Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Diarrhea (2)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Isolation and Characterization of Coronavirus and Rotavirus Associated With Calves, in Central Part of Oromia MESHD, Ethiopia

    Authors: Umer Seid Geletu; Fufa Dawo Bari; Munera Ahmednur Usmael; Asamino Tesfaye

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39022/v1 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus and Rotavirus are most commonly associated etiologies for calves’ diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD resulting in loss of productivity and economy of farmers. However, various facets of diarrheal disease MESHD caused by coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD in calves in Ethiopia are inadequately understood.  A cross sectional study was conducted with the aim of isolation and molecular characterization of coronavirus and rotavirus from calves in central part of Oromia MESHD (Bishoftu, Sebata, Holeta and Addis Ababa), Ethiopia from November 2018 to May 2019. The four study areas were purposively selected and fecal samples were collected by simple random sampling for diagnosis of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD by using antigen detection Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO (Ag- ELISA SERO) kit. In addition, this study was carried out to have insight in prevalence SERO and associated risk factors of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves. Result: During the study 83 diarrheic and 162 non-diarrheic fecal samples collected from calves less than 4 weeks of age TRANS were screened for coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD. Of the 83 diarrheic samples, 1 sample (1.2%) was positive for coronavirus antigen (Ag) and 6 samples (7.2%) were found to be positive for rotavirus antigen (Ag) by Ag- ELISA SERO. All the non-diarrheic samples were negative for both coronavirus and rotavirus Ag. The overall prevalence SERO of coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves were estimated as 0.4% (1/245) and 2.45% (6/245) respectively. All samples (7) of ELISA SERO test positive of both coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD were propagated in Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK). After 3 subsequent passages, progressive cytopathic effect (CPE) i.e. rounding, detachment as well as destruction of mono-layer cell of five sample (1 sample of coronavirus and 4 sample of rotavirus MESHD) (71.4%) were observed. At the molecular stage, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to determine the presence of coronavirus and rotavirus nucleic acid by using specific primers. The 5 samples that were coronavirus and rotavirus antigen positive by ELISA SERO and develop CPE on cell culture were also positive on RT-PCR technique. Infection prevalence SERO peaked have been obtained at 1st and 2nd weeks of age TRANS in male TRANS calves. Conclusion: Diarrheal disease MESHD caused by coronavirus and rotavirus MESHD has a great health problem in calves that interrupts production benefits with reduced weight gain MESHD and increased mortality, and its potential for zoonotic spread. So the present findings show coronavirus and rotavirus infection MESHD in calves in Ethiopia that needs to be addressed by practicing early colostrums feeding in newborn calves, using vaccine, or improving livestock management.

    Sero-Epidemiological Study SERO Sero-Epidemiological Study SERO on Bovine Rota and Coronavirus in Neonatal Calves in Dairy Farms of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Authors: Hayat Abdela Assefa; Asaminew Tesfaye; Motuma Debelo Dibaba

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-17360/v1 Date: 2020-03-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Bovine rotavirus (BRV) and coronavirus (BCoV) are most commonly associated etiologies from viral causative agents of neonatal calf diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy farms of Addis Ababa from November 2018 to April 2019 with the objectives of estimating the prevalence SERO of bovine rota and coronavirus infection in diarrheic MESHD and non-diarrheic calves and determining the associated risk factors. A probability proportional to size sampling technique (PPS) was used and accordingly, the study involved a total of 110 calves under 30 days of age TRANS from 57 dairy herds of which 34 (59.6%), 18 (31.6%) and 5 (8.8%) were small scale, medium scale and large scale farms respectively. As well risk factors associated with herd and calves were obtained from an interview of farm owners.Results: By using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA SERO) test, out of these 110 calves, 4 (3.64%) were found positive for rotavirus MESHD while only 1 (0.91%) was found positive for coronavirus infection MESHD. Data generated from both interview and laboratory investigation was analyzed using SPSS version 20. As a result, prevalence SERO of rotavirus infection MESHD showed a significant difference (P<0.05) with respect to sex, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD status, colostrum timing and consistency of diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. However, prevalence SERO of coronavirus infection MESHD showed significant difference (P<0.05) only with consistency of diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD.Conclusions: In conclusion, rotavirus and coronavirus infection MESHD in neonatal calves in this finding showed as there is less prevalence SERO in dairy farms of the study area; therefore, effort should be initiated for further studies on other (infectious and non-infectious) causes of calf diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in this area.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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