Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Obesity (64)

Hypertension (62)

Disease (36)

Death (26)

Infections (26)


Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Network reinforcement driven drug repurposing for COVID-19 by exploiting disease MESHD-gene-drug associations

    Authors: Yonghyun Nam; Jae-Seung Yun; Seung Mi Lee; Ji Won Park; Ziqi Chen; Brian Lee; Anurag Verma; Xia Ning; Li Shen; Dokyoon Kim

    id:2008.05377v1 Date: 2020-08-12 Source: arXiv

    Currently, the number of patients with COVID-19 has significantly increased. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing treatments for COVID-19. Drug repurposing, which is the process of reusing already-approved drugs for new medical conditions, can be a good way to solve this problem quickly and broadly. Many clinical trials for COVID-19 patients using treatments for other diseases MESHD have already been in place or will be performed at clinical sites in the near future. Additionally, patients with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, obesity MESHD obesity HP, liver cirrhosis MESHD cirrhosis HP, kidney diseases MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and asthma MESHD asthma HP are at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Thus, the relationship of comorbidity disease MESHD with COVID-19 may help to find repurposable drugs. To reduce trial and error in finding treatments for COVID-19, we propose building a network-based drug repurposing framework to prioritize repurposable drugs. First, we utilized knowledge of COVID-19 to construct a disease MESHD-gene-drug network (DGDr-Net) representing a COVID-19-centric interactome with components for diseases MESHD, genes, and drugs. DGDr-Net consisted of 592 diseases MESHD, 26,681 human genes and 2,173 drugs, and medical information for 18 common comorbidities. The DGDr-Net recommended candidate repurposable drugs for COVID-19 through network reinforcement driven scoring algorithms. The scoring algorithms determined the priority of recommendations by utilizing graph-based semi-supervised learning. From the predicted scores, we recommended 30 drugs, including dexamethasone, resveratrol, methotrexate, indomethacin, quercetin, etc., as repurposable drugs for COVID-19, and the results were verified with drugs that have been under clinical trials. The list of drugs via a data-driven computational approach could help reduce trial-and-error in finding treatment for COVID-19.

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    Sex-specificity of mortality risk factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in New York City: prospective cohort study

    Authors: Tomi Jun; Sharon Nirenberg; Patricia Kovatch; Kuan-lin Huang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164640 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To identify sex-specific effects of risk factors for in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a hospital system in New York City. Design: Prospective observational cohort study with in-hospital mortality as the primary outcome. Setting: Five acute care hospitals within a single academic medical system in New York City. Participants: 3,086 hospital inpatients with COVID-19 admitted on or before April 13, 2020 and followed through June 2, 2020. Follow-up till discharge or death MESHD was complete for 99.3% of the cohort. Results: The majority of the cohort was male TRANS (59.6%). Men were younger (median 64 vs. 70, p<0.001) and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (32.5% vs. 39.9%, p<0.001), diabetes (22.6% vs. 26%, p=0.03), and obesity MESHD obesity HP (6.9% vs. 9.8%, p=0.004) compared to women. Women had lower median values of laboratory markers associated with inflammation MESHD compared to men: white blood SERO cells (5.95 vs. 6.8 K/uL, p<0.001), procalcitonin (0.14 vs 0.21 ng/mL, p<0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (375 vs. 428 U/L, p<0.001), C-reactive protein (87.7 vs. 123.2 mg/L, p<0.001). Unadjusted mortality was similar between men and women (28.8% vs. 28.5%, p=0.84), but more men required intensive care than women (25.2% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Male TRANS sex was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR 1.26, 95% 1.04-1.51) after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and baseline hypoxia MESHD. There were significant interactions between sex and coronary artery disease MESHD (p=0.038), obesity MESHD obesity HP (p=0.01), baseline hypoxia MESHD (p<0.001), ferritin (p=0.002), lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.003), and procalcitonin (p=0.03). Except for procalcitonin, which had the opposite association, each of these factors was associated with disproportionately higher mortality among women. Conclusions: Male TRANS sex was an independent predictor of mortality, consistent with prior studies. Notably, there were significant sex-specific interactions which indicated a disproportionate increase in mortality among women with coronary artery disease MESHD, obesity MESHD obesity HP, and hypoxia MESHD. These new findings highlight patient subgroups for further study and help explain the recognized sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes.

