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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Immunolocalization studies of vimentin HGNC and ACE2 HGNC on the surface of cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN proteins

    Authors: Vasiliki Lalioti; Silvia González-Sanz; Irene Lois-Bermejo; Patricia González-Jiménez; Álvaro Viedma-Poyatos; Andrea Merino; María A Pajares; Dolores Pérez-Sala

    doi:10.1101/2021.05.04.442648 Date: 2021-05-04 Source: bioRxiv

    The Spike protein PROTEIN from SARS-CoV-2 mediates docking of the virus onto cells and contributes to viral invasion. Several cellular receptors are involved in SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD docking at the cell surface, including ACE2 HGNC and neuropilin. The intermediate filament protein vimentin HGNC has been reported to be present at the surface of certain cells and act as a co-receptor for several viruses; furthermore, its potential involvement in interactions with Spike proteins PROTEIN has been proposed. Here we have explored the binding of Spike protein PROTEIN constructs to several cell types using low-temperature immunofluorescence approaches in live cells, to minimize internalization. Incubation of cells with tagged Spike S MESHD or Spike S1 subunit PROTEIN led to discrete dotted patterns at the cell surface, which showed scarce colocalization with a lipid raft marker, but consistent coincidence with ACE2 HGNC. Under our conditions, vimentin HGNC immunoreactivity appeared as spots or patches unevenly distributed at the surface of diverse cell types. Remarkably, several observations including potential antibody internalization and adherence to cells of vimentin HGNC-positive structures present in the extracellular medium exposed the complexity of vimentin HGNC cell surface immunoreactivity, which requires careful assessment. Notably, overall colocalization of Spike and vimentin HGNC signals markedly varied with the cell type and the immunodetection sequence. In turn, vimentin HGNC-positive spots moderately colocalized with ACE2 HGNC; however, a particular enrichment was detected at elongated structures positive for acetylated tubulin, consistent with primary cilia, which also showed Spike binding. Thus, these results suggest that vimentin HGNC- ACE2 HGNC interaction could occur at selective locations near the cell surface, including ciliated structures, which can act as platforms for SARS-CoV-2 docking.

    Vimentin HGNC binds to SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein and antibodies targeting extracellular vimentin HGNC block in vitro uptake of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles

    Authors: Nikolaos P. Rachaniotis; Tomas K. Dasaklis; Filippos Fotopoulos; Platon Tinios; Laith J Abu-Raddad; Anna E. Kågsten; Daouda Diouf; Annette H. Sohn; Refilwe Phaswana-Mafuya; Adeeba Kamarulzaman; Gregorio Millett; Julia L. Marcus; Sharmistha Mishra

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.08.425793 Date: 2021-01-08 Source: bioRxiv

    Infection of human cells by pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, typically proceeds by cell surface binding to a crucial receptor. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC) has been identified as a necessary receptor, but not all ACE2 HGNC-expressing cells are equally infected, suggesting that other extracellular factors are involved in host cell invasion by SARS-CoV-2. Vimentin HGNC is an intermediate filament protein that is increasingly recognized as being present on the extracellular surface of a subset of cell types, where it can bind to and facilitate pathogens' cellular uptake. Here, we present evidence that extracellular vimentin HGNC might act as a critical component of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein- ACE2 HGNC complex in mediating SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. We demonstrate direct binding between vimentin HGNC and SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles coated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein and show that antibodies against vimentin HGNC block in vitro SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection MESHD of ACE2 HGNC-expressing cell lines. Our results suggest new therapeutic strategies for preventing and slowing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, focusing on targeting cell host surface vimentin HGNC.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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