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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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SARS-CoV-2 Proteins
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    Elevated anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, MIP-1β HGNC, early predictors of severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    Authors: Helena Codina; Irene Vieitez; Alicia Gutierrez-Valencia; Vasso Skouridou; Cristina Mart&iacutenez; Luc&iacutea Pati&ntildeo; Mariluz Botero-Gallego; Mar&iacutea Trujillo-Rodr&iacuteguez; Ana Serna-Gallego; Esperanza Mu&ntildeoz-Muela; Mar&iacutea M. Bobillo; Alexandre P&eacuterez; Jorge Julio Cabrera-Alvar; Manuel Crespo; Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos; Eva Poveda

    doi:10.1101/2021.04.13.439586 Date: 2021-04-13 Source: bioRxiv

    Background: Viral and host immune kinetics during acute COVID-19 MESHD and after remission of acute symptoms need better characterization. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 RNA, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in sequential samples among hospitalized COVID-19 MESHD patients during acute infection MESHD and 6 months following diagnosis. Results: 24 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD patients with mild/moderate and severe COVID-19 MESHD were included. Most were males 83%, median age of 61 years. 21% were admitted to the ICU and 8 of them (33.3%) met criteria for severe COVID-19 MESHD disease. A delay in SARS-CoV-2 levels decline during the first 6 days of follow-up and viral load persistence until month 3 were related with severe COVID-19 MESHD, but not viral load levels at the diagnosis. Higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgM, IgG and the cytokines IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC and MIP-1{beta HGNC} at the diagnosis time were related with severe COVID-19 MESHD outcome. Higher levels of MIP-1{beta} HGNC, IL-1{beta} HGNC, MIP-1 HGNC and IFN-{gamma HGNC} were observed at month 1-3 during mild/moderate disease compared to severe COVID-19 MESHD. IgG persisted at low levels after 6 months of diagnosis. Conclusions: Higher concentrations of IgA, IgM, and IgG, and IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC and MIP-1{beta HGNC} are identified as early predictors of COVID-19 MESHD severity, but not SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels at diagnosis.

    Cytokine Signature and COVID-19 MESHD Prediction Models in the Two Waves of Pandemics.

    Authors: Serena Cabaro; Vittoria D'Esposito; Tiziana Di Matola; Silvia Sale; Michele Cennamo; Daniela Terracciano; Valentina Parisi; Francesco Oriente; Giuseppe Portella; Francesco Beguinot; Luigi Atripaldi; Mario Sansone; Pietro Formisano

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-251338/v1 Date: 2021-02-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    In Europe, two waves of infections with SARS-CoV-2 ( COVID-19 MESHD) have been observed to date. Here, we have investigated whether common patterns of cytokines could be detected in individuals with mild and severe forms of COVID-19 MESHD in the two pandemic waves, and whether machine learning approach could be useful to identify the best predictors. An increasing trend of multiple cytokines was observed in patients with mild or severe/critical symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD, compared with healthy volunteers. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) clearly recognized the three groups based on cytokine patterns. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) further indicated that IL-6 HGNC discriminated controls and COVID-19 MESHD patients, whilst IL-8 HGNC defined disease severity. During the second wave of pandemics, a less intense cytokine storm was observed. CART analysis revealed that IL-6 HGNC was the most robust predictor of infection and discriminated moderate COVID-19 MESHD patients from healthy controls, regardless of epidemic peak curve. Thus, serum cytokine patterns provide non-invasive biomarkers useful for COVID-19 MESHD diagnosis and prognosis. Further definition of individual cytokines may allow to envision novel therapeutic options and pave the way to set up innovative diagnostic tools.

    Identification of common key genes and pathways between Covid-19 MESHD and lung cancer MESHD by using protein-protein interaction network analysis

    Authors: Kang Soon Nana; Kalimuthu Karuppanan; Suresh Kumar

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.16.431364 Date: 2021-02-16 Source: bioRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD is indeed an infection that is caused by a recently found coronavirus group, a type of virus proven to cause human respiratory diseases MESHD. The high mortality rate was observed in patients who had pre-existing health conditions like cancer MESHD. However, the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in lung cancer patients was not discovered yet at the pathway level. This study was about determining the common key genes of COVID-19 MESHD and lung cancer MESHD through network analysis. The hub genes associated with COVID-19 MESHD and lung cancer MESHD were identified through Protein-Protein interaction analysis. The hub genes are ALB HGNC, CXCL8 HGNC, FGF2 HGNC, IL6 HGNC, INS, MMP2 HGNC, MMP9 HGNC, PTGS2 HGNC, STAT3 HGNC and VEGFA HGNC. Through gene enrichment, it is identified both COVID-19 MESHD and lung cancer MESHD have a common pathway in EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, IL-17 HGNC signalling pathway, AGE-RAGE signalling pathway in diabetic complications MESHD, HIF-1 HGNC signalling pathway and pathways in cancer MESHD.

