Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

ProteinS (96)

NSP5 (6)

ProteinN (4)

ComplexRdRp (4)

ProteinE (2)


SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Structural basis for enhanced infectivity and immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2 variants

    Authors: Christy L. Lavine; Shaun Rawson; Haisun Zhu; Krishna Anand; Pei Tong; Avneesh Gautam; Shen Lu; Sarah Sterling; Richard M Walsh Jr.; Jianming Lu; Wei Yang; Michael S Seaman

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.439709 Date: 2021-04-14 Source: bioRxiv

    Several fast-spreading variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) have become the dominant circulating strains that continue to fuel the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD despite intensive vaccination efforts throughout the world. We report here cryo-EM structures of the full-length spike (S) trimers of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, as well as their biochemical and antigenic properties. Mutations in the B.1.1.7 protein increase the accessibility of its receptor binding domain and also the binding affinity for receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC). The enhanced receptor engagement can account for the increased transmissibility and risk of mortality as the variant may begin to infect efficiently infect MESHD additional cell types expressing low levels of ACE2 HGNC. The B.1.351 variant has evolved to reshape antigenic surfaces of the major neutralizing sites on the S protein PROTEIN, rendering complete resistance to some potent neutralizing antibodies. These findings provide structural details on how the wide spread of SARS-CoV-2 enables rapid evolution to enhance viral fitness MESHD and immune evasion. They may guide intervention strategies to control the pandemic.

    Epitope classification and RBD binding properties of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern

    Authors: Ashlesha Deshpande; Bethany D. Harris; Luis Martinez-Sobrido; James J. Kobie; Mark R Walter

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.439681 Date: 2021-04-13 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SAR-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID19 MESHD) that is responsible for short and long-term disease, as well as death, in susceptible hosts. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike MESHD SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN ( S) protein PROTEIN binds to cell surface angiotensin converting enzyme type-II ( ACE2 HGNC) to initiate viral attachment and ultimately viral pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV-2 S RBD MESHD is a major target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that block RBD - ACE2 HGNC interactions. In this report, NAb-RBD binding epitopes in the protein databank were classified as C1, C1D, C2, C3, or C4 HGNC, using a RBD binding profile (BP), based on NAb-specific RBD buried surface area and used to predict the binding epitopes of a series of uncharacterized NAbs. Naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 RBD sequence variation was also quantified to predict NAb binding sensitivities to the RBD-variants. NAb and ACE2 HGNC binding studies confirmed the NAb classifications and determined whether the RBD variants enhanced ACE2 HGNC binding to promote viral infectivity, and/or disrupted NAb binding to evade the host immune response. Of 9 single RBD mutants evaluated, K417T, E484K, and N501Y disrupted binding of 65% of the NAbs evaluated, consistent with the assignment of the SARS-CoV-2 P.1 Japan/Brazil strain as a variant of concern (VoC). RBD variants E484K and N501Y exhibited ACE2 HGNC binding equivalent to a Wuhan-1 reference SARS-CoV-2 RBD. While slightly less disruptive to NAb binding, L452R enhanced ACE2 HGNC binding affinity. Thus, the L452R mutant, associated with the SARS-CoV-2 California VoC MESHD (B.1.427/B.1.429-California), has evolved to enhance ACE2 HGNC binding, while simultaneously disrupting C1 and C2 NAb classes. The analysis also identified a non-overlapping antibody pair (1213H7 and 1215D1) that bound to all SARS-CoV-2 RBD variants evaluated, representing an excellent therapeutic option for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 WT MESHD and VoC strains.

    The homology analysis of ACE2 HGNC gene and its distinct expression in laboratory and wild animals

    Authors: Gang Wang; Zhang A-Mei; Wang Binghui; Jianhua Yin; Feng Yue; Zulqarnain Baloch; Xue-shan Xia

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.08.439088 Date: 2021-04-10 Source: bioRxiv

