Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Diarrhea (31)

Fever (25)

Cough (23)

Pneumonia (11)

Fatigue (11)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Predicting clinical outcome with phenotypic clusters in COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD: 2 an analysis of 12,066 hospitalized patients from the Spanish registry SEMI-3 COVID-19.

    Authors: Manuel Rubio-Rivas; Xavier Corbella; Jose Maria Mora-Lujan; Jose Loureiro Amigo; Almudena Lopez Sampalo; Carmen Yera Bergua; Pedro Jesus Esteve Atienzar; Luis Felipe Diez Garcia; Ruth Gonzalez Ferrer; Susana Plaza Canteli; Antia Perez Pineiro; Begona Cortes Rodriguez; Leyre Jorquer Vidal; Ignacio Perez Catalan; Marta Leon Tellez; Jose Angel Martin Oterino; Maria Candelaria Martin Gonzalez; Jose Luis Serrano Carrillo de Albornoz; Eva Garcia Sardon; Jose Nicolas Alcala Pedrajas; Anabel Martin Urda Diez Canseco; Maria Jose Esteban Giner; Pablo Telleria Gomez; Ricardo Gomez Huelgas; Jose Manuel Ramos Rincon; Nina la Cour Freiesleben; Henriette Svarre Nielsen

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.14.20193995 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: medRxiv

    (1) Background: This study aims to identify different clinical phenotypes in COVID-19 88 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD using cluster analysis and to assess the prognostic impact among identified clusters in 89 such patients. (2) Methods: Cluster analysis including 11 phenotypic variables was performed in a 90 large cohort of 12,066 COVID-19 patients, collected and followed-up from March 1, to July 31, 2020, 91 from the nationwide Spanish SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. (3) Results: Of the total of 12,066 patients 92 included in the study, most were males TRANS (7,052, 58.5%) and Caucasian (10,635, 89.5%), with a mean 93 age TRANS at diagnosis of 67 years (SD 16). The main pre-admission comorbidities were arterial 94 hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (6,030, 50%), hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD (4,741, 39.4%) and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (2,309, 19.2%). The 95 average number of days from COVID-19 symptom onset TRANS to hospital admission was 6.7 days (SD 7). 96 The triad of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD was present almost uniformly in all 4 clinical phenotypes 97 identified by clustering. Cluster C1 (8,737 patients, 72.4%) was the largest, and comprised patients 98 with the triad alone. Cluster C2 (1,196 patients, 9.9%) also presented with ageusia and anosmia MESHD anosmia HP; 99 cluster C3 (880 patients, 7.3%) also had arthromyalgia, headache HP headache MESHD, and sore throat; and cluster C4 100 (1,253 patients, 10.4%) also manifested with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, vomiting HP vomiting MESHD, and abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD. Compared to 101 each other, cluster C1 presented the highest in-hospital mortality (24.1% vs. 4.3% vs. 14.7% vs. 102 18.6%; p<0.001). The multivariate study identified phenotypic clusters as an independent factor for 103 in-hospital death. (4) Conclusion: The present study identified 4 phenotypic clusters in patients with 104 COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, which predicted the in-hospital prognosis of clinical outcomes.

    Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictive Value of COVID-19 Pneumonia HP: A Retrospective Study of 173 Patients in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Zhang; Jun Xue; Mi Yan; Jing Chen; Hai Liu; Shao-Bo Wang; Jian-Xing Luo; Fang Yang; Jian-Yuan Tang; Xiao-Yu Hu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76134/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a globally emerging infectious disease MESHD. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from Wuhan. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models.Results: 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever HP fever MESHD (67.6%) and cough HP (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age TRANS (OR: 3.420; 95%Cl: 1.415-8.266; P=0.006), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (OR: 0.143; 95%Cl: 0.033-0.611; P=0.009) and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (OR: 4.769; 95%Cl: 2.019-11.266; P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918; P=0.000). Older age TRANS (OR: 0.309; 95%Cl: 0.142-0.674; P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165; 95%Cl: 0.034-0.793; P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257; 95%Cl: 0.100-0.659; P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294; 95%Cl: 0.099-0.872; P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome; AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824; P=0.000).Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome.Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal ( GI MESHD) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia HP anorexia MESHD, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP Hematochezia MESHD is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity HP obesity MESHD and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury MESHD to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD and acute blood SERO blood MESHD loss anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding MESHD. Hematochezia HP Hematochezia MESHD resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury MESHD to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions MESHD due to COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    COVID-19 Case Series at UnityPoint Health St. Lukes Hospital in Cedar Rapids, IA

    Authors: Daniel E McGrail; Dianna Edwards

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156521 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: medRxiv

    A retrospective, descriptive study of all patients tested for SARS-CoV2 on admission for illness to a community hospital in Iowa from 3/21/20 thru 6/14/20 consisted of evaluation as to demographics, presentation and hospital course. Ninety-one patients were SARS-CoV2 PCR+ with 63% being male TRANS and a median age TRANS of 60. Cardiovascular disease MESHD was a significant comorbidity in the PCR+ group. Fever HP Fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD, nausea HP nausea MESHD, emesis MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD and myalgias HP myalgias MESHD were significantly more common in that group, as was an elevated CRP, LDH, serum SERO ferritin and transaminases. Overall survival of the COVID-19 patients was 88%, 77% in the critically ill, 59% of those mechanically ventilated and 33% of those requiring new dialysis. Survival was 93% in those not receiving any antivirals. Survival of those treated with hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin was 92%, compared to 86% of those treated with hydroxychloroquine alone. The latter two groups were significantly more ill than the untreated group. A transition from an early intubation strategy to aggressive utilization of high flow nasal cannula and noninvasive ventilation(i.e BiPAP) was successful in freeing up ICU resources.

