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HGNC Genes

SARS-CoV-2 proteins

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    Increased angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC, sRAGE and immune activation, but lowered calcium and magnesium in COVID-19 MESHD: association with chest CT abnormalities MESHD and lowered peripheral oxygen saturation.

    Authors: Hussein Al-Hakeim; Hawraa Al-Jassas; Gerwyn Morris; Michael Maes

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254383 Date: 2021-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background. The characterization of new biomarkers of COVID-19 MESHD is extremely important. Few studies measured the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product (sRAGE), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 HGNC ( ACE2 HGNC), calcium and magnesium in COVID-19 MESHD. Aims: To measure sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, interleukin (IL)-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC, calcium, magnesium, and albumin in COVID-19 MESHD patients in association with peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and chest CT scan abnormalities (CCTA) including ground glass opacities. Methods. This study measured sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC using ELISA techniques, and calcium, magnesium, and albumin using a spectrophotometric method in 60 COVID-19 MESHD patients and 30 healthy controls. Results. COVID-19 MESHD is characterized by significantly increased IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, sRAGE, ACE2 HGNC, and lowered levels of SpO2, albumin, magnesium and calcium. Neural networks showed that a combination of calcium, IL-6 HGNC, CRP HGNC, and sRAGE yielded an accuracy of 100% in detecting COVID-19 MESHD patients with calcium being the most important predictor followed by IL-6 HGNC, and CRP HGNC. COVID-19 MESHD patients with CCTAs showed lower SpO2 and albumin levels than those without CCTAs. SpO2 was significantly and inversely correlated with IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, CRP HGNC, sRAGE, and ACE2 HGNC, and positively with albumin, magnesium and calcium. Patients with positive IgG results showed a significant elevation in the serum level of IL-6 HGNC, sRAGE, and ACE2 HGNC compared to the negatively IgG patient subgroup. Conclusion. The results show that immune-inflammatory and RAGE HGNC pathway biomarkers may be used as external validating criterion for the diagnosis COVID-19 MESHD. Those pathways coupled with lowered SpO2, calcium and magnesium are drug targets that may help to reduce the consequences of COVID-19 MESHD.

    PREDICTIVE IMMUNOLOGICAL, VIROLOGICAL, AND ROUTINE LABORATORY MARKERS FOR CRITICAL COVID-19 MESHD ON ADMISSION.Immunocovid study

    Authors: Mercedes Garcia Gasalla; Juana M Ferrer; Pablo A Fraile-Ribot; Adrian Ferre-Beltran; Adrian Rodriguez; Natalia Martinez-Pomar; Luisa Ramon-Clar; Amanda Iglesias; Francisco Fanjul; Joan A Pou; Isabel LLompart; Ines Losada; Nuria Toledo; Jaime Pons; Antonio Oliver; Melchor Riera; Javier Murillas

