID-19 MESHD, particularly for vulnerable groups at risk of being re-exposed to infection, as are health care workers.

    In vitro screening of herbal medicinal products for their supportive curing potential in the context of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Hoai Tran; Philipp Peterburs; Jan Seibel; Dimitri Abramov-Sommariva; Evelyn Lamy

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.01.433344 Date: 2021-03-01 Source: bioRxiv

    Background: Herbal medicinal products have a long-standing history of use in the therapy of common respiratory infections MESHD. In the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, they may have the potential for symptom relief in non-severe or moderate disease cases. Here we describe the results derived by in vitro screening of five herbal medicinal products with regard to their potential to i) interfere with the binding of the human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) receptor with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN S1 protein PROTEIN, ii) modulate the release of the human defensin HBD1 and cathelicidin LL-37 HGNC from human A549 lung cells upon Spike S1 protein PROTEIN stimulation and iii) modulate the release of IFN-{gamma HGNC} from activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The investigated extracts were: Sinupret extract (SINx), Bronchipret thyme-ivy (BRO TE), Bronchipret thyme-primrose (BRO TP), Imupret (IMU), and Tonsipret (TOP). Methods: The inhibitory effect of the herbal medicinal products on the binding interaction of Spike S1 protein PROTEIN and the human ACE2 receptor was measured by ELISA. The effects on intracellular IFN-{gamma HGNC} expression in stimulated human PBMCs were measured by flow cytometry. Regulation on HBD1 HGNC and LL-37 HGNC expression and secretion was assessed in 25d long-term cultured human lung A549 epithelial cells by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results: IMU and BRO TE concentration-dependently inhibited the interaction between spike protein PROTEIN and the ACE2 HGNC Receptor. However, this effect was only observed in the cell-free assay at a concentration range which was later on determined as cytotoxic to human PBMC. SINx, TOP and BRO TP significantly upregulated the intracellular expression of antiviral IFN{gamma HGNC} from stimulated PBMC. Co-treatment of A549 cells with IMU or BRO TP together with SARS-CoV-2 spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein significantly upregulated mRNA expression (IMU) and release (IMU and BRO TP) of HBD1 HGNC and LL-37 HGNC (BRO TP). Conclusions: The in vitro screening results provide first evidence for an immune activating potential of some of the tested herbal medicinal extracts in the context of SARS-CoV-2. Whether these could be helpful in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 invasion MESHD or supportive in recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD needs deeper understanding of the observations.

    Evidence of long-lasting humoral and cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 even in elderly COVID-19 MESHD convalescents showing a mild to moderate disease progression

    Authors: Bastian Fischer; Christopher Lindenkamp; Christoph Lichtenberg; Ingvild Edda Birschmann; Cornelius Knabbe; Doris Hendig

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.23.21251891 Date: 2021-02-24 Source: medRxiv

    After the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) MESHD was first identified in China in late 2019, a pandemic evolved that has claimed millions of lives so far. While about 80 % of infections cause mild or moderate COVID-19 MESHD disease, some individuals show a severe progression or even die. Most countries are far from achieving herd-immunity, however, the first approved vaccines offer hope for containment of the virus. Although much is known about the virus, there is a lack of information on the immunity of convalescent individuals. We here evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in 41 COVID-19 MESHD convalescents. As previous studies mostly included younger individuals, one advantage of our study is the comparatively high mean age of the convalescents included in the cohort considered (54 {+/-} 8.4 years). While anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were still detectable in 95 % of convalescents up to 8 months post infection, an antibody-decay over time was generally observed in most donors. Using a multiplex assay, our data additionally reveal that most convalescents exhibit a broad humoral immunity against different viral epitopes. We demonstrate by flow cytometry that convalescent donors show a significantly elevated number of natural killer cells when compared to healthy controls, while no differences were found concerning other leucocyte subpopulations. We detected a specific long-lasting cellular immune response in convalescents by stimulating immune cells with SARS-CoV-2-specific peptides, covering domains of the viral spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein PROTEIN, and measuring interferon-{gamma HGNC} ( IFN-{gamma HGNC}) release thereafter. We modified a commercially available ELISA assay for IFN-{gamma HGNC} determination in whole-blood specimens of COVID-19 MESHD convalescents. One advantage of this assay is that it does not require special equipment and can, thus, be performed in any standard laboratory. In conclusion, our study adds knowledge regarding the persistence of immunity of convalescents suffering from mild to moderate COVID-19 MESHD. Moreover, our study provides a set of simple methods to characterize and confirm experienced COVID-19 MESHD.

