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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Hidden Parameters impacting resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Yi Zhang; Sanjiv Kapoor

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.15.20248217 Date: 2021-01-20 Source: medRxiv

    The spread of the COVID-19 MESHD virus has had an enormous impact on the world's health and socioeconomic system. While lockdowns, which severely limit the movement of the population, have been implemented in March 2020 and again recently, the psychological and economic cost are severe. Removal of these restrictions occurred with varying degrees of success. To study the resurgence of the virus in some communities we consider an epidemiological model, SIR-SD-L, that incorporates introduction of new population due to the removal of lockdown and identify parameters that impact the spread of the virus. This compartmental model of the epidemic incorporates a social distance metric based on progression of the infections; it models the dynamic propensity of infection spread based on the current infections relative to the susceptible population. The model is validated using data on growth of infections, hospitalizations and death MESHD, considering 24 counties in multiple US states and a categorization of the lockdown removal policies after the first lockdown. Model parameters, which include a compartment for the isolated population, are used to determine the rate at which the susceptible population increases to fit the rate of infections. Along with social distancing mandates, we identify active infections and the susceptible population as important factors in the resurgence of infections. We measure the efficacy of the lockdown removal policy via a ratio, PIR HGNC, which evaluates to less than 1 for counties where social distancing measures were mandated and which delayed complete re-opening of closed spaces like bars and restaurants. For other counties this ratio is greater than 1. We also studied infection growth in the 24 US counties with respect to a release policy derived from CDC guidelines and compared against strategies that delay the removal of lockdown. Our results illustrate that guidelines for deciding when lockdown rules are to be relaxed should consider the current state of the infectious population and the remaining susceptible population, hidden parameters that are deducible from models such as SIR-SD-L, and not limit policy considerations to the rate of new infections alone. This is especially true for counties where the growth rate of the virus is initially slow and misleading. Emphasis on social distancing is critical.

    A transcription regulatory network within the ACE2 HGNC locus may promote a pro-viral environment for SARS-CoV-2 by modulating expression of host factors.

    Authors: Tayaza Fadason; Sreemol Gokuladhas; Evgeniia Golovina; Daniel Ho; Sophie Farrow; Denis M Nyaga; Hong Pan; Neerja Karnani; Conroy Wong; Antony Cooper; William Schierding

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.14.042002 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: bioRxiv

    IntroductionA novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently identified as the pathogen responsible for the COVID-19 MESHD outbreak. SARS-CoV-2 triggers severe pneumonia MESHD, which leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD and death MESHD in severe cases. As reported, SARS-CoV-2 is 80% genetically identical to the 2003 SARS-CoV virus MESHD. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) has been identified as the main receptor for entry of both SARS-CoV MESHD and SARS-CoV-2 into human cells. ACE2 HGNC is normally expressed in cardiovascular and lung type II alveolar epithelial MESHD cells, where it positively modulates the RAS system that regulates blood flow, pressure, and fluid homeostasis. Thus, virus-induced reduction of ACE2 HGNC gene expression is considered to make a significant contribution to severe acute respiratory failure MESHD. Chromatin remodeling plays a significant role in the regulation of ACE2 HGNC gene expression and the activity of regulatory elements within the genome. MethodsHere, we integrated data on physical chromatin interactions within the genome organization (captured by Hi-C) with tissue-specific gene expression data to identify spatial expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and thus regulatory elements located within the ACE2 HGNC gene. ResultsWe identified regulatory elements within ACE2 HGNC that control the expression of PIR HGNC, CA5B HGNC, and VPS13C HGNC in the lung. The gene products of these genes are involved in inflammatory responses, de novo pyrimidine and polyamine synthesis, and the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. ConclusionOur study, although limited by the fact that the identification of the regulatory interactions is putative until proven by targeted experiments, supports the hypothesis that viral silencing of ACE2 HGNC alters the activity of gene regulatory regions and promotes an intra-cellular environment suitable for viral replication.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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