    doi:10.1101/2021.03.17.21253816 Date: 2021-03-20 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Early identification of COVID-19 MESHD patients at risk of critical illness is challenging for clinicians. Immunological, virological, and routine laboratory markers to be used in addition to clinical data are needed. Aim and methods: Blood tests to measure neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), levels of ferritin, CRP HGNC, D-dimer, complement components (C3, C4), lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines, and SARS-Cov2 RT-PCR tests were performed in COVID-19 MESHD confirmed cases within 48 hours of admission. Cycle threshold (Ct) values were determined by RT-PCR from oral or nasopharyngeal swabs on the day of admission. Severity of symptoms was categorized as mild (grade 1), severe (grade 2), and critical (grade 3). Results: 120 patients were included. COVID-19 MESHD was mild in 49, severe in 32, and critical in 39. Ferritin >370 ng/mL (OR 16.4, 95% CI 5.3-50.8), D-dimer >440 ng/mL (OR 5.45, 95% CI 2.36-12.61), CRP >7.65 mg/dL (OR 11.54, 95% CI 4.3-30.8), NLR >3.77 (OR 13.4, 95% CI 4.3-41.1), IL-6 HGNC >142.5 pg/mL (OR 8.76, 95% CI 3.56-21.54), IL-10 HGNC >10.8 pg/mL (OR 16.45, 95% CI 5.32-50.81), sIL-2r (sCD25) >804.5 pg/mL (OR 14.06, 95% CI 4.56-43.28), IL-1Ra HGNC >88.4 pg/mL (OR 4.54, 95% CI 2.03-10.17), and IL-18 HGNC >144 pg/mL (OR 17.85, 95% CI 6.54-48.78) were associated with critical COVID-19 MESHD in the univariate age-adjusted analysis. In the multivariate age-adjusted analysis, this association was confirmed only for ferritin, CRP HGNC,NLR, IL-10 HGNC, sIL-2r, and IL-18 HGNC. T, B, and NK cells were significantly decreased in critical patients. SARS-CoV-2 was undetected in blood except in 3 patients with indeterminate results. Ct values determined by RT-PCR from oral/nasopharyngeal swabs on admission were not related to symptom severity. Conclusion: levels of ferritin, D-dimer, CRP HGNC, NLR, and cytokines and cytokine receptors IL-6 HGNC, IL1-Ra HGNC, sCD25, IL-18 HGNC, and IL-10 HGNC, taken together with clinical data, can contribute to the early identification of critical COVID-19 MESHD patients.

    Targeting of the NLRP3 HGNC Inflammasome for early COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Carlo Marchetti; Kara Mould; Isak W. Tengesdal; William J. Janssen; Charles A. Dinarello

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.24.432734 Date: 2021-02-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Following entry and replication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus MESHD 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into ACE2 expressing cells, the infected cells undergo lysis releasing more virus but also cell contents. In the lung, constitutive cytokines such as IL-1 HGNC are released together with other cell contents. A cascade of inflammatory cytokines ensues, including chemokines and IL-1{beta}, triggering both local as well as systemic inflammation MESHD. This cascade of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 MESHD is termed Cytokine Release Syndrome ( CRS MESHD), and is associated with poor outcomes and death MESHD. Many studies reveal that blocking IL-1{beta HGNC} activities in COVID-19 MESHD patients reduces disease severity and deaths MESHD. Here we report highly significant circulating levels of IL-1{beta HGNC}, IL-1 Receptor antagonist HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, TNF HGNC, IL-10 HGNC and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor HGNC in COVID-19 MESHD patients with mild or no symptoms. We also report that in circulating myeloid cells from the same patients, there is increased expression of the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3 ( NLRP3 HGNC) early in the infection. We observed increased NLRP3 HGNC gene expression in myeloid cells correlated with IL-1{beta HGNC} gene expression and also with elevated circulating IL-1{beta HGNC} levels. We conclude that early in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, NLRP3 HGNC activation takes place and initiates the CRS. Thus, NLRP3 HGNC is a target to reduce the organ damage of inflammatory cytokines of the CRS.

    Endogenous control of inflammation MESHD characterizes pregnant women with asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Sara De Biasi; Domenico Lo Tartaro; Lara Gibellini; Annamaria Paolini; Andrew Quong; Carlene Petes; Geneve Awong; Samuel Douglas; Dongxia Lin; Jordan Nieto; Rebecca Borella; Lucia Fidanza; Marco Mattioli; Chiara Leone; Marianna Meschiari; Erica Franceschini; Luca Cicchetti; Tommaso Trenti; Mario Sarti; Massimo Girardis; Giovanni Guaraldi; Cristina Mussini; Fabio Facchinetti; Andrea Cossarizza

