Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Hypertension (64)

Fever (16)

Obesity (16)

Cough (14)

Dyspnea (10)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 64
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    Risk and protective factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD - Meta-regression of data from worldwide nations

    Authors: Hisato Takagi; Toshiki Kuno; Yujiro Yokoyama; Hiroki Ueyama; Takuya Matsushiro; Yosuke Hari; Tomo Ando

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.06.20124016 Date: 2020-06-07 Source: medRxiv

    Although it has been reported that coexistent chronic diseases MESHD are strongly associated with COVID-19 severity, investigations of predictors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD itself have been seldom performed. To screen potential risk and protective factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, meta-regression of data from worldwide nations were herein conducted. We extracted total confirmed COVID-19 cases in worldwide 180 nations (May 31, 2020), nation total population, population ages TRANS 0-14/65 and above, GDP/GNI per capita, PPP, life expectancy at birth, medical-doctor and nursing/midwifery-personnel density, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD/ obesity HP obesity MESHD/ diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO, annual PM2.5 concentrations, daily ultraviolet radiation, population using safely-managed drinking-water/sanitation services and hand-washing facility with soap/water, inbound tourism, and bachelor's MESHD or equivalent (ISCED 6). Restricted maximum-likelihood meta-regression in the random-effects model was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 3. To adjust for other covariates, we conducted the hierarchical multivariate models. A slope (coefficient) of the meta-regression line for the COVID-19 prevalence SERO was significantly negative for population ages TRANS 0-14 (-0.0636; P = .0021) and positive for obesity HP obesity MESHD prevalence SERO (0.0411; P = .0099) and annual PM2.5 concentrations in urban areas (0.0158; P = .0454), which would indicate that the COVID-19 prevalence SERO decreases significantly as children TRANS increase and that the COVID-19 prevalence SERO increases significantly as the obese MESHD and PM2.5 increase. In conclusion, children TRANS (negatively) and obesity HP obesity MESHD/PM2.5 (positively) may be independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse outcomes in Mexico: an analysis of 89,756 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases

    Authors: Theodoros Giannouchos; Roberto Sussman; Jose Manuel Mier; Konstantinos Poulas; Konstantinos Farsalinos

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122481 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There is insufficient information about risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse outcomes from low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Objectives: We estimated the association between patients characteristics and COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization and adverse outcome in Mexico. Methods: This retrospective case series used a publicly available nation-level dataset released on May 31, 2020 by the Mexican Ministry of Health, with patients classified as suspected cases of viral respiratory disease MESHD. Patients with COVID-19 were laboratory-confirmed. Their profile was stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis or not. Differences among COVID-19 patients based on two separate clinical endpoints, hospitalization and adverse outcome, were examined. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the associations between patient characteristics and hospitalization and adverse outcome. Results: Overall, 236,439 patients were included, with 89,756 (38.0%) being diagnosed with COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were disproportionately older, males TRANS and with increased prevalence SERO of one or more comorbidities, particularly diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD and having one or more comorbidities were independently associated with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Current smokers were 23% less likely to be diagnosed with COVID-19 compared to non-smokers. Of all COVID-19 patients, 34.8% were hospitalized and 13.0% experienced an adverse outcome. Male TRANS gender TRANS, older age TRANS, having one or more comorbidities, and chronic renal disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, COPD, immunosuppression and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD were associated with hospitalization and adverse outcome. Current smoking was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion: This largest ever case series of COVID-19 patients identified risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization and adverse outcome. The findings could provide insight for the priorities the need to be set, especially by LMICs, to tackle the pandemic.

