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SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Antimicrobial use in COVID-19 MESHD patients in the first phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: Rapid review and evidence synthesis

    Authors: Wenjuan Cong; Narayan Poudel; Nour Alhusein; Hexing Wang; Guiqing Yao; Helen Lambert

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.18.21251932 Date: 2021-02-19 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundAs the numbers of people with COVID-19 MESHD continue to increase globally, concerns have been raised regarding the widespread use of antibiotics for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD patients and its consequences for antimicrobial resistance during the pandemic and beyond. The scale and determinants of antibiotic use in the early phase of the pandemic, and whether antibiotic prescribing is beneficial to treatment effectiveness in COVID-19 MESHD patients, are still unknown. Unwarranted treatment of this viral infection with antibiotics may exacerbate the problem of antibiotic resistance, while antibiotic resistance may render presumptive treatment of secondary infections in COVID-19 MESHD patients ineffective. MethodsThis rapid review was undertaken to identify studies reporting antimicrobial use in the treatment of hospitalised COVID-19 MESHD patients. The review was conducted to comply with PRISMA guidelines for Scoping Reviews (http://www.prisma-statement.org/Extensions/ScopingReviews) and the protocol was registered with the Open Science Framework ( OSF HGNC): http:// osf HGNC.io/vp6t5. The following databases: Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, CNKI & VIP HGNC were searched to identify the relevant studies from 1 Dec 2019 up to 15 June 2020; no limits were set on the language or the country where studies were conducted. The search terms used were: ((" Covid-19 MESHD" or " SARS-CoV-2" MESHD or " Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD" or "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2" MESHD) and (("antibiotic prescribing" or "antibiotic use" or "antibiotic*") or "antimicrobial *" or "antimicrobial therapy" or "antimicrobial resistance" or "antimicrobial stewardship")). A total of 1216 records were identified through database searching and 118 clinical studies met the inclusion criteria and were taken into data extraction. A bespoke data extraction form was developed and validated through two independent, duplicate extraction of data from five Records. As all the included studies were descriptive in nature, we conducted descriptive synthesis of data and reported pooled estimates such as mean, percentage and frequency. We created a series of scenarios to capture the range of rationales for antibiotic prescribing presented in the included studies. ResultsOur results show that during the early phase of the pandemic, 8501 out of 10 329 COVID-19 MESHD patients (82{middle dot}3%) were prescribed antibiotics; antibiotics were prescribed for COVID-19 MESHD patients regardless of reported severity, with a similar mean antibiotic prescribing rate between patients with severe or critical illness MESHD (75{middle dot}4%) and patients with mild or moderate illness (75{middle dot}1%). The top five frequently prescribed antibiotics for hospitalised COVID-19 MESHD patients were azithromycin (28{middle dot}0 % of studies), ceftriaxone (17{middle dot}8%), moxifloxacin (14{middle dot}4%), meropenem (14{middle dot}4%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (12{middle dot}7%). The proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics without clinical justification was 51{middle dot}5% vs 41{middle dot}9 % for patients with mild or moderate illness and those with severe or critical illness MESHD respectively. Comparison of patients who were provided antibiotics with a clinical justification with those who were given antibiotics without clinical justification showed lower mortality rates (9{middle dot}5% vs 13{middle dot}1%), higher discharge rates (80{middle dot}9% vs 69{middle dot}3%) and shorter length of hospital of stay (9{middle dot}3 days vs 12{middle dot}2 days). Only 9{middle dot}7% of patients in our included studies were reported to have secondary infections. ConclusionsAntibiotics were prescribed indiscriminately for hospitalised COVID-19 MESHD patients regardless of severity of illness during the early phase of the pandemic. COVID-19 MESHD related concerns and lack of knowledge drove a large proportion of antibiotic use without specific clinical justification. Although we are still in the midst of the pandemic, the goals of antimicrobial stewardship should remain unchanged for the treatment of COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    A Systematic Review Protocol of The Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Against COVID-19 MESHD.

    Authors: Kofi Boamah Mensah; Adwoa Bemah Boamah Mensah; Varsha Bangalee; Frasia Oosthuizen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39519/v1 Date: 2020-07-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The recent outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19 MESHD with no approved medicines has led to global health threat. Currently, repositioning of old medicines seems the most responsible strategy for potential cure and prevention COVID-19 MESHD. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have shown promising efficacy against COVID-19 MESHD related pneumonia MESHD in clinical studies. However, the mode of drug action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is not clear. This review aims to gather evidence on antiviral activity and possible mechanism of drug action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, including in-vitro, animal studies, and studies in humans.Method: A structured search of five bibliographic databases namely; Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar will be undertaken to retrieve studies that describe the antiviral activity and possible mechanism of drug action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2. No restrictions will be placed on publication date, but studies will be limited to only publications in English. Duplication of studies will be removed using EndNote reference manager. Three authors will screen the citations independently based on inclusion criteria. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias will be done independently. Meta-analysis of selected studies will be done wherever suitable.Discussion: We expect that data that will be synthesis will provide enough information to inform COVID-19 MESHD care pathways and help clinicians caring for COVID-19 MESHD patients. Furthermore, this systematic review will expand our knowledge on the benefits and risks of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in management of COVID-19 MESHD patients and identify areas of controversies, and quality assessment. This review will provide vital information needed in the development of contextualized guidelines for the management of COVID-19 MESHD patients.Systematic review registration: https://doi.org/10.17605/ OSF HGNC.IO/7DJMU

    A systematic review protocol of the antiviral activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 MESHD.

    Authors: Kofi Boamah Mensah; Adwoa Bemah Boamah Mensah; Varsha Bangalee; Frasia Oosthuizen

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.13.20130245 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: The recent outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19 MESHD with no approved medicines has led to global health threat. Currently, repositioning of old medicines seems the most responsible strategy for potential cure and prevention COVID-19 MESHD. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have shown promising efficacy against COVID-19 MESHD related pneumonia MESHD in clinical studies. However, the mode of drug action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is not clear. This review aims to gather evidence on antiviral activity and possible mechanism of drug action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2, including in-vitro, animal studies, and studies in humans. Method: A structured search of five bibliographic databases namely; Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar will be undertaken to retrieve studies that describe the antiviral activity and possible mechanism of drug action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on SARS-CoV-2. No restrictions will be placed on publication date, but studies will be limited to only publications in English. Duplication of studies will be removed using EndNote reference manager. Three authors will screen the citations independently based on inclusion criteria. Data extraction and assessment of risk of bias will be done independently. Meta-analysis of selected studies will be done wherever suitable. Ethics and dissemination: Primary data collection will not be involved in this study, hence no need for formal ethical clearance. Findings from the study will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference meeting. Trial registration number: https://doi.org/10.17605/ OSF HGNC.IO/7DJMU

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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