    Exaggerated cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 and its inhibition by dexamethasone

    Authors: Olumayokun A Olajide; Victoria U Iwuanyanwu; Izabela Lepiarz-Raba; Alaa A Al-Hindawi

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.03.429536 Date: 2021-02-03 Source: bioRxiv

    An understanding of the pathological inflammatory mechanisms involved in SARS CoV-2 virus infection MESHD is necessary in order to discover new molecular pharmacological targets for SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein. In this study, the effects of a recombinant SARS CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Stimulation with spike glycoprotein S1 PROTEIN (100 ng/mL) resulted in significant elevation in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and IL-8 HGNC. However, pre-treatment with dexamethasone (100 nM) caused a significant reduction in the release of these cytokines. Further experiments revealed that S1 stimulation of PBMCs increased phosphorylation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC p65 HGNC and I{kappa}B, while increasing I{kappa}B degradation. DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B HGNC p65 HGNC was also significantly increased following stimulation with S1. Treatment of PBMCs with dexamethasone (100 nM) or BAY11-7082 (1 M) resulted in inhibition of S1-induced NF-{kappa}B HGNC activation. Activation of p38 HGNC MAPK by S1 was blocked in the presence of dexamethasone and SKF 86002. CRID3, but not dexamethasone pre-treatment produced significant inhibition of S1-induced activation of NLRP3 HGNC/ caspase 1 HGNC. Further experiments revealed that S1-induced increase in the production of TNF HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC} and IL-8 HGNC was reduced in the presence of BAY11-7082 and SKF 86002, while CRID3 pre-treatment resulted in the reduction of IL-1{beta HGNC} production. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN glycoprotein S1 stimulate PBMCs to release pro inflammatory cytokines through mechanisms involving activation of NF-{kappa}B HGNC, p38 MAPK and NLRP3 HGNC inflammasome. It is proposed that clinical benefits of dexamethasone in COVID-19 MESHD is possibly due to its anti-inflammatory activity in reducing SARS-CoV-2 cytokine storm.

    In vitro infection of human lung tissue with SARS-CoV-2: Heterogeneity in host defense and therapeutic response

    Authors: Matthew A Schaller; Yamini Sharma; Zadia Dupee; Duy T Nguyen; Juan M Uruena; Ryan A Smolcheck; Julia C. Loeb; Tiago N Machuca; John A Lednicky; David Odde; Robert F Campbell; W. Gregory Sawyer; Borna Mehrad; Reem Temsah; Shelaweeh Alanazi; Fahad Alzamil; Ali Alsomaily; Jafar A. Al-Tawfiq; Amr Jamal; Ali M Somily

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.20.427541 Date: 2021-01-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Cell lines are the mainstay in understanding the biology of COVID-19 MESHD infection, but do not recapitulate many of the complexities of human infection. The use of human lung tissue is one solution for the study of such novel respiratory pathogens. We hypothesized that a cryopreserved bank of human lung tissue allows for the in vitro study of the inter-individual heterogeneity of host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, thus providing a bridge between studies with cell lines and studies in animal models. We generated a cryobank of tissues from 16 donors, most of whom had risk factors for severe illness from COVID-19 MESHD. Cryopreserved tissues preserved 90% of cell viability and contained heterogeneous populations of metabolically active epithelial, endothelial, and immune cell subsets of the human lung. Samples were readily infectible with HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus strains, and demonstrated comparable susceptibility to infection. In contrast, we observed a marked donor-dependent heterogeneity in the expression of IL-6 HGNC, CXCL8 HGNC and IFN{beta} in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Treatment of tissues with dexamethasone and the experimental drug, N-hydroxycytidine, suppressed viral growth in all samples, whereas chloroquine and remdesivir had no detectable effect. Metformin and sirolimus, molecules with predicted antiviral activity, suppressed viral replication in tissues from a subset of donors. In summary, we developed a novel system for the in vitro study of human SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD using primary human lung tissue from a library of donor tissues. This model may be useful for drug screening and for understanding basic mechanisms of COVID-19 MESHD pathogenesis.

