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MeSH Disease


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    Protective face mask filter capable of inactivating SARS-CoV-2, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Authors: Miguel Martí; Alberto Tuñón-Molina; Finn Lillelund Aachmann; Yukiko Muramoto; Takeshi Noda; Kazuo Takayama; Ángel Serrano-Aroca; Francisco Alvarado-Ramy; Stephen Hwang; Mohamed Sahl; Jinan Suliman; Elias Tayar; Hasan Ali Kasem; Meynard J. A. Agsalog; Bassam K. Akkarathodiyil; Ayat A. Alkhalaf; Mohamed Morhaf M. H. Alakshar; Abdulsalam Ali A. H. Al-Qahtani; Monther H. A. Al-Shedifat; Anas Ansari; Ahmad Ali Ataalla; Sandeep Chougule; Abhilash K. K. V. Gopinathan; Feroz J. Poolakundan; Sanjay U. Ranbhise; Saed M. A. Saefan; Mohamed M. Thaivalappil; Abubacker S. Thoyalil; Inayath M. Umar; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Adeel A. Butt; Peter Coyle; Andrew Jeremijenko; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Gheyath K. Nasrallah; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Odette Chaghoury; Hiam Chemaitelly; Laith J Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.24.396028 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: bioRxiv

    Face masks have globally been accepted to be an effective protective tool to prevent bacterial and viral transmission TRANS, especially against indoor aerosol transmission TRANS. However, commercial face masks contain filters that are made of materials that are not capable of inactivating neither SARS-CoV-2 nor multidrug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS individuals can infect MESHD other people even if they wear them because some viable viral or bacterial loads can escape from the masks. Furthermore, viral or bacterial contact transmission TRANS can occur after touching the mask, which constitutes an increasing source of contaminated biological waste. Additionally, bacterial pathogens contribute to the SARS-CoV-2 mediated pneumonia disease MESHD pneumonia disease HP complex and their resistance to antibiotics in pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD treatment is increasing at an alarming rate. In this regard, herein, we report the development of a novel protective non-woven face mask filter fabricated with a biofunctional coating of benzalkonium chloride that is capable of inactivating SARS-CoV-2 in one minute of contact, and the life-threatening methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Nonetheless, despite the results obtained, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and correct use of this technology for the mass production and commercialization of this broad-spectrum antimicrobial face mask filter. Our novel protective non-woven face mask filter would be useful for many health care workers and researchers working in this urgent and challenging field.

    The Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative reveals significant reductions in invasive bacterial infections MESHD during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD

    Authors: Angela B Brueggemann; Melissa J Jansen van Rensburg; David Shaw; Noel D McCarthy; Keith A Jolley; Martin CJ Maiden; Mark PG van der Linden; Ali Jafarpour; Seyedeh elham Mortazavi; Fatemeh Ghodratpour; Hanieh Behravan; Mohammad Khazeni; Seyed Amir Momeni; Issa Jahanzad; Abdolvahab Moradi; Alijan Tabarraei; Sadegh Ali Azimi; Ebrahim Kord; Seyed Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri; Azarakhsh Azaran; Farid Yousefi; Zakiye Mokhames; Alireza Soleimani; Shokouh Ghafari; Masood Ziaee; Shahram Habibzadeh; Farhad Jeddi; Azar Hadadi; Alireza Abdollahi; Gholam Abbas Kaydani; Saber Soltani; Talat Mokhtari-Azad; Reza Najafipour; Reza Malekzadeh; Kimia Kahrizi; Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri; Hossein Najmabadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.20225029 Date: 2020-11-20 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundStreptococcus pneumoniae HP, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis MESHD are leading causes of invasive diseases MESHD including bacteraemic pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and meningitis HP meningitis MESHD, and of secondary infections post-viral respiratory disease MESHD. They are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets. We investigated rates of invasive disease MESHD due to these pathogens during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. MethodsLaboratories in 26 countries across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae HP, H influenzae and N meningitidis from 1 January 2018 to 31 May 2020. Weekly cases in 2020 vs 2018-2019 were compared. Streptococcus agalactiae data were collected from nine laboratories for comparison to a non-respiratory pathogen. The stringency of COVID-19 MESHD containment measures was quantified by the Oxford COVID-19 MESHD Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed by Google COVID-19 MESHD Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time series modelling quantified changes in rates of invasive disease in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FindingsAll countries experienced a significant, sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae HP, H influenzae and N meningitidis, but not S agalactiae, in early 2020, which coincided with the introduction of COVID-19 MESHD containment measures in each country. Similar impacts were observed across most countries despite differing stringency in COVID-19 MESHD control policies. There was no evidence of a specific effect due to enforced school closures. InterpretationThe introduction of COVID-19 MESHD containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission TRANS of these bacterial respiratory pathogens, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide.