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 ( ACE2 HGNC) has been recognized as an entry receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) into the host cells while bats has been suspected as natural host of SARS-CoV-2. However, the detail of intermediate host or the route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear. In this study, we analyze the conservation of ACE2 HGNC gene in 11 laboratory and wild animals that live in close proximity either with Bats or human and further investigated its RNA and protein expression pattern in wild bats, mice and tree shrew. We verified that the wild-bats and mice were belonged to Hipposideros pomona and Rattus norvegicus, respectively. ACE2 gene is highly conserved among all 11 animals species at the DNA level. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ACE2 HGNC nucleotide sequences revealed that wild bat and Tree shrew were forming a cluster close to human. We further report that ACE2 HGNC RNA expression pattern is highly species-specific in different tissues of different animals. Most notably, we found that the expression pattern of ACE2 HGNC RNA and protein are very different in each animal species. In summary, our results suggested that ACE2 HGNC gene is highly conserved among all 11 animals species. However, different relative expression pattern of ACE2 HGNC RNA and protein in each animal species is interesting. Further research is needed to clarify the possible connection between different relative expression pattern of ACE2 HGNC RNA and protein in different laboratory and wild animal species and the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Genome-wide CRISPR activation screen identifies novel receptors for SARS-CoV-2 entry MESHD

    Authors: Shiyou Zhu; Ying Liu; Zhuo Zhou; Zhiying Zhang; Xia Xiao; Zhiheng Liu; Ang Chen; Xiaojing Dong; Feng Tian; Shihua Chen; Yiyuan Xu; Chunhui Wang; Qiheng Li; Xuran Niu; Qian Pan; Shuo Du; Junyu Xiao; Jianwei Wang; Wensheng Wei

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.08.438924 Date: 2021-04-09 Source: bioRxiv

    The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has been endangering worldwide public health and economy. SARS-CoV-2 infects MESHD a variety of tissues where the known receptor ACE2 HGNC is low or almost absent, suggesting the existence of alternative pathways for virus entry. Here, we performed a genome-wide barcoded-CRISPRa screen to identify novel host factors that enable SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In addition to known host proteins, i.e PROTEIN. ACE2 HGNC, TMPRSS2 HGNC, and NRP1 HGNC, we identified multiple host components, among which LDLRAD3 HGNC, TMEM30A HGNC, and CLEC4G HGNC were confirmed as functional receptors for SARS-CoV-2. All these membrane proteins bind directly to spike's N-terminal domain ( NTD HGNC). Their essential and physiological roles have all been confirmed in either neuron or liver cells. In particular, LDLRAD3 HGNC and CLEC4G HGNC mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry MESHD and infection in a fashion independent of ACE2 HGNC. The identification of the novel receptors and entry mechanisms could advance our understanding of the multiorgan tropism of SARS-CoV-2, and may shed light on the development of the therapeutic countermeasures against COVID-19 MESHD.

    Smoking modulates different secretory subpopulations expressing SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the nasal and bronchial airways

    Authors: Ke Xu; Xingyi Shi; Chris Husted; Rui Hong; Yichen Wang; Boting Ning; Travis Sullivan; Kimberly M Rieger-Christ; Fenghai Duan; Helga Marques; Adam C Gower; Xiaohui Xiao; Hanqiao Liu; Gang Liu; Grant Duclos; Avrum Spira; Sarah A Mazzilli; Ehab Billatos; Marc E Lenburg; Joshua D Campbell; Jennifer Beane

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.30.21254564 Date: 2021-04-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), which infects host cells with help from the Viral Entry (VE) proteins ACE2 HGNC, TMPRSS2 HGNC, and CTSL HGNC. Proposed risk factors for viral infection MESHD, as well as the rate of disease progression, include age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, cancer MESHD, and cigarette smoking. To investigate whether the proposed risk factors increase viral infection MESHD by modulation of the VE genes, we examined gene expression profiles of 796 nasal and 1,673 bronchial samples across four lung cancer MESHD screening cohorts containing individuals without COVID-19 MESHD. Smoking was the only clinical factor reproducibly associated with the expression of any VE gene across cohorts. ACE2 HGNC expression was significantly up-regulated with smoking in the bronchus but significantly down-regulated with smoking in the nose. Furthermore, expression of individual VE genes were not correlated between paired nasal and bronchial samples from the same patients. Single-cell RNA-seq of nasal brushings revealed that an ACE2 HGNC gene module was detected in a variety of nasal secretory cells with the highest expression in the C15orf48 HGNC+ secretory cells, while a TMPRSS2 HGNC gene module was most highly expressed in nasal keratinizing epithelial cells. In contrast, single-cell RNA-seq of bronchial brushings revealed that ACE2 HGNC and TMPRSS2 HGNC gene modules were most enriched in MUC5AC HGNC+ bronchial goblet cells. The CTSL HGNC gene module was highly expressed in immune populations of both nasal and bronchial brushings. Deconvolution of bulk RNA-seq showed that the proportion of MUC5AC HGNC+ goblet cells was increased in current smokers in both the nose and bronchus but proportions of nasal keratinizing epithelial cells, C15orf48 HGNC+ secretory cells, and immune cells were not associated with smoking status. The complex association between VE gene expression and smoking in the nasal and bronchial epithelium revealed by our results may partially explain conflicting reports on the association between smoking and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Qualitatively distinct modes of Sputnik V vaccine-neutralization escape by SARS-CoV-2 Spike PROTEIN variants