    METFORMIN USE IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED MORTALITY IN A DIVERSE POPULATION WITH COVID-19 AND DIABETES

    Authors: Andrew Crouse; Tiffany Grimes; Peng Li; Matthew Might; Fernando Ovalle; Anath Shalev

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164020 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) is a growing pandemic with an increasing death MESHD toll that has been linked to various comorbidities as well as racial disparity. However, the specific characteristics of these at-risk populations are still not known and approaches to lower mortality are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective electronic health record data analysis of 25,326 subjects tested for COVID-19 between 2/25/20 and 6/22/20 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, a tertiary health care center in the racially diverse Southern U.S. The primary outcome was mortality in COVID-19-positive subjects and the association with subject characteristics and comorbidities was analyzed using simple and multiple linear logistic regression. RESULTS: The odds ratio of contracting COVID-19 was disproportionately high in Blacks/African-Americans (OR 2.6; 95%CI 2.19-3.10; p<0.0001) and in subjects with obesity MESHD obesity HP (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.64-2.28; p<0.0001), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.07-2.93; p<0.0001), and diabetes (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.78-2.48; p<0.0001). Diabetes was also associated with a dramatic increase in mortality (OR 3.62; 95%CI 2.11-6.2; p<0.0001) and emerged as an independent risk factor in this diverse population even after correcting for age TRANS, race, sex, obesity MESHD obesity HP and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. Interestingly, we found that metformin treatment was independently associated with a significant reduction in mortality in subjects with diabetes and COVID-19 (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.13-0.84; p=0.0210). CONCLUSION: Thus, these results suggest that while diabetes is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality, this risk is dramatically reduced in subjects taking metformin, raising the possibility that metformin may provide a protective approach in this high risk population.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease MESHD prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, stroke MESHD stroke HP, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers (e.g., lung, colorectal, stomach, kidney and renal). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer and thyroid cancer were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD (STAD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP (COAD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    A Bayesian Framework for Estimating the Risk Ratio of Hospitalization for People with Comorbidity Infected by the SARS-CoV-2 Virus

    Authors: Xiang Gao; Qunfeng Dong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20162131 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Estimating the hospitalization risk for people with certain comorbidities infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is important for developing public health policies and guidance based on risk stratification. Traditional biostatistical methods require knowing both the number of infected people who were hospitalized and the number of infected people who were not hospitalized. However, the latter may be undercounted, as it is limited to only those who were tested for viral infection MESHD. In addition, comorbidity information for people not hospitalized may not always be readily available for traditional biostatistical analyses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a Bayesian approach that only requires the observed frequency of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients in hospitals and the prevalence SERO of comorbidities in the general population. By applying our approach to two different large-scale datasets in the U.S., our results consistently indicated that cardiovascular diseases MESHD carried the highest hospitalization risk for COVID-19 patients, followed by diabetes, chronic respiratory disease MESHD, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, and obesity MESHD obesity HP, respectively.

    Trends in Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Use Among those at Risk for COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality in the United States

    Authors: Alexandra Perez; Robert Speth; Juan Saavedra

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161851 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Assessment of the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in the United States provides insight into prescribing practices, and may inform guidelines, policy measures and research during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To evaluate trends in ARB use among adults TRANS in the United States who have preexisting conditions and sociodemographic risk factors that put them at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and COVID-19-related complications and mortality. Design, setting and participants: This study uses the nationally representative cross-sectional data from the 2005-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants included 39,749 non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults TRANS who were 20 years and older and those with the most common preexisting conditions and risk factors reported among patients with COVID-19. Main outcomes and measures: Use of ARBs in the prior 30 days from survey interview. Results: ARB use ranged from 7.4% [95% CI, 6.5%-8.4%] to 26.2% [95% CI, 19.4%-34.4%] among those with one or two metabolic, renal, respiratory, and/or cardiovascular diseases MESHD. Among individuals with the three most common preexisting conditions in patients with COVID-19 including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes and obesity MESHD obesity HP, ARB use was higher among the elderly TRANS, females TRANS, non-Hispanic whites, and those with health insurance coverage. Conclusions and relevance: In this nationally representative survey, ARB use was found to be widespread, but unevenly distributed among individuals with conditions and sociodemographic risk factors that place them at a higher risk of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