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-263619/v1 Date: 2021-02-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    In 14 pregnant women who had asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, we performed a detailed 38-parameter analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by mass cytometry, studied the expression of T-cell master regular genes, investigated cell proliferation and cytokine production, and measured plasma levels of 62 cytokines. No patient showed lymphopenia MESHD or gross alterations of white blood cells. Unsupervised analyses revealed that most immune parameters were similar in patients and uninfected controls, apart from an increase in low density neutrophils in SARS-CoV-2 positive women. Also, patients did not show altered plasma levels of interleukin-6 HGNC or other main inflammatory molecules, but displayed significant increases of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1RA HGNC, IL-10 HGNC and IL-19 HGNC, and decreased levels of IL-17 HGNC, PD-L1 HGNC and D-dimer. The endogenous control of inflammation MESHD, as evidenced by plasma levels of soluble molecules, could be a strategy used during pregnancy to avoid virus-induced damages and maintain a normal immune response.

    Chyawanprash for the prevention of COVID-19 MESHD infection among healthcare workers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Authors: Arun Gupta; Amit Madan; Babita Yadav; Richa Singhal; Pallavi Suresh Mundada; Yogesh Kumar Pandey; Riju Agarwal; Rakesh Rana; Arunabh Tripathi; Bhagwan Sahay Sharma; BCS Rao; Bharti Gupta; Narayanam Srikanth; Kartar Singh Dhiman

    doi:10.1101/2021.02.17.21251899 Date: 2021-02-19 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( Covid19 MESHD) occurs after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARSCoV2). For persons who are at high risk of exposure, the standard of care is personal protection from getting infected. Whether Ayurvedic rasayana drug like Chyawanprash can prevent symptomatic infection in frontline health care workers is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the combination of Chyawanprash and Standard Preventive Regimen compared to the use of Standard Preventive Regimen alone on the proportion of RT-PCR confirmed COVID 19 infections among frontline healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: An open label randomized controlled trial was conducted in the HCWs between 25 to 60 years age currently working in an environment with chance of direct exposure to COVID 19 cases. The interventions to be compared in this trial were Standard Preventive Regimen as per institutional guidelines and based on their roles (Group I) and Ayurvedic Intervention viz., Chyawanprash 12 g twice for 30 days from day of randomization plus Standard Preventive Regimen (Group II). The incidence of RT PCR confirmed COVID19 MESHD cases in both groups, was the primary outcome measure. Evaluation of the safety of the study drug (by any statistically significant change in various biochemical and hematological parameters and occurrence of any adverse drug reactions); incidence of any other infective diseases (bacterial / viral / fungal / etc.) like upper respiratory tract illness during the study period and any change in the immunoglobulins like IgG, IgM and IgE and inflammatory markers like TNF alpha HGNC, IL6 HGNC and IL10 HGNC were the secondary outcome measures. Results: Out of 193 participants who completed the study, no participant in both groups was COVID 19 positive at the end of one month. In post intervention follow up, 4 subjects in Group I and 2 subjects in Group II were COVID 19 positive. No adverse drug reaction or any serious adverse event was reported during the study. No clinically significant change in the safety parameters was observed before and after the study. Statistically significant rise in Serum IgG level was seen in Group II but other inflammatory and immune markers did not show statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Chyawanprash was well tolerated by all the participants in the intervention group but to prove its adaptogenic effect and efficacy as an add-on to the standard care in preventing the occurrence of COVID 19, clinical trial for longer duration with larger sample size is needed. Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India vide CTRI/2020/05/025275 dated 20/05/2020 Date of IEC approval: 19.5.2020 Keywords: Adaptogen, Ayurveda, Health personnel, Prophylaxis, Rasayana, SARS CoV 2

    Differential Cytokine Signatures of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza Infection Highlight Key Differences in Pathobiology

    Authors: Andrew H Karaba; Weiqiang Zhou; Leon L Hsieh; Alexis Figueroa; Guido Massaccesi; Richard E Rothman; Katherine ZJ Fenstermacher; Lauren Sauer; Kathryn Shaw-Saliba; Paul W Blair; Sherry Leung; Russell Wesson; Nada Alachkar; Ramy El-Diwany; Hongkai Ji; Andrea L Cox