    Immunogenic Potential of DNA Vaccine candidate, ZyCoV-D against SARS-CoV-2 in Animal Models

    Authors: Ayan Dey; Chozhavel Rajanathan TM; Harish Chandra; Hari PR Pericherla; Sanjeev Kumar; Huzaifa S Choonia; Mayank Bajpai; Arun K Singh; Anuradha Sinha; Gurwinder Saini; Parth Dalal; Sarosh Vandriwala; Mohammed A Raheem; Rupesh D Divate; Neelam L Navlani; Vibhuti Sharma; Aashini Parikh; Siva Prasath; Sankar Rao; Kapil Maithal

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.428240 Date: 2021-01-26 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), initially originated in China in year 2019 and spread rapidly across the globe within 5 months, causing over 96 million cases of infection and over 2 million deaths. Huge efforts were undertaken to bring the COVID-19 MESHD vaccines in clinical development, so that it can be made available at the earliest, if found to be efficacious in the trials. We developed a candidate vaccine ZyCoV-D comprising of a DNA plasmid vector carrying the gene encoding the spike protein (S PROTEIN) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The S protein PROTEIN of the virus includes the receptor binding domain (RBD), responsible for binding to the human angiotensin converting enzyme HGNC (ACE-2) receptor. The DNA plasmid construct was transformed into E. coli cells for large scale production. The immunogenicity potential of the plasmid DNA has been evaluated in mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models by intradermal route at 25, 100 and 500g dose. Based on the animal studies proof-of-concept has been established and preclinical toxicology (PCT) studies were conducted in rat and rabbit model. Preliminary animal study demonstrates that the candidate DNA vaccine induces antibody response including neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and also provided Th-1 response as evidenced by elevated IFN-{gamma HGNC} levels.

    Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19 MESHD neurological complications: no cytokine storm or neuroinflammation.

    Authors: Maria A. Garcia; Paula V. Barreras; Allie Lewis; Gabriel Pinilla; Lori J. Sokoll; Thomas Kickler; Heba Mostafa; Mario Caturegli; Abhay Moghekar; Kathryn C. Fitzgerald; - Hopkins Neuro-COVID-19 Group; Carlos A Pardo

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.10.20249014 Date: 2021-01-12 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Neurological complications MESHD occur in COVID-19 MESHD. We aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications MESHD and determine presence of neuroinflammatory changes implicated in pathogenesis. METHODS. Cross-sectional study of CSF neuroinflammatory profiles from 18 COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications categorized by diagnosis ( stroke MESHD, encephalopathy MESHD, headache MESHD) and illness severity (critical, severe, moderate, mild). COVID-19 MESHD CSF was compared with CSF from healthy, infectious and neuroinflammatory disorders MESHD and stroke MESHD controls (n=82). Cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC, IFN-gamma HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC), inflammation MESHD and coagulation markers (high-sensitivity- C Reactive Protein HGNC [hsCRP], ferritin, fibrinogen HGNC, D-dimer, Factor VIII) and neurofilament light chain ( NF-L HGNC), were quantified. SARS-CoV2 RNA and SARS-CoV2 IgG and IgA antibodies in CSF were tested with RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS. CSF from COVID-19 MESHD subjects showed a paucity of neuroinflammatory changes, absence of pleocytosis MESHD or specific increases in pro-inflammatory markers or cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, ferritin, or D-dimer). Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects (77%) were observed despite no evidence of SARS-CoV2 viral RNA. A similar increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC;, IL-12p70) and IL-10 HGNC in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD stroke MESHD subjects was observed compared to controls. CSF-NF-L was elevated in subjects with stroke MESHD and critical COVID-19 MESHD. CSF-hsCRP was present almost exclusively in COVID-19 MESHD cases. CONCLUSION. The paucity of neuroinflammatory changes in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects and lack of SARS-CoV2 RNA do not support the presumed neurovirulence of SARS-CoV2 or neuroinflammation MESHD in pathogenesis of neurological complications in COVID-19 MESHD. Elevated CSF-NF-L indicates neuroaxonal injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD cases. The role of CSF SARS-CoV2 IgG antibodies is still undetermined.