    Prevalence SERO, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of HIV MESHD and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection MESHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Joseph Baruch Baluku; Ronald Olum; Curthbert Agolor; Josephine Nakakande; Laura Russell; Felix Bongomin; Jane Nakaweesi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.31.20118497 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence SERO, clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV MESHD and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infection MESHD. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science databases and grey literature for studies reporting epidemiological and clinical data of patients with HIV MESHD and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection MESHD. Eligible studies were all observational or interventional studies and commentaries in English language that reported patient data on HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infection MESHD. We used random effect meta-analysis to determine the pooled prevalence SERO and mortality. Results: Of the 17 eligible studies, there were 3 retrospective cohorts, 1 survey, 5 case series, 7 case reports and 1 commentary that reported on a total of 146 HIV infected MESHD individuals. The pooled prevalence SERO of HIV among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.0 - 3.0, I2 = 79.3%, p=0.01), whereas the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 among HIV patients was 0.68% (95% CI: 0.34 - 1.34). There were 110 (83.8%) HIV MESHD/ SARS-CoV-2 co-infected males MESHD males TRANS, and the age TRANS (range) of the co-infected MESHD was 30 - 60 years. A total of 129 (97.0%) were anti-retroviral therapy experienced, and 113 (85.6%) had a suppressed HIV viral load. The CD4 count (range) was 298 - 670 cells/mm3 (n = 107). The commonest symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (73.5%, n=75) and cough HP (57.8%, n = 59). Sixty-two (65.3%) patients had at least one other comorbid condition, of which hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (26.4%, n = 38) was the commonest. Chest radiological imaging abnormalities were found in 46 (54.1%) cases. Twenty-eight cases (56.0%) were reported as mild. Recovery occurred in 120 (88.9%) cases, and the pooled mortality was 9% (95% CI: 3.0 - 15.0, I2 = 25.6%, p =0.24). Conclusion: The prevalence SERO of HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infection MESHD was low. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV/SARS-CoV-2 co-infection MESHD are comparable to those reported among HIV negative SARS-CoV-2 cases.

    Risk factors for mortality in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Raigam Jafet Martinez-Portilla; Alexadros Sotiriadis; Johnatan Torres-Torres; Charzakis Christos; Ameth Hawkins-Villarreal; Jose Rafael Villafan-Bernal; Rodolfo A Gurrola-Ochoa; Francesc Figueras

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.31.20107276 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Since the first case of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD was described, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (coronavirus disease [COVID]-19) rapidly spread worldwide With 94,288 infections MESHD and more than 10,000 deaths, Mexico is the third Latin-American country in number of confirmed cases TRANS and second in mortality1. A major risk factor for adverse outcome in COVID-19 infection MESHD is the presence of advance age TRANS, co-morbidities including diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD among other non-communicable diseases2. Epidemiological data from high- prevalence SERO countries reveal that compared to men, women are less likely to die or to require hospital admission to intensive care. This may suggest that pregnant women are not more susceptible to infection MESHD or to experience serious complications. However, whether the presence of co-morbidities or advanced maternal age TRANS confers a higher risk of adverse outcome in pregnant women with COVID-19 is unknown3. In this research letter, we aimed at evaluating the risk factor associated with maternal mortality secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD in a middle-income country. Advanced maternal age TRANS is linked to an increased risk of mortality, while diabetes MESHD is the most important risk factor for maternal death MESHD. This is partly explained by an increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases in women of advanced age TRANS which is a common feature in most countries4. In the last decades, low- and middle-income countries have experienced accelerated socio-cultural changes associated with its incorporation into the international economic community, which have increased the number of obese MESHD and diabetic MESHD population, including pregnant women5. This has caused an increased risk for complications and fatality among COVID-19 positive population2,3. Thus, policies for reducing obesity HP obesity MESHD and diabetes MESHD in low- and middle-income countries are most needed to reduce the mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women.