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.29.21250317 Date: 2021-02-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several inflammatory cytokines are upregulated in severe COVID-19 MESHD. We compared cytokines in COVID-19 MESHD versus influenza in order to define differentiating features of the inflammatory response to these pathogens and their association with severe disease. Because elevated body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for severe COVID-19 MESHD, we examined the relationship of BMI to cytokines associated with severe disease. Methods: Thirty-seven cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma from 145 patients with COVID-19 MESHD, 57 patients with influenza, and 30 healthy controls. Controlling for BMI, age, and sex, differences in cytokines between groups were determined by linear regression and random forest prediction was utilized to determine the cytokines most important in distinguishing severe COVID-19 MESHD and influenza. Mediation analysis was utilized to identify cytokines that mediate the effect of BMI on disease severity. Results: IL-18 HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC}, IL-6 HGNC, and TNF HGNC- were significantly increased in COVID-19 MESHD versus influenza patients while GM-CSF HGNC, IFN-{gamma}, IFN-{lambda}1, IL-10 HGNC, IL-15 HGNC, and MCP-2 HGNC were significantly elevated in the influenza group. In subgroup analysis based on disease severity, IL-18 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, and TNF HGNC- were elevated in severe COVID-19 MESHD, but not severe influenza. Random forest analysis identified high IL-6 HGNC and low IFN-{lambda}1 HGNC levels as the most distinct between severe COVID-19 MESHD and severe influenza. Finally, IL-1RA HGNC was identified as a potential mediator of the effects of BMI on COVID-19 MESHD severity. Conclusions: These findings point to activation of fundamentally different innate immune pathways in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection MESHD, and emphasize drivers of severe COVID-19 MESHD to focus both mechanistic and therapeutic investigations.

    The Significance of KL-6 HGNC as Prognosis Monitoring Biomarker in Patients With Severe COVID-19 MESHD From Stabilized Stage Toward Convalescence

    Authors: Long He; Liu Lu; Ming Zong; Huang Zhou; Lan Wang; Nian Zhen Chen; Jia Yi Yuan; Er Peng Jiang; Liang Zheng; Qiang Li; Lie Ying Fan; Zhong Min Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-191056/v1 Date: 2021-01-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: This study aims to identify some biomarkers for monitoring the recovery of lung injury MESHD in severe COVID-19 MESHD patients from stabilized stage toward convalescence.Methods: We enrolled participants who diagnosed with severe COVID-19 MESHD (n = 28) and health volunteers (n = 25) from Taikang Tongji (Wuhan) Hospital. The patients were in a stabilized stage and had a course of 48.1±12.8 days. We followed these patients for 90 days. The blood routine, cytokines ( IL-1β HGNC, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-5 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC, TNF-α HGNC, IFN-α, IFN-γ HGNC), type II alveolar epithelium injury MESHD indicators ( Surfactant protein A HGNC ( SP-A HGNC), Krebs von den Lungen-6 HGNC von MESHD den Lungen-6 ( KL-6 HGNC)) and chest CT were tested on the 1, 30, 60, and 90 days after enrollment. Results: In stabilized stage, the parameters of blood routine and some cytokines ( IL-1β HGNC, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-12p70, TNF-α HGNC) had bounced back to normal (p>0.05). Some cytokines ( IL-5 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-17A HGNC, IFN-α, IFN-γ HGNC) and type II alveolar epithelium injury MESHD indicators ( SP-A HGNC and KL-6 HGNC) were still higher than normal (p<0.05). During the stabilized stage to convalescence, in spite of the variation of monocyte count, monocyte/lymphocyte ratio, IL-5 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC IFN-γ HGNC, IFN-α, SP-A HGNC and KL-6 HGNC were downward trend (p<0.05), only KL-6 HGNC level (p<0.05) could simultaneously reflect the lung injury MESHD volume which be measured by CT. Conclusions: Our preliminary data indicated that KL-6 HGNC could be an effective prognostic biomarker for monitoring the recovery of lung function in patients with severe COVID-19 MESHD from stabilized stage toward convalescence.