    The impact of COVID-19 on patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP: A Big Data analysis

    Authors: Jose Luis Izquierdo; Carlos Almonacid; Yolanda Gonzalez; Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez; Julio Ancochea; Remedios Cardenas; Joan B Soriano

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161596 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: From the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, an association between the severity of COVID-19 and the presence of certain medical chronic conditions has been suggested. However, unlike influenza and other viruses, the burden of the disease MESHD in patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP has been less evident. Objective: This study aims at a better understanding of the burden of COVID-19 in patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP and the impact of asthma MESHD asthma HP, its related comorbidities, and treatment on the prognosis of COVID-19. Methods: We analyzed clinical data from patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP from January 1st to May 10th, 2020 using big data analytics and artificial intelligence through the SAVANA Manager clinical platform. Results: Out of 71,192 patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP, 1,006 (1.41%) suffered from COVID-19. Compared to asthmatic individuals without COVID-19, patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP and COVID-19 were significantly older (55 vs. 42 years), predominantly female TRANS (66% vs. 59%), had higher prevalence SERO of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, dyslipidemias MESHD, diabetes, and obesity MESHD obesity HP, and smoked more frequently. Contrarily, allergy HP-related factors such as rhinitis MESHD rhinitis HP and eczema MESHD eczema HP were less frequent in asthmatic patients with COVID-19 (P < .001). Higher prevalence SERO of hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity MESHD obesity HP was also confirmed in those patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP and COVID-19 who required hospital admission. The percentage of individuals using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was lower in patients who required hospitalization due to COVID-19, as compared to non-hospitalized patients (48.3% vs. 61.5%; OR: 0.58: 95% CI 0.44-0.77). During the study period, 865 (1.21%) patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP were being treated with biologics. Although these patients showed increased severity and more comorbidities at the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) level, their hospital admission rates due to COVID-19 were relatively low (0.23%). COVID-19 increased inpatient mortality in asthmatic patients (2.29% vs 0.54%; OR 2.29: 95% CI 4.35-6.66). Conclusion: Our results indicate that the number of COVID-19 cases in patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP has been low, although higher than the observed in the general population. Patients with asthma MESHD asthma HP and COVID-19 were older and were at increased risk due to comorbidity-related factors. ICS and biologics are generally safe and may be associated with a protective effect against severe COVID-19 infection MESHD.

    Reducing COVID-19 hospitalization risk through behavior change

    Authors: MARY L ADAMS; David L Katz; Joseph Grandpre; Douglas Shenson

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20159350 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Our objective was to determine strategies that could potentially reduce the risk of hospitalizations from COVID-19 due to underlying conditions. We used data (N=444,649) from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to identify potentially modifiable risk factors associated with reporting any of the underlying conditions ( cardiovascular disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, diabetes, hypertension MESHD hypertension HP or obesity MESHD obesity HP) found to increase risk of US hospitalizations for COVID-19. Risk factors included lifetime smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Multiple logistic regression in Stata produced adjusted odds ratios (AORs) used to estimate population attributable-risk (PAR) in Excel. PARs for the 3 risk factors ranged from 12.4% for inactivity to 15.6% for diet for a combined PAR of 36.3%, implying that total elimination of these 3 risk factors could potentially reduce underlying conditions as much as 36%. This suggests that reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations might be a measurable and feasible US goal for the coronavirus pandemic. The simple lifestyle changes of increasing physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption could reduce obesity MESHD obesity HP, a key underlying condition and risk factor for 4 others. Reducing obesity MESHD obesity HP and inactivity may also boost immunity. With uncertainly around how long the pandemic might last, other proposed strategies include wearing face masks when social distancing is not feasible, and addressing the special issues for nursing home residents. Such actions have the potential to lessen the impact of COVID-19 in the short term along with providing long term health benefits regarding chronic conditions.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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