    Impaired ICOS HGNC signaling between Tfh and B cells distinguishes hospitalized from ambulatory CoViD-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Amanda Hanson; Heather Cohen; Hao Wang; Nandini Shekhar; Chinmayee Shah; Abha Dhaneshwar; Bethany W Harvey; Richard Murray; Christopher J Harvey

    doi:10.1101/2020.12.16.20248343 Date: 2020-12-18 Source: medRxiv

    Emerging evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are characterized by systemic immune responses that appear to be dysregulated MESHD with more severe CoViD-19 disease MESHD. Lymphopenia MESHD and delayed antibody responses are commonly identified in CoViD-19 MESHD subjects, and recent reports have demonstrated abrogation of germinal centers in severe CoViD-19 MESHD. This work assessed a potential mechanistic basis for impaired humoral responses, focusing on the T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell interface that is critical for germinal center reactions. Here we demonstrated that Tfh activity is impaired in hospitalized relative to ambulatory CoViD-19 MESHD subjects, potentially due to decreased expression of the costimulatory molecule ICOS-L HGNC on B cells. Functional impairment manifested as a diminished ability to stimulated Tfh derived IFN{gamma HGNC} and IL-21 HGNC, the latter of which is critical for B cell proliferation and differentiation. Activation of Tfh cells by agonism of the ICOS HGNC receptor ex vivo by an agonistic antibody stimulated the generation of IFN{gamma HGNC}/ IL-21 HGNC double positive cells from hospitalized CoViD-19 MESHD subjects. This report establishes an immunological defect that differentiates ambulatory from hospitalized CoViD and suggests that agents that could restore impaired mechanisms at the Tfh-B cell interface may be of therapeutic value.

    Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Nina Le Bert; Hannah E Clapham; Anthony T Tan; Wan Ni Chia; Christine YL Tham; Jane M Lim; Kamini Kunasegaran; Linda Tan; Charles-Antoine Dutertre; Nivedita Shankar; Joey ME Lim; Louisa Jin Sun; Marina Zahari; Zaw M Tun; Vishakha Kumar; Beng Lee Lim; Siew Hoon Lim; Adeline Chia; Yee-Joo Tan; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Shirin Kalimuddin; David CB Lye; Jenny GH Low; Lin-Fa Wang; Wei Yee Wan; Li Yang Hsu; Antonio Bertoletti; Clarence C Tam; Martina Recalde; Paula Casajust; Jitendra Jonnagaddala; Vignesh Subbian; David Vizcaya; Lana YH Lai; Fredrik Nyberg; Daniel R. Morales; Jose D. Posada; Nigam H. Shah; Mengchun Gong; Arani Vivekanantham; Aaron Abend; Evan P Minty; Marc A. Suchard; Peter Rijnbeek; Patrick B Ryan; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.25.399139 Date: 2020-11-27 Source: bioRxiv

    The efficacy of virus-specific T cells in clearing pathogens involves a fine balance between their antiviral and inflammatory features. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in individuals who clear SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD without symptoms or disease could reveal non-pathological yet protective characteristics. We therefore compared the quantity and function of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in a cohort of asymptomatic individuals (n=85) with that of symptomatic COVID-19 MESHD patients (n=76), at different time points after antibody seroconversion. We quantified T cells reactive to structural proteins (M PROTEIN, NP and Spike) using ELISpot assays, and measured the magnitude of cytokine secretion ( IL-2 HGNC, IFN-{gamma HGNC}, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta}, TNF- and IL-10) in whole blood following T cell activation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools as a functional readout. Frequencies of T cells specific for the different SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the early phases of recovery were similar between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. However, we detected an increased IFN-{gamma HGNC} and IL-2 HGNC production in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic individuals after activation of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in blood. This was associated with a proportional secretion of IL-10 HGNC and pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC- and IL-1{beta} HGNC) only in asymptomatic infection, while a disproportionate secretion of inflammatory cytokines was triggered by SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell activation in symptomatic individuals. Thus, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD individuals are not characterized by a weak antiviral immunity; on the contrary, they mount a robust and highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response. Their ability to induce a proportionate production of IL-10 HGNC might help to reduce inflammatory events during viral clearance.