    Association of Renin Angiotensin System Blockers with Outcomes in Patients with Covid-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Authors: Aakash Garg; Amit Rout; Abhishek Sharma; Brittany Fiorello; John B. Kostis

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20111401 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Patients with cardiovascular disease MESHD are at increased risk of critical illness and mortality from Covid-19 disease. Conflicting findings have raised concerns regarding the association of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) use with likelihood or severity of infection MESHD during this pandemic. Objective: To study the cumulative evidence for association of ACEI/ARB use with outcomes among patients with confirmed Covid-19. Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were thoroughly searched from November 01, 2019 to May 15, 2020 for studies reporting on outcomes based on ACEI/ARB use in patients with confirmed Covid-19. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis guidelines were used for the present study. Relevant data was collected and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects model. Main Outcome measures: In-hospital mortality was the primary end of interest. Second end-point was severe or critical illness MESHD defined as either need for intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, or mortality. Results: Fifteen studies with total of 23,822 patients (N ACEI/ARB=6,650) were included in the present analysis. Overall, prevalence SERO of ACEI/ARB use ranged from 7.7% to 46.2% across studies. Among 10 studies, patients using ACEI/ARB had similar odds of mortality [OR 1.03 (0.69-1.55)] and severe or critical illness MESHD [1.18 (0.91-1.54)] compared to those not on ACEI/ARB. In an analysis restricted to patients with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, ACEI/ARB use was associated with significantly lower mortality [0.64 (0.45-0.89)], while the odds of severe/critical illness [0.76(0.52-1.12); p=0.16] remained non-significant compared with non-ACEI/ARB users. Conclusion: There is no evidence for increased risk of severe illness MESHD or mortality in patients using ACEI/ARB compared with non-users. In patients with hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, ACE/ARB use might be associated with reduced mortality, however these findings need to be confirmed in prospective randomized controlled trials.

    Association of age TRANS, sex, comorbidities, and clinical symptoms with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases: a meta-analysis with 85 studies and 67299 cases

    Authors: Mohammad Safiqul Islam; Md. Abdul Barek; Md. Abdul Aziz; Tutun Das Aka; Md. Jakaria

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110965 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A new pathogenic disease named COVID-19 became a global threat, first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The number of affected cases growing exponentially and now, more than 210 countries confirmed the cases TRANS. Objective: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate risk factors, the prevalence SERO of comorbidity, and clinical characteristics in COVID-19 death MESHD patients compared to survival patients that can be used as a reference for further research and clinical decisions. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, SAGE were searched to collect data about demographic, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of confirmed COVID-19 patients from January 1, 2020, to May 17, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of Review Manager 5.3 Results: Eighty-five studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 67,299 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Males TRANS are severely affected or died than females TRANS (OR = 2.26, p < 0.00001; OR = 3.59, p < 0.00001) are severely affected, or died by COVID-19 and cases with age TRANS [≥]50 are at higher risk of death MESHD than age TRANS <50 years (OR=334.23). Presence of any comorbidity or comorbidities like hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cerebrovascular disease MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, malignancy MESHD significantly increased the risk of death compared to survival (OR = 3.46, 3.16, 4.67, 2.45, 5.84, 2.68, 5.62, 2.81,2.16). Among the clinical characteristics such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD headache HP and nausea or vomiting HP nausea or vomiting MESHD, only fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (OR = 1.31, 95%) and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD increased the death significantly (OR= 1.31, 4.57). The rate of death of COVID-19 cases is 0.03-times lower than the rate of survival (OR = 0.03). Conclusion Our result indicates that male TRANS patients are affected severely or died, the rate of death is more in the age TRANS [≥]50 group, and the rate of death is affected by comorbidities and clinical symptoms.

    Prevalence SERO and risk factors for mortality related to COVID-19 in a severely affected area of Madrid, Spain

    Authors: Ramon Perez Tanoira; Felipe Perez Garcia; Juan Romanyk; Peňa Gomez-Herruz; Teresa Arroyo; Rosa Gonzalez; Lourdes Lledo Garcia; Cristina Verdu Exposito; Jose Sanz Moreno; Isabel Gutierrez; Abel Uribe Mathews; Esther Lopez Ramos; Lara Maceda Garcia; Daniel Troncoso; Juan Cuadros