    Authors: Satoshi Ikegame; Mohammed N. A. Siddiquey; Chuan-Tien Hung; Griffin Haas; Luca Brambilla; Kasopefoluwa Y. Oguntuyo; Shreyas Kowdle; Ariel Esteban Vilardo; Alexis Edelstein; Claudia Perandones; Jeremy P. Kamil; Benhur Lee

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.31.21254660 Date: 2021-04-02 Source: medRxiv

    The novel pandemic betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2), has infected at least 120 million people since its identification as the cause of a December 2019 viral pneumonia MESHD outbreak in Wuhan, China. Despite the unprecedented pace of vaccine development, with six vaccines already in use worldwide, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) across diverse geographic locales suggests herd immunity may fail to eliminate the virus. All three officially designated VOC carry Spike (S) polymorphisms thought to enable escape from neutralizing antibodies elicited during initial waves of the pandemic. Here, we characterize the biological consequences of the ensemble of S mutations present in VOC lineages B.1.1.7 (501Y.V1) and B.1.351 (501Y.V2). Using a replication-competent EGFP-reporter vesicular stomatitis virus MESHD ( VSV MESHD) system, rcVSV-CoV2-S, which encodes S from SARS coronavirus 2 in place of VSV MESHD-G, coupled with a clonal HEK-293T ACE2 HGNC TMPRSS2 cell line optimized for highly efficient S-mediated infection, we determined that 8 out of 12 (75%) of serum samples from 12 recipients of the Russian Sputnik V Ad26 / Ad5 vaccine showed dose response curve slopes indicative of failure to neutralize rcVSV-CoV2-S: B.1.351. The same set of sera efficiently neutralized S from B.1.1.7 and showed only moderately reduced activity against S carrying the E484K substitution alone. Taken together, our data suggest that control of emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants may benefit from updated vaccines.

    Sulforaphane exhibits in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity against pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-OC43 coronaviruses MESHD

    Authors: Alvaro A Ordonez; Cynthia K Bullen; Andres F Villabona-Rueda; Elizabeth A Thompson; Mitchell L Turner; Stephanie L Davis; Oliver Komm; Jonathan D Powell; Robert H Yolken; Sanjay K Jain; Lorraine Jones-Brando

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.25.437060 Date: 2021-03-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD), has incited a global health crisis. Currently, there are no orally available medications for prophylaxis for those exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and limited therapeutic options for those who develop COVID-19 MESHD. We evaluated the antiviral activity of sulforaphane ( SFN HGNC), a naturally occurring, orally available, well-tolerated, nutritional supplement present in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables with limited side effects. SFN inhibited in vitro replication of four strains of SARS-CoV-2 as well as that of the seasonal coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Further, SFN and remdesivir interacted synergistically to inhibit coronavirus infection MESHD in vitro. Prophylactic administration of SFN to K18- hACE2 HGNC mice prior to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD significantly decreased the viral load in the lungs and upper respiratory tract and reduced lung injury MESHD and pulmonary pathology compared to untreated infected mice. SFN treatment diminished immune cell activation in the lungs, including significantly lower recruitment of myeloid cells and a reduction in T cell activation and cytokine production. Our results suggest that SFN is a promising treatment for prevention of coronavirus infection MESHD or treatment of early disease.