    Increased peripheral blood neutrophil activation phenotypes and NETosis in critically ill COVID-19 MESHD patients

    Authors: Jorge A. Masso-Silva PhD; Alexander Moshensky BS; Michael T. Y. Lam MD PhD; Mazen Odish MD; Arjun Patel MBBS; Le Xu PhD; Emily Hansen MS; Samantha Trescott BS; Celina Nguyen BS; Roy Kim BS; Katherine Perofsky MD; Samantha Perera N/A; Lauren Ma BS; Josephine Pham N/A; Mark Rolfsen MD; Jarod Olay MS; John Shin BS; Jennifer M. Dan MD PhD; Robert Abbott PhD; Sydney Ramirez MD PhD; Thomas H. Alexander MD MHSc; Grace Y. Lin MD; Ana Lucia Fuentes MD; Ira N. Advani BS; Deepti Gunge BS; Victor Pretorius MBChB MD; Atul Malhotra MD; Xin Sun PhD; Jason Duran MD PhD; Shane Crotty PhD; Nicole G. Coufal MD PhD; Angela Meier MD PhD; Laura E. Crotty Alexander MD

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.14.21249831 Date: 2021-01-15 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundIncreased inflammation MESHD is a hallmark of COVID-19 MESHD, with pulmonary and systemic inflammation MESHD identified in multiple cohorts of patients. Definitive cellular and molecular pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes in blood circulation, can contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases MESHD and acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD ( ARDS MESHD), a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 MESHD. Changes in multiple neutrophil functions and circulating cytokine levels over time during COVID-19 MESHD may help define disease severity and guide care and decision making. MethodsBlood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 MESHD patients for 11 days. Neutrophil oxidative burst, neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), phagocytosis and cytokine levels were assessed ex vivo. Lung tissue was obtained immediately post-mortem for immunostaining. ResultsElevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines IL-8 HGNC and IL-6 HGNC, and general inflammatory cytokines IP-10 HGNC, GM-CSF HGNC, IL-1b HGNC, IL-10 and TNF MESHD, were identified in COVID-19 MESHD plasma both at the first measurement and at multiple timepoints across hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (p < 0.0001), NETosis (p < 0.0001) and phagocytosis (p < 0.0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with both leukocytosis and neutrophilia MESHD. Neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in the lung parenchyma of 40% of SARS-CoV-2 infected lungs MESHD. While elevations in IL-8 HGNC and ANC correlated to COVID-19 MESHD disease severity, plasma IL-8 HGNC levels alone correlated with death MESHD. ConclusionsCirculating neutrophils in COVID-19 MESHD exhibit an activated phenotype with increased oxidative burst, NETosis and phagocytosis. Readily accessible and dynamic, plasma IL-8 HGNC and circulating neutrophil function may be potential COVID-19 MESHD disease biomarkers.

    Humoral and cell-mediated response in colostrum after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD

    Authors: Vignesh Narayanaswamy; Brian Pentecost; Dominique Alfandari; Emily Chin; Kathleen Minor; Alyssa Kastrinakis; Tanya Lieberman; Kathleen F Arcaro; Heidi Leftwich

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.03.20248715 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundColostrum provides an immune sharing between a mother and her infant. The transfer in colostrum of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the elicited cytokines may provide crucial protection to the infant. There is limited literature on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 present in colostrum. ObjectiveTo evaluate the presence of antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 and the associated cytokines in colostrum from women who tested positive for the virus. Study DesignBetween March and September 2020 we obtained bilateral colostrum samples collected on spot cards within 48 hours of delivery from 15 new mothers who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Five of these 15 COVID-19 MESHD positive women also provided bilateral liquid colostrum within 1-2 days of providing the spot card samples. Archived bilateral colostrum samples collected from 8 women during 2011-2013 were used as pre- COVID-19 MESHD controls. All samples were tested for reactivity to the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein using an ELISA that measures SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM, and for concentrations of 10 inflammatory cytokines ( IFN{gamma HGNC}, TNF HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC}, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12, IL-13 HGNC) using a multiplex electrochemiluminescent sandwich assay. ResultsBilateral colostrum samples from 73%, 73% and 33% of the 15 COVID-19 MESHD mothers exhibited IgA, IgG, and IgM reactivity to RBD respectively. Colostrum samples from two of the 8 pre-pandemic controls showed IgA and IgG reactivity to RBD. Additionally, COVID-19 MESHD mothers had significantly higher levels of 9 of the 10 inflammatory markers (all except IFN{gamma HGNC}) as compared to the pre- COVID-19 MESHD controls. Comparable results were obtained with both the spot card-eluates and liquid samples. ConclusionsA strong humoral immune response is present in the colostrum of women who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 before delivering. High levels of 9 inflammatory markers were also present in the colostrum. The evolution and duration of the antibody response, as well as dynamics of the cytokine response, remain to be determined. Our results also indicate that future large-scale studies can be conducted with milk easily collected on paper spot cards.

