Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Fever (29)

Cough (29)

Diarrhea (28)

Fatigue (16)

Dyspnea (15)


Human Phenotype

Fever (29)

Cough (29)

Diarrhea (29)

Fatigue (16)

Headache (13)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Predicting clinical outcome with phenotypic clusters in COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD: 2 an analysis of 12,066 hospitalized patients from the Spanish registry SEMI-3 COVID-19.

    Authors: Manuel Rubio-Rivas; Xavier Corbella; Jose Maria Mora-Lujan; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Almudena Lopez Sampalo; Carmen Yera Bergua; Pedro Jesus Esteve Atienzar; Luis Felipe Diez Garcia; Ruth Gonzalez Ferrer; Susana Plaza Canteli; Antia Perez Pineiro; Begona Cortes Rodriguez; Leyre Jorquer Vidal; Ignacio Perez Catalan; Marta Leon Tellez; Jose Angel Martin Oterino; Maria Candelaria Martin Gonzalez; Jose Luis Serrano Carrillo de Albornoz; Eva Garcia Sardon; Jose Nicolas Alcala Pedrajas; Anabel Martin Urda Diez Canseco; Maria Jose Esteban Giner; Pablo Telleria Gomez; Ricardo Gomez Huelgas; Jose Manuel Ramos Rincon; Nina la Cour Freiesleben; Henriette Svarre Nielsen

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20193995 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: medRxiv

    (1) Background: This study aims to identify different clinical phenotypes in COVID-19 88 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD using cluster analysis and to assess the prognostic impact among identified clusters in 89 such patients. (2) Methods: Cluster analysis including 11 phenotypic variables was performed in a 90 large cohort of 12,066 COVID-19 patients, collected and followed-up from March 1, to July 31, 2020, 91 from the nationwide Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. (3) Results: Of the total of 12,066 patients 92 included in the study, most were males TRANS (7,052, 58.5%) and Caucasian (10,635, 89.5%), with a mean 93 age TRANS at diagnosis of 67 years (SD 16). The main pre-admission comorbidities were arterial 94 hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (6,030, 50%), hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD (4,741, 39.4%) and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (2,309, 19.2%). The 95 average number of days from COVID-19 symptom onset TRANS to hospital admission was 6.7 days (SD 7). 96 The triad of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD was present almost uniformly in all 4 clinical phenotypes 97 identified by clustering. Cluster C1 (8,737 patients, 72.4%) was the largest, and comprised patients 98 with the triad alone. Cluster C2 (1,196 patients, 9.9%) also presented with ageusia and anosmia MESHD anosmia HP; 99 cluster C3 (880 patients, 7.3%) also had arthromyalgia, headache HP headache MESHD, and sore throat; and cluster C4 100 (1,253 patients, 10.4%) also manifested with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, vomiting HP vomiting MESHD, and abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Compared to 101 each other, cluster C1 presented the highest in-hospital mortality (24.1% vs. 4.3% vs. 14.7% vs. 102 18.6%; p<0.001). The multivariate study identified phenotypic clusters as an independent factor for 103 in-hospital death. (4) Conclusion: The present study identified 4 phenotypic clusters in patients with 104 COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, which predicted the in-hospital prognosis of clinical outcomes.