    Association of Toll-like receptor 7 variants with life-threatening COVID-19 MESHD disease in males

    Authors: Chiara Fallerini; Sergio Daga; Stefania Mantovani; Elisa Benetti; Aurora Pujol; Nicola Picchiotti; Agatha Schluter; Laura Planas-Serra; Jesus Troya; Margherita Baldassarri; Francesca Fava; Serena Ludovisi; Francesco Castelli; Maria Eugenia Quiros-Roldan; Massimo Vaghi; Stefano Rusconi; Matteo Siano; Maria Bandini; Simone Furini; Francesca Mari; - GEN-COVID Multicenter Study; Alessandra Renieri; Mario U Mondelli; Elisa Frullanti

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20234237 Date: 2020-11-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 MESHD clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fatal outcome. This variability is due in part to host genome specific mutations. Recently, two families in which COVID-19 MESHD segregates like an X-linked recessive monogenic disorder MESHD environmentally conditioned by SARS-CoV-2 have been reported leading to identification of loss-of-function variants in TLR7 HGNC. Objective: We sought to determine whether the two families represent the tip of the iceberg of a subset of COVID-19 MESHD male patients. Methods: We compared male subjects with extreme phenotype selected from the Italian GEN-COVID cohort of 1178 SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD subjects (<60y, 79 severe cases versus 77 control cases). We applied the LASSO Logistic Regression analysis, considering only rare variants on the young male subset, picking up TLR7 HGNC as the most important susceptibility gene. Results: Rare TLR7 HGNC missense variants were predicted to impact on protein function in severely affected males and in none of the asymptomatic subjects. We then investigated a similar white European cohort in Spain, confirming the impact of TRL7 variants. A gene expression profile analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after stimulation with TLR7 HGNC agonist demonstrated a reduction of mRNA level of TLR7 HGNC, IRF7 HGNC, ISG15 HGNC, IFN-[a] and IFN-{gamma HGNC} in COVID-19 MESHD patients compared with unaffected controls demonstrating an impairment in type I and II INF responses. Conclusion: Young males with TLR7 HGNC loss-of-function mutations and severe COVID-19 MESHD in the two reported families represent only a fraction of a broader and complex host genome situation. Specifically, missense mutations in the X-linked recessive TLR7 disorder MESHD TLR7 HGNC disorder may significantly contribute to disease susceptibility in up to 4% of severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    The Fc-mediated effector functions of a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, SC31, isolated from an early convalescent COVID-19 MESHD patient, are essential for the optimal therapeutic efficacy of the antibody

    Authors: Conrad E. Z Chan; Shirley G.K. Seah; De Hoe Chye; Shane Massey; Maricela Torres; Angeline P.C. Lim; Steven K.K. Wong; Jacklyn J.Y. Neo; Pui San Wong; Jie Hui Lim; Gary S.L. Loh; Dong Ling Wang; Jerome D. Boyd-Kirkup; Siyu Guan; Dipti Thakkar; Guo Hui Teo; Kiren Purushotorman; Paul E. Hutchinson; Barnaby Young; David Chien Boon Lye; Jenny G. Low; Paul A. MacAry; Hannes Hentze; Venkateshan S. Prativadibhayankara; Kantharaj Ethirajulu; Jason Comer; Chien-Te K. Tseng; Alan D.T. Barrett; Piers J. Ingram; Trevor Brasel; Brendon J. Hanson

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.26.355107 Date: 2020-10-26 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are promising therapeutics for COVID-19 MESHD. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these antibodies or their effective dosing windows. We report the discovery and development of SC31, a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing IgG1 antibody, originally isolated from a convalescent patient at day 27 after the onset of symptoms. Neutralization occurs via a binding epitope that maps within the ACE2 HGNC interface of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN protein, conserved across all common circulating SARS-CoV-2 mutants. In SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD K18-human ACE2 HGNC transgenic mice, SC31 demonstrated potent survival benefit by dramatically reducing viral load concomitant with attenuated pro-inflammatory responses linked to severe systemic disease MESHD, such as IL-6. Comparison with a Fc-null LALA variant of SC31 demonstrated that optimal therapeutic efficacy of SC31 requires intact Fc-mediated effector functions that can further induce an IFN{gamma HGNC}-driven anti-viral immune response. Dose-dependent efficacy for SC31 was observed down to 5mg/kg when dosed before the activation of lung inflammatory responses. Importantly, despite Fc{gamma}R binding, no evidence of antibody dependent enhancement was observed with the Fc-competent SC31 even at sub-therapeutic doses. Therapeutic efficacy was confirmed in SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD hamsters, where SC31 again significantly reduced viral load, decreased lung lesions MESHD and inhibited progression to severe disease manifestations. This study underlines the potential for significant COVID-19 MESHD patient benefit for the SC31 antibody that justifies rapid advancement to the clinic, as well as highlighting the importance of appropriate mechanistic and functional studies during development.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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