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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    New onset of Myasthenia Gravis MESHD in a patient with COVID-19: A novel case report and literature review

    Authors: Shitiz Sriwastava; Medha Tandon; Saurabh Kataria; Maha Daimee; Shumaila Sultan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77694/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel coronavirus outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 first began in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. The most striking manifestation is atypical pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and respiratory complications MESHD, however various neurological manifestations are now well recognized. Currently, there have been a very few case reports in regards to COVID-19 in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis MESHD. Myasthenia gravis MESHD ( MG MESHD) causes muscle weakness HP muscle weakness MESHD, especially respiratory muscles in high-risk COVID-19 patients that can lead to severe respiratory compromise. There are few reported cases of severe myasthenia crisis MESHD following COVID-19, likely due to the involvement of the respiratory apparatus and from use of immunosuppressive medication. We report a first case MG MESHD developing secondary to COVID-19 infection MESHD in a 65-year-old woman. Two weeks prior to hospitalization, the patient suffered from cough HP, fever HP fever MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and was found to be positive for COVID-19 via nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab test. The electrodiagnostic test showed decremental response over more than 10% on repetitive nerve stimulation test of orbicularis oculi. She tested positive for antibodies SERO against Acetylcholine receptor (AchR).COVID-19 is known to cause release of inflammatory cytokines leading to immune-mediated damage. MG MESHD is an immune-mediated disorder caused due to molecular mimicry and autoantibodies against the neuromuscular junction. 

    SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and limited inflammatory cytokines are present in the stool of select patients with acute COVID-19

    Authors: Graham J Britton; Alice Chen-Liaw; Francesca Cossarini; Alexandra E Livanos; Matthew P Spindler; Tamar Plitt; Joseph Eggers; Ilaria Mogno; Ana Gonzalez-Reiche; Sophia Siu; Michael Tankelevich; Lauren Grinspan; Rebekah E Dixon; Divya Jha; Gustavo Martinez-Delgado; Fatima Amanat; Daisy A Hoagland; Benjamin tenOever; Marla C Dubinsky; Miriam Merad; Harm van Bakel; Florian Krammer; Gerold Bongers; Saurabh Mehandru; Jeremiah J Faith

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.03.20183947 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background and aims: Immune dysregulation HP dysregulation MESHD caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is thought to play a pathogenic role in COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 can infect a variety of host cells, including intestinal epithelial cells. We sought to characterize the role of the gastrointestinal immune system in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response associated with COVID-19. Methods: We measured cytokines, inflammatory markers, viral RNA, microbiome composition and antibody SERO responses in stool and serum samples SERO from a prospectively enrolled cohort of 44 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Results: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in stool of 41% of patients and was found more frequently in patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD than those without (16[44%] vs 5[19%], p=0.06). Patients who survived had lower median viral genome copies than those who did not (p=0.021). Compared to uninfected controls, COVID-19 patients had higher median fecal levels of IL-8 (166.5 vs 286.5 pg/mg; p=0.05) and lower levels of fecal IL-10 (678 vs 194 pg/mg; p<0.001) compared to uninfected controls. Stool IL-23 was higher in patients with more severe COVID-19 disease (223.8 vs 86.6 pg/mg; p=0.03) and we find evidence of intestinal virus-specific IgA responses, which was associated with more severe disease. Fecal cytokines and calprotectin levels were not correlated with gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD or with the level of virus detected. Conclusions: Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detectable in the stools of COVID-19 patients and select individuals had evidence for a specific mucosal IgA response, intestinal inflammation MESHD was limited, even in patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD.

    Viral Kinetics and Antibody SERO Responses in Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Wenting Tan; Yanqiu Lu; Juan Zhang; Jing Wang; Yunjie Dan; Zhaoxia Tan; Xiaoqing He; Chunfang Qian; Qiangzhong Sun; Qingli Hu; Honglan Liu; Sikuan Ye; Xiaomei Xiang; Yi Zhou; Wei Zhang; Yanzhi Guo; Xiu-Hua Wang; Weiwei He; Xing Wan; Fengming Sun; Quanfang Wei; Cong Chen; Guangqiang Pan; Jie Xia; Qing Mao; Yaokai Chen; Guohong Deng

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.24.20042382 Date: 2020-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background A pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading over the world. However, the viral dynamics, host serologic responses, and their associations with clinical manifestations, have not been well described in prospective cohort. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort and enrolled 67 COVID-19 patients admitting between Jan 26 and Feb 5, 2020. Clinical specimens including nasopharyngeal swab, sputum, blood SERO, urine and stool were tested periodically according to standardized case report form with final follow-up on February 27. The routes and duration of viral shedding, antibody SERO response, and their associations with disease severity and clinical manifestations were systematically evaluated. Coronaviral particles in clinical specimens were observed by transmission TRANS electron microscopy (TEM). Results The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding were 12 (3-38), 19 (5-37), and 18 (7-26) days in nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum and stools, respectively. Only 13 urines (5.6%) and 12 plasmas SERO (5.7%) were viral positive. Prolonged viral shedding was observed in severe patients than that of non-severe patients. Cough HP but not fever HP, aligned with viral shedding in clinical respiratory specimens, meanwhile the positive stool-RNA appeared to align with the proportion who concurrently had cough HP and sputum production, but not diarrhea HP. Typical coronaviral particles could be found directly in sputum by TEM. The anti-nucleocapsid-protein IgM started on day 7 and positive rate peaked on day 28, while that of IgG was on day 10 and day 49 after illness onset. IgM and IgG appear earlier, and their titers are significantly higher in severe patients than non-severe patients (p<0.05). The weak responders for IgG had a significantly higher viral clearance rate than that of strong responders (p= 0.011). Conclusions Nasopharyngeal, sputum and stools rather than blood SERO and urine, were the major shedding routes for SARS-CoV-2, and meanwhile sputum had a prolonged viral shedding. Symptom cough HP seems to be aligned with viral shedding in clinical respiratory and fecal specimens. Stronger antibody SERO response was associated with delayed viral clearance and disease severity.

    Structure and immune recognition of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein MESHD diarrhea HP virus spike protein

    Authors: Robert Kirchdoerfer; Mahesh Bhandari; Olnita Martini; Leigh M Sewell; Sandhya Bangaru; Kyoung-Jin Yoon; Andrew Ward

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.18.955195 Date: 2020-02-19 Source: bioRxiv

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea HP virus is an alphacoronavirus responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in pigs. A key determinant of viral tropism MESHD and entry, the PEDV spike protein is a key target for the host antibody SERO response and a good candidate for a protein-based vaccine immunogen. We used electron microscopy to evaluate the PEDV spike structure, as well as pig polyclonal antibody SERO responses to viral infection MESHD. The structure of the PEDV spike reveals a configuration similar to that of HuCoV-NL63. Several PEDV protein-protein interfaces are mediated by non-protein components including a glycan at Asn264 and two bound palmitoleic acid molecules. The polyclonal antibody SERO response to PEDV infection shows a dominance of epitopes in the S1 region. This structural and immune characterization provides new insights into coronavirus spike stability determinants and explores the immune landscape of viral spike proteins.

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MeSH Disease
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Transmission
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