    Prevalence SERO and correlation of symptoms and comorbidities in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Mohammad Meshbahur Rahman; Badhan Bhattacharjee; Zaki Farhana; Mohammad Hamiduzzaman; Muhammad Abdul Bake Chowdhury; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain; Mahbubul H Siddiqee; Md. Ziaul Islam; Enayetur Raheem; Md. Jamal Uddin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.19.20177980 Date: 2020-08-22 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 affected millions of people, and the patients present a constellation of symptoms and comorbidities. We aimed to chronicle the prevalence SERO and correlations of symptoms and comorbidities, and associated covariates among the patients. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis [PROSPERO registration: CRD42020182677]. Databases [PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, WHO, Semantic Scholar, and COVID-19 Primer] were searched for clinical studies published in English from January 1 to April 20, 2020. The pooled prevalence SERO of symptoms and comorbidities were identified using the random effect model, and sub-groups analysis of patients age TRANS and locations were investigated. A multivariable factor analysis was also performed to show the correlation among symptoms, comorbidities and age TRANS of the COVID-19 patients. Findings: Twenty-nine articles [China (24); Outside of China (5)], with 4,884 COVID-19 patients were included in this systematic review. The meta-analysis investigated 33 symptoms, where fever HP fever MESHD [84%], cough HP cough MESHD/dry cough HP [61%], and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness [42%] were found frequent. Out of 43 comorbidities investigated, acute respiratory distress syndrome MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) [61%] was a common condition, followed by hypertension HP hypertension MESHD [23%] and diabetes MESHD [12%]. According to the patients age TRANS, the prevalence SERO of symptoms like fatigue HP fatigue MESHD/weakness, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD/shortness of breath, and anorexia HP anorexia MESHD were highly prevalent in older adults TRANS [[≥]50 years] than younger adults TRANS [<50 years]. Diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, and COPD MESHD/ lung disease MESHD were more prevalent comorbidities in older adults TRANS than younger adults TRANS. The patients from outside of China had significantly higher prevalence SERO [p<0.005] of diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, nausea HP nausea MESHD, sore throat, and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, and the prevalent comorbidities in that region were diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, and ARDS MESHD. The multivariable factor analysis showed positive association between a group of symptoms and comorbidities, and with the patients age TRANS. Interpretation: Epitomizing the correlation of symptoms of COVID-19 with comorbidities and patients age TRANS would help clinicians effectively manage the patients.

    Ontology-based annotation and analysis of COVID-19 phenotypes

    Authors: Yang Wang; Fengwei Zhang; Hong Yu; Xianwei Ye; Yongqun He

    id:2008.02241v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: arXiv

    The epidemic of COVID-19 has caused an unpredictable and devastated disaster to the public health in different territories around the world. Common phenotypes include fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, and chills HP. With more cases investigated, other clinical phenotypes are gradually recognized, for example, loss of smell, and loss of tastes MESHD. Compared with discharged or cured patients, severe or died patients often have one or more comorbidities, such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and cardiovascular disease MESHD. In this study, we systematically collected and analyzed COVID-19-related clinical phenotypes from 70 articles. The commonly occurring 17 phenotypes were classified into different groups based on the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Based on the HP classification, we systematically analyze three nervous phenotypes (loss of smell, loss of taste, and headache HP headache MESHD) and four abdominal phenotypes ( nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD, and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD) identified in patients, and found that patients from Europe and USA turned to have higher nervous phenotypes and abdominal phenotypes than patients from Asia. A total of 23 comorbidities were found to commonly exist among COVID-19 patients. Patients with these comorbidities such as diabetes MESHD and kidney failure MESHD had worse outcomes compared with those without these comorbidities.

    COVID-19 Case Series at UnityPoint Health St. Lukes Hospital in Cedar Rapids, IA

    Authors: Daniel E McGrail; Dianna Edwards

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156521 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: medRxiv

    A retrospective, descriptive study of all patients tested for SARS-CoV2 on admission for illness to a community hospital in Iowa from 3/21/20 thru 6/14/20 consisted of evaluation as to demographics, presentation and hospital course. Ninety-one patients were SARS-CoV2 PCR+ with 63% being male TRANS and a median age TRANS of 60. Cardiovascular disease MESHD was a significant comorbidity in the PCR+ group. Fever HP Fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, nausea HP nausea MESHD, emesis MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD and myalgias HP myalgias MESHD were significantly more common in that group, as was an elevated CRP, LDH, serum SERO ferritin and transaminases. Overall survival of the COVID-19 patients was 88%, 77% in the critically ill, 59% of those mechanically ventilated and 33% of those requiring new dialysis. Survival was 93% in those not receiving any antivirals. Survival of those treated with hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin was 92%, compared to 86% of those treated with hydroxychloroquine alone. The latter two groups were significantly more ill than the untreated group. A transition from an early intubation strategy to aggressive utilization of high flow nasal cannula and noninvasive ventilation(i.e BiPAP) was successful in freeing up ICU resources.