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20112912 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: The coronavius disease 2019 (COVID-9) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 reached Spain by 31 January 2020, in April 2020, the Comunidad de Madrid suffered one of the world's highest crude mortality rate ratios. This study aimed to detect risk factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Our cohort were all consecutive adult TRANS patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at a secondary hospital in Madrid, March 3-16, 2020. Clinical and laboratory data came from electronic clinical records and were compared between survivors and non-survivors, with outcomes followed up until April 4. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods allowed us to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. FINDINGS: The cohort comprised 562 patients with COVID-19. Clinical records were available for evaluation for 392 patients attended at the emergency department of our hospital, of whom 199 were discharged, 85 remained hospitalized and 108 died during hospitalization. Among 311 of the hospitalized patients, 34.7% died. Of the 392 patients with records, the median age TRANS was 71.5 years (50.6-80.7); 52.6% were men. 252 (64.3%) patients had a comorbidity, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD being the most common: 175 (44.6%), followed by other cardiovascular disease MESHD: 102 (26.0%) and diabetes MESHD: 97 (24.7%). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with age TRANS over 65 (odds ratio 8.32, 95% CI 3.01-22.96; p<0.001), coronary heart disease MESHD (2.76, 1.44-5.30; 0.002), and both lower lymphocyte count (0.34, 0.17-0.68; 0.002) and higher LDH (1.25, 1.05-1.50; 0.012) per 1-unit increase and per 100 units respectively. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 was associated in our hospital at the peak of the pandemic with a crude mortality ratio of 19.2% and a mortality ratio of 34.7% in admitted patients, considerably above most of the ratios described in the Chinese series. These results leave open the question as to which factors, epidemiological or intrinsically viral, apart from age TRANS and comorbidities, can explain this difference in excess mortality. FUNDING: None.

    Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain: results from the SEMI-COVID-19 Network.

    Authors: José Manuel Casas Rojo; Juan Miguel Antón Santos; Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés; Carlos Lumbreras Bermejo; José Manuel Ramos Rincón; Emilia Roy-Vallejo; Arturo Artero Mora; Francisco Arnalich Fernández; José Miguel García Bruñén; Juan Antonio Vargas Núñez; Santiago J Freire Castro; Luis Manzano; Isabel Perales Fraile; Anxela Crestelo Vieitez; Francesc Puchades; Enrique Rodilla; Marta Nataya Solís Marquínez; David Bonet Tur; María del Pilar Fidalgo Moreno; Eva M Fonseca Aizpuru; Franscisco Javier Carrasco Sánchez; Elisa Rabadán Pejenaute; Manuel Rubio-Rivas; José David Torres Peńa; Ricardo Gómez Huelgas

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111971 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Spain has been one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective. To create a registry of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain in order to improve our knowledge of the clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of this disease. Methods. A multicentre retrospective cohort study, including consecutive patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 throughout Spain. Epidemiological and clinical data, additional tests at admission and at seven days, treatments administered, and progress at 30 days of hospitalization were collected from electronic medical records. Results. Up to April 30th 2020, 6,424 patients from 109 hospitals were included. Their median age TRANS was 69.1 years (range: 18-102 years) and 56.9% were male TRANS. Prevalences SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemia MESHD, and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD were 50.2%, 39.7%, and 18.7%, respectively. The most frequent symptoms were fever HP fever MESHD (86.2%) and cough HP (76.5%). High values of ferritin (72.4%), lactate dehydrogenase (70.2%), and D-dimer (61.5%), as well as lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (52.6%), were frequent. The most used antiviral drugs were hydroxychloroquine (85.7%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (62.4%). 31.5% developed respiratory distress HP. Overall mortality rate was 21.1%, with a marked increase with age TRANS (50-59 years: 4.2%, 60-69 years: 9.1%, 70-79 years: 21.4%, 80-89 years: 42.5%, [≥] 90 years: 51.1%). Conclusions. The SEMI-COVID-19 Network provides data on the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain. Patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Spain are mostly severe cases, as one in three patients developed respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD and one in five patients died. These findings confirm a close relationship between advanced age TRANS and mortality.