    Kinetics of Plasma Cytokines During and After Two Different Modalities of Extracorporeal Blood Purification in Critically Ill COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Daniela Ponce; Welder Zamoner; Luis Eduardo Magalhães; Paula Gabriela Souza de Oliveira; Patricia Polla; Alexandre Naime Barbosa; Marjorie de Assis Golim; Andre Luis Balbi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-136018/v1 Date: 2020-12-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Cytokine storm syndrome ( CSS MESHD) has been documented in coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) since the first reports of this disease. In the absence of vaccines or direct therapy for COVID-19 MESHD, extracorporeal blood treatment (EBT) could represent an option for the removal of cytokines and may be beneficial to improve the clinical outcome of critically ill MESHD patients. Intermittent haemodialysis ( IHD MESHD), using high flux (HF) or high cut-off membranes, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) could be used for blood purification in COVID-19 MESHD patients with CSS. To the best of our knowledge, cytokine kinetics during and after different types of EBT on COVID-19 MESHD patients have never been studied. In this study, we describe cytokine variation and removal during and after IHD MESHD and CRRT in COVID-19 MESHD patients with acute kidney injury MESHD ( AKI MESHD). Methods: Patients with COVID-19 MESHD-related AKI MESHD according to Kidney Disease MESHD Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria and admitted at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were studied. Blood samples were collected at the start and end of both IHD MESHD using HF membranes (10 patients) and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF: 10 patients) in two sessions for measuring 13 different plasma interleukins and calculating the cytokine removal rate. Results: We evaluated cytokine removal in patients with COVID-19 MESHD-related AKI MESHD undergoing either prolonged IHD MESHD (10 patients) or CRRT (CVVHDF: 10 patients). There was no difference between the IHD MESHD and CVVHDF groups regarding mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drug use, age or prognostic scores. Patients treated by CRRT presented higher levels of IL-2 HGNC and IL-8 HGNC than patients treated by prolonged IHD at the start of dialysis. Cytokine removal ranged from 9–78%. Patients treated by CRRT presented higher cytokine removal rates than those treated by prolonged IHD for IL-2 HGNC, IL-6 IL-8, IP-10 HGNC and TNF HGNC. The removal rates of IL-4 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-1β HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, IFN HGNC, MCP-1 HGNC and free active TGF-B1 HGNC were similar in the two groups. After one session of CVVHDF (24 h) the IL-2 HGNC and IL-1β HGNC levels did not vary significantly, whereas IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, TNF HGNC, IFN HGNC, IP-10 HGNC, MCP-1 HGNC, IL-12p70 and free active TGF-B1 HGNC decreased by 33.8–76%, and this decrease was maintained over the next 24 h. In the prolonged IHD groups, IL-2 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC, IP-10 HGNC and IL-1β HGNC levels did not decrease significantly whereas IL-4 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, IFN HGNC, MCP-1 HGNC, IL-12p70 and free active TGF-B1 HGNC decreased by 21.8–72%. However, all cytokine levels returned to their initial values after 24 h, despite their removal. Conclusions: Cytokine removal is lower using prolonged IHD MESHD with HF membranes than by using CVVHDF, and IHD MESHD allows a transient and selective decrease in cytokines that can be correlated with mortality during CSS-related COVID-19 MESHD.