    Clinical Characteristics of 107 Patients with COVID-19 in Ningbo, China: Single Center Experience Outside Hubei

    Authors: Boming Wu; Junjie Li; Hongping Xuan; Nanhong Zheng; Honghua Ye; Yaoren Hu; Tong’en Chen; Hao Ying; Lingyan Fan; Qing Xie; Zike Sheng; Yin Ying

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44830/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since December 2019, there has be an outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China. Nowadays, it rapidly spread across the country and then the worldwide. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19.Methods The patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted between January 25 and February 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and antivirus therapies, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The 90-day follow-up of these patients was also performed.Results A total of 107 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 55.0 years (range from 18.0 to 85.0 years), and 72 (67.3%) were female TRANS. Ninety-three (86.9%) of the patients had a history of contacting with residents from Wuhan (n=31), or contacting with confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=62) within 2 weeks. Fifty-eight (54.2%) had a family cluster onset. Fever HP Fever MESHD and cough HP cough MESHD were the most common symptoms. Only two patients had diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. The most common underlying disease was hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Lymphopenia HP Lymphopenia MESHD was observed in 26 patients. Fifty-two patients with an elevated level of IL-6. On admission, bilateral patchy shadowing and ground-glass opacity were the typical radiological findings on chest computed tomography. Six patients had an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Antivirus therapy was performed to all patients. 105 patients discharged with an improved condition, and no death MESHD was occurred during our 90-day follow-up for these patients.Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 in our hospital had relatively mild symptoms, and good prognosis. This study also highlights the importance of human-to-human transmission TRANS in COVID-19.

    Prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative RT-PCR results in Indonesian patients with COVID-19: A case series

    Authors: Ika Trisnawati; Riat Al Khair; Aditya Rifqi Fauzi; Gunadi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39961/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) might occur in some patients with COVID-19 rather than recurrence of infection MESHD. Here, we reported four cases of COVID-19 with prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative results of RT-PCR in our institution.Case presentation: Case 1: A 36-year-old- male TRANS patient complained of coughing HP up phlegm one week before admission. His chest X-rays showed mild pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in the right lung. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also had negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 6th and 8th tests) from a total of 11 swab tests. Case 2: A 54-year-old- male TRANS patient complained of shortness of breath MESHD that worsened with activity. He had a comorbidity of diabetes MESHD. His chest X-rays showed inhomogeneous opacity on bilateral paracardial and lateral aspects. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also had negative results of RT-PCR once (the 5th test) from a total of 8 swab tests. Case 3: A 47-year-old man presented with complaints of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, sore throat, and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. He had comorbidities of asthma HP asthma MESHD and heart rhythm disorders MESHD. His chest X-rays showed bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also showed negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 4th and 6th tests) from a total of 11 swab tests. Case 4: A 56-year-old- female TRANS complained of lethargy HP lethargy MESHD and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. She has a history of hyperthyroidism HP hyperthyroidism MESHD. His chest X-rays showed bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. She was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, she also had negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 2nd and 10th tests) from a total of 14 swab tests.Conclusions: Our cases further confirmed TRANS the occurrence of prolonged nucleic acid conversion and the possibility of false negative results of RT-PCR in patients with COVID-19 instead of recurrence of infection MESHD. These findings might have an implication on the management of patients with COVID-19 who have already clinically and radiologically recovered, particularly related to subsequent spreading of the infection MESHD in the community.

    Analysis of the Primary Presenting Symptoms and Hematological Findings of COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh

    Authors: Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin Chowdhury; Md Rezaul Karim; H.M. Hamidullah Mehedi; Mohammad Shahbaz; Md Wazed Chowdhury; Guo Dan; Shuixiang He

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: Preprints.org

    Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological MESHD and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, skin rash HP skin rash MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, Abdominal pain HP Abdominal pain MESHD/cramp, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, restlessness HP, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis HP leukocytosis MESHD and neutrophilia HP. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia MESHD. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia MESHD can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender TRANS variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.

    "Analysis of the Primary Presenting Symptoms and Hematological Findings of COVID19 Patients in Bangladesh"

    Authors: Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin Chowdhury; Md Rezaul Karim; H.M.Hamidullah Mehedi; Mohammad Shahbaz; Md Wazed Chowdhury; Dan Guo; Shuixiang He

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-35016/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID19 patients; hematological MESHD and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID19 patients.  All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, skin rash HP skin rash MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, Abdominal pain HP Abdominal pain MESHD/cramp, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, restlessness HP, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leucocytosis and neutrophilia HP. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia MESHD. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia MESHD can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessments for prognosis COVID19 disease. Also, Gender TRANS variation has a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.

