Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Hypertension (136)

Fever (32)

Cough (28)

Pneumonia (23)

Obesity (19)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 136
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    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Clinical Outcomes From COVID-19 Following Use of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers Among Patients with Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP in South Korea: A nationwide study

    Authors: Ju Hwan Kim; Yeon-Hee Baek; Hyesung Lee; Young June Choe; Hyun Joon Shin; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164822 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    There is ongoing debate as to whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) use is associated with poor prognosis of coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19). We sought to investigate the association between ACEI/ARB use and risk of poor clinical outcomes from COVID-19. We identified 1,290 patients with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, of which 682 had recorded ACEI/ARB use and 608 without the use during 30 days preceding the date of COVID-19 diagnosis in completely enumerated COVID-19 cohort in South Korea. Our primary endpoint was the clinical outcomes comprised of all-cause mortality, use of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and sepsis MESHD sepsis HP. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to mitigate selection bias, and Poisson regression model to estimate the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare outcomes in ACEI/ARB users with non-users. Compared to non-use, ACEI/ARB use was associated with lower clinical outcomes (IPTW adjusted RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.85; p=0.0046). When assessed by individual outcomes, ACEI/ARB use was not associated with all-cause mortality (IPTW adjusted RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35-1.09; p=0.0973) and respiratory events (IPTW adjusted RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84-1.17; p=0.9043). Subgroup analysis showed a trend toward protective role of ACEIs and ARBs against overall outcomes in men (IPTW adjusted RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69-1.03; p-for-interaction=0.008) and with pre-existing respiratory disease MESHD (IPTW adjusted RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92; p-for-interaction=0.0023). We present clinical evidence to support continuing ACE/ARB use in completely enumerated hypertensive COVID-19 cohort in South Korea.

    METFORMIN USE IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED MORTALITY IN A DIVERSE POPULATION WITH COVID-19 AND DIABETES

    Authors: Andrew Crouse; Tiffany Grimes; Peng Li; Matthew Might; Fernando Ovalle; Anath Shalev

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164020 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) is a growing pandemic with an increasing death MESHD toll that has been linked to various comorbidities as well as racial disparity. However, the specific characteristics of these at-risk populations are still not known and approaches to lower mortality are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective electronic health record data analysis of 25,326 subjects tested for COVID-19 between 2/25/20 and 6/22/20 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, a tertiary health care center in the racially diverse Southern U.S. The primary outcome was mortality in COVID-19-positive subjects and the association with subject characteristics and comorbidities was analyzed using simple and multiple linear logistic regression. RESULTS: The odds ratio of contracting COVID-19 was disproportionately high in Blacks/African-Americans (OR 2.6; 95%CI 2.19-3.10; p<0.0001) and in subjects with obesity MESHD obesity HP (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.64-2.28; p<0.0001), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.07-2.93; p<0.0001), and diabetes (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.78-2.48; p<0.0001). Diabetes was also associated with a dramatic increase in mortality (OR 3.62; 95%CI 2.11-6.2; p<0.0001) and emerged as an independent risk factor in this diverse population even after correcting for age TRANS, race, sex, obesity MESHD obesity HP and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. Interestingly, we found that metformin treatment was independently associated with a significant reduction in mortality in subjects with diabetes and COVID-19 (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.13-0.84; p=0.0210). CONCLUSION: Thus, these results suggest that while diabetes is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality, this risk is dramatically reduced in subjects taking metformin, raising the possibility that metformin may provide a protective approach in this high risk population.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Descriptive epidemiology of 16,780 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States

    Authors: Shemra Rizzo; Devika Chawla; Kelly Zalocusky; Daniel Keebler; Jenny Chia; Lisa Lindsay; Vincent Yau; Tripthi Kamath; Larry Tsai