    CVnCoV protects human ACE2 HGNC transgenic mice from ancestral B BavPat1 and emerging B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Donata Hoffmann; Bjoern Corleis; Susanne Rauch; Nicole Roth; Janine Muehe; Nico Joel Halwe; Lorenz Ulrich; Charlie Fricke; Jacob Schoen; Anna Kraft; Angele Breithaupt; Kerstin Wernike; Anna Michelitsch; Franziska Sick; Claudia Wylezich; Stefan O. Mueller; Thomas C. Mettenleiter; Benjamin Petsch; Anca Dorhoi; Martin Beer

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.435960 Date: 2021-03-22 Source: bioRxiv

    The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic necessitates the fast development of vaccines as the primary control option. Recently, viral mutants termed "variants of concern" (VOC) have emerged with the potential to escape host immunity. VOC B.1.351 was first discovered in South Africa in late 2020, and causes global concern due to poor neutralization with propensity to evade preexisting immunity from ancestral strains. We tested the efficacy of a spike encoding mRNA vaccine (CVnCoV) against the ancestral strain BavPat1 and the novel VOC B.1.351 in a K18- hACE2 HGNC transgenic mouse model. Naive mice and mice immunized with formalin-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparation were used as controls. mRNA-immunized mice developed elevated SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific antibody as well as neutralization titers against the ancestral strain BavPat1. Neutralization titers against VOC B.1.351 were readily detectable but significantly reduced compared to BavPat1. VOC B.1.351-infected control animals experienced a delayed course of disease, yet nearly all SARS-CoV-2 challenged naive mice succumbed with virus dissemination and high viral loads. CVnCoV vaccine completely protected the animals from disease and mortality caused by either viral strain. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in oral swabs, lung, or brain in these groups. Only partial protection was observed in mice receiving the formalin-inactivated virus preparation. Despite lower neutralizing antibody titers compared to the ancestral strain BavPat1, CVnCoV shows complete disease protection against the novel VOC B.1.351 in our studies.

    A bispecific monomeric nanobody induces SARS-COV-2 spike trimer dimers

    Authors: Leo Hanke; Hrishikesh Das; Daniel Sheward; Laura Perez Vidakovics; Egon Urgard; Ainhoa Moliner Morro; Vivien Karl; Alec Pankow; Kim Changil; Natalie Smith; Gabriel Pedersen; Jonathan M Coquet; B Martin Hallberg; Benjamin Murrell; Gerald M McInerney

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.20.436243 Date: 2021-03-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Antibodies binding to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD ( SARS-CoV-2) spike PROTEIN have therapeutic promise, but emerging variants show the potential for virus escape. Thus, there is a need for therapeutic molecules with distinct and novel neutralization mechanisms. Here we isolated a nanobody that potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, including the B.1.351 variant, and cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV MESHD. We demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the nanobody in a human ACE2 HGNC transgenic mouse model. Using biochemistry and electron cryomicroscopy we show that this nanobody simultaneously interacts with two RBDs from different spike trimers, rapidly inducing the formation of spike trimer-dimers. This naturally elicited bispecific monomeric nanobody establishes a novel strategy for potent immobilization of viral antigens.

    Circadian regulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in lung epithelial cells

    Authors: Xiaodong Zhuang; Senko Tsukuda; Florian Wrensch; Peter AC Wing; Helene Borrmann; James M Harris; Sophie B Morgan; Laurent Mailly; Nazia Thakur; Carina Conceicao; Harshmeena Sanghani; Laura Heydmann; Charlotte Bach; Anna Ashton; Steven Walsh; Tiong Kit Tan; Lisa Schimanski; Kuan-Ying A Huang; Catherine Schuster; Koichi Watashi; Timothy SC Hinks; Aarti Jagannath; Sridhar R Vausdevan; Dalan Bailey; Thomas F Baumert; Jane A McKeating

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.20.436163 Date: 2021-03-21 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic MESHD, caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus MESHD, is a global health issue with unprecedented challenges for public health. SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects cells of the respiratory tract, via binding human angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE2 HGNC), and infection can result in pneumonia MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD. Circadian rhythms coordinate an organisms response to its environment and recent studies report a role for the circadian clock to regulate host susceptibility to virus infection MESHD. Influenza A infection of arhythmic mice, lacking the circadian component BMAL1, results in higher viral replication and elevated inflammatory responses leading to more severe bronchitis MESHD, highlighting the impact of circadian pathways in respiratory function. We demonstrate circadian regulation of ACE2 in lung epithelial cells and show that silencing BMAL1 or treatment with the synthetic REV-ERB agonist SR9009 reduces ACE2 expression and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry MESHD and RNA replication. Treating infected cells with SR9009 limits viral replication and secretion of infectious particles, showing that post-entry steps in the viral life cycle are influenced by the circadian system. Our study suggests new approaches to understand and improve therapeutic targeting of COVID-19 MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

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