    Cerebrospinal fluid in COVID-19 MESHD neurological complications: no cytokine storm or neuroinflammation.

    Authors: Maria A. Garcia; Paula V. Barreras; Allie Lewis; Gabriel Pinilla; Lori J. Sokoll; Thomas Kickler; Heba Mostafa; Mario Caturegli; Abhay Moghekar; Kathryn C. Fitzgerald; - Hopkins Neuro-COVID-19 Group; Carlos A Pardo

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.10.20249014 Date: 2021-01-12 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND. Neurological complications MESHD occur in COVID-19 MESHD. We aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications MESHD and determine presence of neuroinflammatory changes implicated in pathogenesis. METHODS. Cross-sectional study of CSF neuroinflammatory profiles from 18 COVID-19 MESHD subjects with neurological complications categorized by diagnosis ( stroke MESHD, encephalopathy MESHD, headache MESHD) and illness severity (critical, severe, moderate, mild). COVID-19 MESHD CSF was compared with CSF from healthy, infectious and neuroinflammatory disorders MESHD and stroke MESHD controls (n=82). Cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC, IFN-gamma HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12p70, IL-17A HGNC), inflammation MESHD and coagulation markers (high-sensitivity- C Reactive Protein HGNC [hsCRP], ferritin, fibrinogen HGNC, D-dimer, Factor VIII) and neurofilament light chain ( NF-L HGNC), were quantified. SARS-CoV2 RNA and SARS-CoV2 IgG and IgA antibodies in CSF were tested with RT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS. CSF from COVID-19 MESHD subjects showed a paucity of neuroinflammatory changes, absence of pleocytosis MESHD or specific increases in pro-inflammatory markers or cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, ferritin, or D-dimer). Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects (77%) were observed despite no evidence of SARS-CoV2 viral RNA. A similar increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( IL-6 HGNC, TNF-alpha HGNC;, IL-12p70) and IL-10 HGNC in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD and non- COVID-19 MESHD stroke MESHD subjects was observed compared to controls. CSF-NF-L was elevated in subjects with stroke MESHD and critical COVID-19 MESHD. CSF-hsCRP was present almost exclusively in COVID-19 MESHD cases. CONCLUSION. The paucity of neuroinflammatory changes in CSF of COVID-19 MESHD subjects and lack of SARS-CoV2 RNA do not support the presumed neurovirulence of SARS-CoV2 or neuroinflammation MESHD in pathogenesis of neurological complications in COVID-19 MESHD. Elevated CSF-NF-L indicates neuroaxonal injury MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD cases. The role of CSF SARS-CoV2 IgG antibodies is still undetermined.

    Saliva viral load is a dynamic unifying correlate of COVID-19 MESHD severity and mortality

    Authors: Julio Silva; Carolina Lucas; Maria Sundaram; Benjamin Israelow; Patrick Wong; Jon Klein; Maria Tokuyama; Peiwen Lu; Arvind Venkataraman; Feimei Liu; Tianyang Mao; Ji Eun Oh; Annsea Park; arnau Casanovas-Massana; Chantal B.F. Vogels; Catherine M. Muenker; Joseph Zell; John B. Fournier; Melissa Campbell; Michael Chiorazzi; Edwin Ruiz Fuentes; Mary Petrone; Chaney C Kalinich; Isabel M. Ott; Annie Watkins; Adam J. Moore; Maura I. Nakahata; - Yale IMPACT Team; Nathan D Grubaugh; Shelli Farhadian; Charles Dela Cruz; Albert Ko; Wade L Schulz; Aaron M Ring; Shuangge Ma; Saad Omer; Anne L Wyllie; Akiko Iwasaki

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.04.21249236 Date: 2021-01-06 Source: medRxiv