    Clinical Characteristics of 107 Patients with COVID-19 in Ningbo, China: Single Center Experience Outside Hubei

    Authors: Boming Wu; Junjie Li; Hongping Xuan; Nanhong Zheng; Honghua Ye; Yaoren Hu; Tong’en Chen; Hao Ying; Lingyan Fan; Qing Xie; Zike Sheng; Yin Ying

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44830/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since December 2019, there has be an outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China. Nowadays, it rapidly spread across the country and then the worldwide. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19.Methods The patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted between January 25 and February 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and antivirus therapies, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The 90-day follow-up of these patients was also performed.Results A total of 107 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 55.0 years (range from 18.0 to 85.0 years), and 72 (67.3%) were female TRANS. Ninety-three (86.9%) of the patients had a history of contacting with residents from Wuhan (n=31), or contacting with confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=62) within 2 weeks. Fifty-eight (54.2%) had a family cluster onset. Fever HP Fever MESHD and cough HP cough MESHD were the most common symptoms. Only two patients had diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. The most common underlying disease was hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Lymphopenia HP Lymphopenia MESHD was observed in 26 patients. Fifty-two patients with an elevated level of IL-6. On admission, bilateral patchy shadowing and ground-glass opacity were the typical radiological findings on chest computed tomography. Six patients had an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Antivirus therapy was performed to all patients. 105 patients discharged with an improved condition, and no death MESHD was occurred during our 90-day follow-up for these patients.Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 in our hospital had relatively mild symptoms, and good prognosis. This study also highlights the importance of human-to-human transmission TRANS in COVID-19.

    A severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 patient with high-risk predisposing factors died from massive gastrointestinal bleeding MESHD: a case report

    Authors: Taojiang Chen; Qin Yang; Hongyu Duan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45116/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and has been a significant public health threat. Despite typical manifestations of illness are dominated by respiratory symptom, some patients have concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, including   nausea MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, and vomiting HP vomiting MESHD. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding MESHD, however, has rarely been reported. Case presentation: We herein describe a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patient with several risk factors for poor prognosis, including male TRANS, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, old age TRANS, mixed bacterial infection MESHD and multilobular infiltration on radiological imaging. After improvement of respiratory status, the onset of gastrointestinal bleeding MESHD occurred, probably resulting from direct viral invasion as evidenced by the positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in the repeat stool specimens. Although aggressive resuscitation was administered, hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD was uncontrolled. The patient rapidly deteriorated, suffered cardiac arrest HP cardiac arrest MESHD, and expired. Conclusions: Digestive symptoms could be severe in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients, especially for the high-risk individuals with predisposing conditions. A more thorough protocol for preventing cross-infection MESHD through faecal-oral transmission TRANS should be implemented in the process of patient care and infection MESHD control.

    Virus discharge and initial gastrointestinal involvement MESHD are negatively associated with circulating lymphocyte count in COVID-19

    Authors: Wei Chen; Kenneth I. Zheng; Saiduo Liu; Chongyong Xu; Chao Xing; Zengpei Qiao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40462/v1 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: It’s reported SARS-CoV-2 could transmit via gastrointestinal tract, with or without pulmonary symptoms. However, as far as we know, there is no convenient marker to predict the virus discharge in stool and initial gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19.Aims: We aimed to investigate the biomarker predicting virus discharge in stool and initial gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19, which may assist the clinicians to better combat and prevent COVID-19.Methods: The patients complained of initial gastrointestinal involvement MESHD, including vomiting HP vomiting MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, with or without respiratory symptoms, attending the Sixth People’s Hospital of Wenzhou, and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, were screened by qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. The Confirmed COVID-19 patients without contaminated ingestion were all enrolled to investigate the association between circulating lymphocyte count and virus discharge, initial gastrointestinal involvement MESHD.Results: 76 COVID-19 patients were finally enrolled in this study (mean age TRANS 44.5, male TRANS 44.7%), with 24 (31.5%) complained of initial gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD. Significantly lower circulating lymphocyte count was found in the patients with positive results of qRT-PCR on stool (p = 0.012). Furthermore, when the circulating lymphocyte count increased from bottom tertile to the 2nd and 3rd tertiles, the risk of initial gastrointestinal involvement decreased by nearly 75% (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.98, p = 0.047), 83% (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.63, p = 0.008), adjusted for possible confounders.Conclusions: The circulating lymphocyte count is negatively associated with virus discharge in stool in COVID-19 patients, and the risk of initial gastrointestinal involvement also.

    Prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative RT-PCR results in Indonesian patients with COVID-19: A case series

    Authors: Ika Trisnawati; Riat Al Khair; Aditya Rifqi Fauzi; Gunadi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39961/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) might occur in some patients with COVID-19 rather than recurrence of infection MESHD. Here, we reported four cases of COVID-19 with prolonged nucleic acid conversion and false-negative results of RT-PCR in our institution.Case presentation: Case 1: A 36-year-old- male TRANS patient complained of coughing HP up phlegm one week before admission. His chest X-rays showed mild pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in the right lung. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also had negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 6th and 8th tests) from a total of 11 swab tests. Case 2: A 54-year-old- male TRANS patient complained of shortness of breath MESHD that worsened with activity. He had a comorbidity of diabetes MESHD. His chest X-rays showed inhomogeneous opacity on bilateral paracardial and lateral aspects. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also had negative results of RT-PCR once (the 5th test) from a total of 8 swab tests. Case 3: A 47-year-old man presented with complaints of fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, sore throat, and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. He had comorbidities of asthma HP asthma MESHD and heart rhythm disorders MESHD. His chest X-rays showed bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. His swab test was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, he also showed negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 4th and 6th tests) from a total of 11 swab tests. Case 4: A 56-year-old- female TRANS complained of lethargy HP lethargy MESHD and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. She has a history of hyperthyroidism HP hyperthyroidism MESHD. His chest X-rays showed bilateral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. She was confirmed positive for SARS-Cov-2. Besides the last two consecutive negative results, she also had negative results of RT-PCR twice (the 2nd and 10th tests) from a total of 14 swab tests.Conclusions: Our cases further confirmed TRANS the occurrence of prolonged nucleic acid conversion and the possibility of false negative results of RT-PCR in patients with COVID-19 instead of recurrence of infection MESHD. These findings might have an implication on the management of patients with COVID-19 who have already clinically and radiologically recovered, particularly related to subsequent spreading of the infection MESHD in the community.

    Isolation and Characterization of Coronavirus and Rotavirus Associated With Calves, in Central Part of Oromia MESHD, Ethiopia

    Authors: Umer Seid Geletu; Fufa Dawo Bari; Munera Ahmednur Usmael; Asamino Tesfaye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39022/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus and Rotavirus are most commonly associated etiologies for calves’ diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD resulting in loss of productivity and economy of farmers. However, various facets of diarrheal disease MESHD caused by coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD in calves in Ethiopia are inadequately understood.  A cross sectional study was conducted with the aim of isolation and molecular characterization of coronavirus and rotavirus from calves in central part of Oromia MESHD (Bishoftu, Sebata, Holeta and Addis Ababa), Ethiopia from November 2018 to May 2019. The four study areas were purposively selected and fecal samples were collected by simple random sampling for diagnosis of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD by using antigen detection Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO (Ag- ELISA SERO) kit. In addition, this study was carried out to have insight in prevalence SERO and associated risk factors of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves. Result: During the study 83 diarrheic and 162 non-diarrheic fecal samples collected from calves less than 4 weeks of age TRANS were screened for coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD. Of the 83 diarrheic samples, 1 sample (1.2%) was positive for coronavirus antigen (Ag) and 6 samples (7.2%) were found to be positive for rotavirus antigen (Ag) by Ag- ELISA SERO. All the non-diarrheic samples were negative for both coronavirus and rotavirus Ag. The overall prevalence SERO of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves were estimated as 0.4% (1/245) and 2.45% (6/245) respectively. All samples (7) of ELISA SERO test positive of both coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD were propagated in Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK). After 3 subsequent passages, progressive cytopathic effect (CPE) i.e. rounding, detachment as well as destruction of mono-layer cell of five sample (1 sample of coronavirus and 4 sample of rotavirus MESHD) (71.4%) were observed. At the molecular stage, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of coronavirus and rotavirus nucleic acid by using specific primers. The 5 samples that were coronavirus and rotavirus antigen positive by ELISA SERO and develop CPE on cell culture were also positive on RT-PCR technique. Infection prevalence SERO peaked have been obtained at 1st and 2nd weeks of age TRANS in male TRANS calves. Conclusion: Diarrheal disease MESHD caused by coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD has a great health problem in calves that interrupts production benefits with reduced weight gain MESHD and increased mortality, and its potential for zoonotic spread. So the present findings show coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves in Ethiopia that needs to be addressed by practicing early colostrums feeding in newborn calves, using vaccine, or improving livestock management.

    Analysis of the Primary Presenting Symptoms and Hematological Findings of COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh

    Authors: Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin Chowdhury; Md Rezaul Karim; H.M. Hamidullah Mehedi; Mohammad Shahbaz; Md Wazed Chowdhury; Guo Dan; Shuixiang He

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: Preprints.org

    Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological MESHD and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, skin rash HP skin rash MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD, Abdominal pain HP Abdominal pain MESHD/cramp, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, restlessness HP, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis HP leukocytosis MESHD and neutrophilia HP. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia MESHD. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum SERO ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia MESHD can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender TRANS variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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