    Risk factors affecting COVID-19 case fatality rate: A quantitative analysis of top 50 affected countries

    Authors: Hui Poh Goh; Wafiah Ilyani Mahari; Norhadyrah Izazie Ahad; Liling Chaw; Nurolaini Kifli; Bey Hing Goh; Siang Fei Yeoh; Long Chiau Ming

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.20.20108449 Date: 2020-05-25 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Latest clinical data on treatment on coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) indicated that older patients and those with underlying history of smoking, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD or diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD might have poorer prognosis of recovery from COVID-19. We aimed to examine the relationship of various prevailing population-based risk factors in comparison with mortality rate and case fatality rate (CFR) of COVID-19. Methods: Demography and epidemiology data which have been identified as verified or postulated risk factors for mortality of adult TRANS inpatients with COVID-19 were used. The number of confirmed cases TRANS and the number of deaths until April 16, 2020 for all affected countries were extracted from Johns Hopkins University COVID-19 websites. Datasets for indicators that are fitting with the factors of COVID-19 mortality were extracted from the World Bank database. Out of about 185 affected countries, only top 50 countries were selected to be analyzed in this study. The following seven variables were included in the analysis, based on data availability and completeness: 1) proportion of people aged TRANS 65 above, 2) proportion of male TRANS in the population, 3) diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO, 4) smoking prevalence SERO, 5) current health expenditure, 6) number of hospital beds and 7) number of nurses and midwives. Quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between CFR and the aforementioned risk factors. Results: United States shows about 0.20% of confirmed cases TRANS in its country and it has about 4.85% of CFR. Luxembourg shows the highest percentage of confirmed cases TRANS of 0.55% but a low 2.05% of CFR, showing that a high percentage of confirmed cases TRANS does not necessarily lead to high CFR. There is a significant correlation between CFR, people aged TRANS 65 and above (p = 0.35) and diabetes MESHD prevalence SERO (p = 0.01). However, in our study, there is no significant correlation between CFR of COVID-19, male TRANS gender TRANS (p = 0.26) and smoking prevalence SERO (p = 0.60). Conclusion: Older people above 65 years old and diabetic MESHD patients are significant risk factors for COVID-19. Nevertheless, gender TRANS differences and smoking prevalence SERO failed to prove a significant relationship with COVID-19 mortality rate and CFR. Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, risk, epidemiology, fatality, age TRANS, diabetes MESHD

    Risks to Children TRANS under-five in India from COVID-19

    Authors: Isabel Frost; Katie Tseng; Stephanie Hauck; Geetanjali Kappor; Aditi Sriram; Arindam Nandi; Ramanan Laxminarayan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20105239 Date: 2020-05-22 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has rapidly emerged to become a global pandemic and is known to cause a high risk to patients over the age TRANS of 70 and those with co-morbidities, such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD and diabetes MESHD. Though children TRANS are at comparatively lower risk compared to adults TRANS, the Indian population has a large young demographic that is likely to be at higher risk due to exposure to pollution, malnutrition HP malnutrition MESHD and poor access to medical care. We aimed to quantify the potential impact of COVID-19 on Indias child TRANS population. Methods: We combined district family household survey data with data from the COVID-19 outbreak in China to analyze the potential impact of COVID-19 on children TRANS under the age TRANS of 5, under three different scenarios; each of which assumed the prevalence SERO of infection to be 0.5%, 1%, or 5%. Results: We find that in the lowest prevalence SERO scenario, across the most populous 18 Indian states, asymptomatic TRANS, non-hospitalized symptomatic and hospitalized symptomatic cases could reach 87,200, 412,900 and 31,900, respectively. In a moderate prevalence SERO scenario, these figures reach 174,500, 825,800, and 63,800, and in the worst case, high prevalence SERO scenario these cases could climb as high as 872,200, 4,128,900 and 319,700. Conclusion: These estimates show COVID-19 has the potential to pose a substantial threat to Indias large population of children TRANS, particularly those suffering from malnutrition HP malnutrition MESHD and exposure to indoor air pollution, who may have limited access to health services.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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