    While several clinical and immunological parameters correlate with disease severity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, work remains in identifying unifying correlates of coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) that can be used to guide clinical practice. Here, we examine saliva and nasopharyngeal (NP) viral load over time and correlate them with patient demographics, and cellular and immune profiling. We found that saliva viral load was significantly higher in those with COVID-19 MESHD risk factors; that it correlated with increasing levels of disease severity and showed a superior ability over nasopharyngeal viral load as a predictor of mortality over time (AUC=0.90). A comprehensive analysis of immune factors and cell subsets revealed strong predictors of high and low saliva viral load, which were associated with increased disease severity or better overall outcomes, respectively. Saliva viral load was positively associated with many known COVID-19 MESHD inflammatory markers such as IL-6 HGNC, IL-18 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, and CXCL10 HGNC, as well as type 1 immune response cytokines. Higher saliva viral loads strongly correlated with the progressive depletion of platelets, lymphocytes, and effector T cell subsets including circulating follicular CD4 T cells (cTfh). Anti-spike (S) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG levels were negatively correlated with saliva viral load showing a strong temporal association that could help distinguish severity and mortality in COVID-19 MESHD. Finally, patients with fatal COVID-19 MESHD exhibited higher viral loads, which correlated with the depletion of cTfh cells, and lower production of anti-RBD and anti-S IgG levels. Together these results demonstrated that viral load, as measured by saliva but not nasopharyngeal, is a dynamic unifying correlate of disease presentation, severity, and mortality over time.

    Humoral and cell-mediated response in colostrum after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD

    Authors: Vignesh Narayanaswamy; Brian Pentecost; Dominique Alfandari; Emily Chin; Kathleen Minor; Alyssa Kastrinakis; Tanya Lieberman; Kathleen F Arcaro; Heidi Leftwich

    doi:10.1101/2021.01.03.20248715 Date: 2021-01-04 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundColostrum provides an immune sharing between a mother and her infant. The transfer in colostrum of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the elicited cytokines may provide crucial protection to the infant. There is limited literature on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 present in colostrum. ObjectiveTo evaluate the presence of antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 and the associated cytokines in colostrum from women who tested positive for the virus. Study DesignBetween March and September 2020 we obtained bilateral colostrum samples collected on spot cards within 48 hours of delivery from 15 new mothers who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Five of these 15 COVID-19 MESHD positive women also provided bilateral liquid colostrum within 1-2 days of providing the spot card samples. Archived bilateral colostrum samples collected from 8 women during 2011-2013 were used as pre- COVID-19 MESHD controls. All samples were tested for reactivity to the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike PROTEIN protein using an ELISA that measures SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM, and for concentrations of 10 inflammatory cytokines ( IFN{gamma HGNC}, TNF HGNC, IL-1{beta HGNC}, IL-2 HGNC, IL-4 HGNC, IL-6 HGNC, IL-8 HGNC, IL-10 HGNC, IL-12, IL-13 HGNC) using a multiplex electrochemiluminescent sandwich assay. ResultsBilateral colostrum samples from 73%, 73% and 33% of the 15 COVID-19 MESHD mothers exhibited IgA, IgG, and IgM reactivity to RBD respectively. Colostrum samples from two of the 8 pre-pandemic controls showed IgA and IgG reactivity to RBD. Additionally, COVID-19 MESHD mothers had significantly higher levels of 9 of the 10 inflammatory markers (all except IFN{gamma HGNC}) as compared to the pre- COVID-19 MESHD controls. Comparable results were obtained with both the spot card-eluates and liquid samples. ConclusionsA strong humoral immune response is present in the colostrum of women who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 before delivering. High levels of 9 inflammatory markers were also present in the colostrum. The evolution and duration of the antibody response, as well as dynamics of the cytokine response, remain to be determined. Our results also indicate that future large-scale studies can be conducted with milk easily collected on paper spot cards.

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MeSH Disease
HGNC Genes
SARS-CoV-2 Proteins


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