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156265 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), our understanding of basic disease MESHD epidemiology remains limited. This study aimed to describe key patient characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, and outcomes of a large U.S.-based cohort of patients hospitalized with COVD-19 using electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: We identified patients in the Optum De-identified COVID-19 EHR database who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or a presumptive diagnosis between 20 February 2020 and 6 June 2020. We included hospitalizations that occurred 7 days prior to, or within 21 days after, COVID-19 diagnosis. Among hospitalized patients we describe the following: vital statistics and laboratory results on admission, relevant comorbidities (using diagnostic, procedural, and revenue codes), medications (NDC, HCPC codes), ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. RESULTS: We identified 76,819 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 16,780 of whom met inclusion criteria for COVID-related hospitalization. Over half the cohort was over age TRANS 50 (74.5%), overweight MESHD overweight HP or obese (77.2%), or had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (58.1%). At admission, 30.3% of patients presented with fever MESHD fever HP (>38C) and 32.3% had low oxygen saturation (<90%). Among the 16,099 patients with complete hospital records, we observed that 58.9% had hypoxia MESHD, 23.4% had an ICU stay during hospitalization, 18.1% were ventilated, and 16.2% died. The median LOS was 6 days (IQR: 4, 11). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest descriptive study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States. We report summary statistics of key clinical outcomes that provide insights to better understand COVID-19 disease MESHD epidemiology.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease MESHD prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP, stroke MESHD stroke HP, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers (e.g., lung, colorectal, stomach, kidney and renal). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer and thyroid cancer were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD (STAD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP (COAD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (AMI). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP, 31% had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever MESHD Fever HP (15%) and cough MESHD cough HP (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke MESHD stroke HP and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    Developing the nomogram for the prediction of in-hospital incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD in patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Ning Ding; Yang Zhou; Guifang Yang; Cuirong Guo; Fengning Tang; Xiangping Chai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49304/v1 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS) was the most common complication of coronavirus disease MESHD-2019(COVID-19), leading to poor clinical outcomes. However, the model to predict the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in patients with COVID-19 is limited. Therefore, we aimed to develop a predictive nomogram for the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.Methods: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to Changsha Public Health Centre between Jan 30, 2020, and Feb 22, 2020, were enrolled. Clinical characteristics and laboratory variables were analyzed in patients with ARDS. Risk factors for ARDS were selected by LASSO binary logistic regression. Nomogram was established based on risk factors and validated by the dataset.Results: A total of 113 patients, involving 99 in the non-ARDS group and 14 in the ARDS group were included in the study. 8 variables including hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP (COPD), cough MESHD cough HP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), white blood SERO count (WBC), body temperature, and heart rate were identified to be included in the model. The specificity, sensitivity SERO, and accuracy of the full model were 100%, 85.7%, and 87.5% respectively. The calibration curve also showed good agreement between the predicted and observed values in the model.Conclusions: The nomogram can predict the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. It helps physicians to make an individualized treatment plan for each patient.

    Structured ICU Resource Management in a Pandemic is Associated with Good Outcome in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients

    Authors: Sebastian J Klein; Romuald Bellmann; Hannes Dejaco; Stephan Eschertzhuber; Dietmar Fries; Wilhelm Furtwängler; Lukas Gasteiger; Walter Hasibeder; Raimund Helbok; Christoph Hochhold; Stefanie Hofer; Lukas Kirchmair; Christoph Krismer; Eugen Ladner; Georg F Lehner; Simon Mathis; Andreas Mayr; Markus Mittermayr; Andreas Peer; Christian Preuß Hernández; Bruno Reitter; Mathias Ströhle; Michael Swoboda; Claudius Thomé; Michael Joannidis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48984/v1 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction On February 25th, 2020, the first two patients were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Tyrol, Austria. Based on alarming reports from the neighboring region Lombardy in Italy, rapid measures were taken to ensure adequate intensive care unit (ICU) preparedness for a surge of critically ill coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) patients.Methods A coordinated county wide step-up approach ensured adequate ICU bed availability for COVID-19 patients avoiding shortage of mechanical ventilation capacity. All patients admitted to an ICU with confirmed or strongly suspected COVID-19 in the region of Tyrol, Austria were recorded in the Tyrolean COVID-19 Intensive Care Registry. Data were censored on July 17th, 2020.Results From March 9th, 2020 to July 17th, 2020, 106 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were admitted to an ICU. Median age TRANS was 64 (interquartile range [IQR], 54-74) years and the majority of patients were male TRANS (76 patients [71.7%]). Median simplified acute physiology score III (SAPS III) was 56 (IQR, 49-64) points. The median duration from appearance of first symptoms to ICU admission was 8 (IQR, 5-11) days. Frequently observed comorbidities were arterial hypertension MESHD hypertension HP in 71 patients (67.0%), cardiovascular (45 patients [42.5%]) and renal comorbidities (21 patients [19.8%]). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 72 patients (67.9%), 6 patients (5.6%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Renal replacement therapy was necessary in 21 patients (19.8%). Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 18 (IQR, 5-31) days, median hospital LOS was 27 (IQR, 13-49) days.ICU mortality was 21.7% (23 patients), while only one patient (0.9%) died after ICU discharge on a general ward (hospital mortality 22,6%). As of July 17th, 2020, two patients are still hospitalized, one in an ICU, one on a general ward.Conclusions Critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to an ICU in the region of Tyrol, Austria, showed a high severity of disease MESHD often requiring complex treatments with increased lengths of ICU- and hospital stay. Despite that, we found ICU and hospital mortality in this cohort to be remarkably low. Adaptive surge response providing sufficient ICU resources presumably has contributed to the overall favorable outcome.

    SECOND WEEK METHYL-PREDNISOLONE PULSES IMPROVE PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE CORONAVIRUS DISEASE MESHD 2019 PNEUMONIA MESHD PNEUMONIA HP: AN OBSERVATIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY USING ROUTINE CARE DATA.

    Authors: Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza; Jose-Ignacio Pijoan; Elena Bereciartua; Susanna Dunder; Jokin Dominguez; Paula Garcia-Escudero; Alejandro Rodrigo; Carlota Gomez-Carballo; Jimena Varona; Laura Guio; Marta Ibarrola; Amaia Ugarte; Agustin Martinez-Berriotxoa

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20152868 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of a short course of methyl-prednisolone pulses (MP) during the second week of disease MESHD (week-2) on the clinical course of patients with severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. DESIGN: Comparative observational study using data collected from routine care. SETTING: Hospital Universitario Cruces, a tertiary level University hospital at Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP admitted between 1st March and 30th April 2020 to the services of Infectious Diseases MESHD and Internal Medicine. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment with week-2-MP (125-250 mg/d for 3 consecutive days with no subsequent tapering) vs. standard of care. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Time to death MESHD and time to death MESHD or endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-two patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and elevated inflammatory markers at admission were included in the study. Sixty-one patients (25%) received week-2-MP. Twenty-two patients (9%) died during the study period. Thirty-one patients (12.8%) suffered death MESHD or intubation. The adjusted HR for death MESHD was 0.35 (95%CI 0.11 to 1.06, p= 0.064) for patients in the week-2-MP group. The adjusted HR for death MESHD or intubation week-2-MP was 0.33 (95%CI 0.13 to 0.84, p=0.020) for patients in the week-2-MP group. These differences were seen in the subcohort of patients with a SaO2/FiO2 at day 7 lower than the median of the whole population: HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.12, p=0.073 and HR 0.34, 95%CI 0.12 to 0.94, p=0.038, respectively, but not in patients with higher SaO2/FiO2. Other predictors of the final outcomes were arterial hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, SaO2/FiO2, high-risk CURB65 scores and the use of non-pulse glucocorticoids. Non-pulse glucocorticoids were a predictor of infections MESHD (OR 4.72, 95%CI 1.90 to 11.80, p<0.001), while week-2-MP were not (OR 1.04, 95%CI 0.40 to 2.70, p=0.938). CONCLUSIONS: Week-2-MP are effective in improving the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with features of inflammatory activity and respiratory deterioration entering the second week of disease MESHD. The recognition of this high-risk population should prompt early use of MP at this point. REGISTRATION: This study has been registered in the EU PAS Register with the number EUPAS36287.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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