    Sociodemographic profile, clinical characteristics, anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and depression MESHD of 74 patients infected with COVID-19: first report from Bangladesh

    Authors: Dr. Mohammad Jahid Hasan; Dr. Md. Abdullah Saeed Khan; Dr. Monjur Rahman; Dr. Md. Shahnoor Islam; Dr Sourav Debnath; Dr. Jannatul Fardous,; Professor Dr. Mohammad Robed Amin

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32517/v1 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The pandemic of Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has cost a large number of lives and is causing substantial mental stress among people. We conducted a study to identify the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression MESHD among confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey using a preformed questionnaire adapted in Google form was conducted for data collection. The form was shared along with a brief introduction and rationale via Facebook, Twitter, Facebook Messenger, Viber, and What’s App. Formal ethical clearance was taken from the Biomedical Research Foundation, Bangladesh. Informed consent was ensured before participation.Results: Seventy-four patients with COVID-19 who had an average age TRANS of 42.59±14.43 years with male TRANS predominance (77%) were included. A total of 29.7% were doing health-care related jobs, and 14.9% lost their jobs due to COVID-19. Patients had a median income of BDT 30000. Of all, 87.8% of patients were symptomatic and presented with fever HP fever MESHD (77%), cough HP (58.8%), breathlessness (24.3%), myalgia HP myalgia MESHD (24.3%), sore throat (21.6%), fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (17.6%), nausea and/or vomiting HP nausea and/or vomiting MESHD (12.2%), headache HP headache MESHD (12.2%), runny nose (9.5%), chest pain HP chest pain MESHD (9.5%), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (8.1%), ARDS (2.7%), stuffy nose (2.7%), conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD (1.4%) and oral ulcer HP oral ulcer MESHD (1.4%). Overall, the prevalence SERO of anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression was 60% and 52.9%, respectively. Among the participants, 11.4% had only anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, 4.3% had only depression MESHD and 48.6% had both.Conclusion: Patients were mostly middle aged TRANS, male TRANS and healthy workers. Typical presentations were fever HP fever MESHD and cough HP cough MESHD. Nearly two-thirds of the patients had either or both anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and depression.

    Association of age TRANS, sex, comorbidities, and clinical symptoms with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases: a meta-analysis with 85 studies and 67299 cases

    Authors: Mohammad Safiqul Islam; Md. Abdul Barek; Md. Abdul Aziz; Tutun Das Aka; Md. Jakaria

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.23.20110965 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: A new pathogenic disease named COVID-19 became a global threat, first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The number of affected cases growing exponentially and now, more than 210 countries confirmed the cases TRANS. Objective: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate risk factors, the prevalence SERO of comorbidity, and clinical characteristics in COVID-19 death MESHD patients compared to survival patients that can be used as a reference for further research and clinical decisions. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, SAGE were searched to collect data about demographic, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of confirmed COVID-19 patients from January 1, 2020, to May 17, 2020. Meta-analysis was performed with the use of Review Manager 5.3 Results: Eighty-five studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 67,299 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Males TRANS are severely affected or died than females TRANS (OR = 2.26, p < 0.00001; OR = 3.59, p < 0.00001) are severely affected, or died by COVID-19 and cases with age TRANS [≥]50 are at higher risk of death MESHD than age TRANS <50 years (OR=334.23). Presence of any comorbidity or comorbidities like hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD, diabetes MESHD, cerebrovascular disease MESHD, respiratory disease MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, liver disease MESHD, malignancy MESHD significantly increased the risk of death compared to survival (OR = 3.46, 3.16, 4.67, 2.45, 5.84, 2.68, 5.62, 2.81,2.16). Among the clinical characteristics such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD headache HP and nausea or vomiting HP nausea or vomiting MESHD, only fatigue HP fatigue MESHD (OR = 1.31, 95%) and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD increased the death significantly (OR= 1.31, 4.57). The rate of death of COVID-19 cases is 0.03-times lower than the rate of survival (OR = 0.03). Conclusion Our result indicates that male TRANS patients are affected severely or died, the rate of death is more in the age TRANS [≥]50 group, and the rate of death is affected by comorbidities and clinical symptoms.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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