    Altered Transcript Levels of Cytokines in COVID-19 MESHD Patients

    Authors: Majid Samsami; Alireza Fatemi; Reza Jalili Khoshnoud; Karim Kohansal; Arezou Sayad; Shabnam Soghala; Shahram Arsang-Jang; Mohammad Taheri; Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-126215/v1 Date: 2020-12-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD and the related disorder i.e. “ coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD” ( COVID-19 MESHD) have encouraged researchers to unravel the molecular mechanism of disease severity. Several lines of evidence support the impact of "cytokine storm" in the pathogenesis of severe forms of the disorder MESHD. We aimed to assess the expression levels of nine cytokine coding in COVID-19 MESHD patients admitted in a hospital. Expression levels of IFN-G HGNC, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-17 HGNC, TGF-B HGNC, IL-8 HGNC and IL-1B HGNC were significantly higher in COVID-19 MESHD patients compared with healthy controls and in both female and male patients compared with sex-matched controls. However, expression of none of these cytokines was different between ICU-admitted patients and other patients except for IL-6 HGNC whose expression was lower in the former group compared with the latter (ratio of means = 0.33, P value = 4.82E-02). Expression of TNF-A HGNC was not different between COVID-19 MESHD patients and healthy controls. Then, we assessed diagnostic power of cytokine coding genes in differentiating between COVID-19 MESHD patients and controls. The area under curve (AUC) values range from 0.94 for IFN-G HGNC to 1.0 for IL-2 HGNC and IL-1B HGNC. After combining the transcript levels of all cytokines, AUC, sensitivity and specificity values reached 1.0, 1.0 and 0.99, respectively. For differentiation between ICU-admitted patients and other patients, IL-4 HGNC with AUC value of 0.68, had the best diagnostic power among cytokine coding genes. Expression of none of cytokine coding genes was correlated with the assessed clinical/demographic data including age, gender, ICU admission, or CRP HGNC/ESR levels. Our study provides further evidence for contribution of “cytokine storm” in the pathobiology of moderate/severe forms of COVID-19 MESHD.

    Network of “drug-target-SARS-CoV-2 Related Genes” Through Integrated Analysis of Pharmacology and Geo Database

    Authors: Jin ping Hou; Yong heng Wang; Yu meng Chen; Yi hao Chen; Xiao Zhu; Rui si Qin; Tingting Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-117894/v1 Date: 2020-11-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundCoronavirus Disease MESHD Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) respiratory disease MESHD rapidly caused a global pandemic and social and economic disruption. The combination of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Conventional Western medicine (CWM) is more effective for COVID-19 MESHD treatment. Moreover, TCM and CWM are important data source for developing new drug targets and promote strategies treat SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHDs. However, many studies have analyzed the therapeutic mechanism of CWM or TCM alone for COVID-19 MESHD, it is still unclear the interaction mechanism between TCM and CWM on COVID-19 MESHD.MethodsThis paper integrates network pharmacology and GEO database to mine and identify COVID-19 MESHD molecular therapeutic targets, providing potential targets and new ideas for COVID-19 MESHD gene therapy and new drug development. It includes: 1) using TCMSP, TTD, PubChem and CTD databases to analyze drug interactions and associated phenotypes for SARS-CoV-2, to correlate drug and disease interaction mechanisms to screen key drug targets; 2) using GEO database to correlate differential genes and drug targets to screen potential antiviral gene therapy targets, to construct regulatory network and key points of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic drugs; 3) using computer simulation of molecular docking to screen virus-related proteins for new drugs. ResultsIntegrated analysis of network pharmacology discovered that baicalein, estrone and quercetin are the pivotal active ingredients in TCM and CWM. Combining drug target genes in pharmacology database and virus induced genes in GEO database, the result showed the core hub genes related to COVID-19 MESHD: STAT1 HGNC, IL1B HGNC, IL6 HGNC, IL8 HGNC, PTGS2 HGNC and NFKBIA HGNC, and these genes were significantly downregulated in A549 and NHBE cells by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Moreover, chemical interaction and molecular docking analysis of hub genes showed that folic acid might as be potential therapeutic drug for COVID-19 MESHD treatment, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid phosphoprotein was a potential drug target. The network of “drug-target-SARS-CoV-2 related genes” provide noval potential compounds and targets for further studies of SARS-CoV-2.ConclusionsIntegrated analysis of network pharmacology and big data mining provided noval potential compounds and targets for further studies of SARS-CoV-2. Our research implied folic acid and SARS-CoV-2 N as therapeutic target in TCM and CWM. Our research also suggests that targeting SARS-CoV-2 N MESHD N protein PROTEIN is likely to be a common mechanism of TCM and CWM. On the one hand, the identification of pivotal genes provides a target for COVID-19 MESHD molecular therapy, on the other hand, it provides ideas for the analysis of interaction mechanism between virus and host.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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