    Low Dose Radiation Therapy for COVID-19 MESHD Pneumonia HP: A Pilot Study

    Authors: Daya Nand Sharma; Randeep Guleria; Naveet Wig; Anant Mohan; Goura Kisor Rath; Vellaiyan Subramani; Sushma Bhatnagar; Supriya Mallick; Aman Sharma; Pritee Patil; Karan Madan; Manish Soneja; Sanjay Thulkar; Angel Rajan Singh; Sheetal Singh; Nan Wu; Hao Chen; Jiangfan Chen; Fan Lu; Jianzhong Su; Jia Qu

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20231514 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundThe World Health Organization (WHO) has declared coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) as pandemic in March 2020. Currently there is no vaccine or specific effective treatment for COVID-19 MESHD. The major cause of death MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD is severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD leading to respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Radiation in low doses (<100 cGy) has been known for its anti-inflammatory effect and therefore, low dose radiation therapy (LDRT) to lungs can potentially mitigate the severity of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and reduce mortality. We conducted a pilot trial to study the feasibility and clinical efficacy of LDRT to lungs in the management of patients with COVID-19 MESHD. MethodsFrom June to Aug 2020, we enrolled 10 patients with COVID-19 MESHD having moderate to severe risk disease [National Early Warning Score (NEWS) of [≥]5]. Patients were treated as per the standard COVID-19 MESHD management guidelines along with LDRT to both lungs with a dose of 70cGy in single fraction. Response assessment was done based on the clinical parameters using the NEWS. ResultsAll patients completed the prescribed treatment. Nine patients had complete clinical recovery mostly within a period ranging from 3-7 days. One patient, who was a known hypertensive, showed clinical deterioration and died 24 days after LDRT. No patients showed the signs of acute radiation toxicity. ConclusionResults of our study (90% response rate) suggest the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of LDRT in COVID-19 MESHD patients having moderate to severe risk disease. This mandates a randomized controlled trial to establish the clinical efficacy of LDRT in COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia HP.

    Quantitative Assessment of Chest CT Patterns in COVID-19 MESHD and Bacterial Pneumonia HP patients: A Deep Learning Perspective

    Authors: Myeongkyun Kang; Philip Chikontwe; Miguel Luna; Kyung Soo Hong; Jong Geol Jang; Jongsoo Park; Kyeong-Cheol Shin; June Hong Ahn; Sang Hyun Park; Srishti Basu; Soumi Chatterjee; Deboshmita Banerjee; Ishita Roy; Arup Kumar Mitra; Yasunori Watanabe; Max Crispin; David C Wraith; Adam F Cunningham; Mark T Drayson; Alex G Richter; Vera Lucia Garcia Calich; Otavio Cabral-Marques; Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos; Praful Pandey; Santosh KN; Shitij Chaudhary; Vishakh C Keri; Vishal Singh Chauhan; Niranjan Mahishi; Anand Shahi; Ragu R; Baidhnath Gupta; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil Dev Soni; Neeraj Nischal; Manish Soneja; Sanjeev Lalwani; Chitra Sarkar; Randeep Guleria; Naveet Wig; Anjan Trikha

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.13.20231118 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    As the number of COVID-19 MESHD patients has increased worldwide, many efforts have been made to find common patterns in CT images of COVID-19 MESHD patients and to confirm the relevance of these patterns against other clinical information. The aim of this paper is to propose a new method that allowed us to find patterns which observed on CTs of patients, and further we use these patterns for disease and severity diagnosis. For the experiment, we performed a retrospective cohort study of 170 confirmed patients with COVID-19 MESHD and bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP acquired at Yeungnam University hospital in Daegu, Korea. We extracted lesions inside the lungs from the CT images and classified whether these lesions were from COVID-19 MESHD patients or bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients by applying a deep learning model. From our experiments, we found 20 patterns that have a major effect on the classification performance SERO of the deep learning model. Crazy-paving was extracted as a major pattern of bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, while Ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the peripheral lungs as that of COVID-19 MESHD. Diffuse GGOs in the central and peripheral lungs was considered to be a key factor for severity classification. The proposed method achieved an accuracy of 91.2% for classifying COVID-19 MESHD and bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with 95% reported for severity classification. Chest CT analysis with constructed lesion clusters revealed well-known COVID-19 MESHD CT manifestations comparable to manual CT analysis. Moreover, the constructed patient level histogram with/without radiomics features showed feasibility and improved accuracy for both disease and severity classification with key clinical implications.

    The occurrence of cardiovascular complications MESHD associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: a systematic review

    Authors: Daniele Melo Sardinha; Karla VB Lima; Thalyta MRL Ueno; Yan Correa Rodrigues; Juliana CD Garcez; Anderson LS Santos; Ana LS Ferreira; Ricardo JPS Guimaraes; Luana NGC Lima; Marta Caltabellotta; Flavia Chioni; Monica Santangelo; Arto Hautala; Pietro Ameri; Marco Canepa; Italo Porto; Kimberly Jones-Beatty; William Christopher Golden; Andrew J. Satin; Jeanne S. Sheffield; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Irina Burd

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.14.20231803 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    The Cardiovascular Diseases MESHD represent the main cause of death MESHD in the world, and are associated as risk factors that cause serious complications in cases of infections, such as those of the respiratory tract HP. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared a pandemic for SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus causing severe pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, which emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The objective is to investigate the occurrence of cardiovascular complications MESHD associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. It is a systematic review, quantitative, in the databases, PubMed and Science direct, including primary studies with hospitalized patients confirmed for COVID-19 MESHD and who presented cardiovascular complications, form used tools for evaluation of quality and evidence, following the PRISMA recommendations. Results: 12 studies were included. The occurrence of cardiovascular complications MESHD was: 27.35% of the sample of 3,316 patients. Types: Acute cardiac injury MESHD 17.09%; Thromboembolism HP Thromboembolism MESHD 4.73%; Heart failure MESHD 3.43%; Arrhythmias HP Arrhythmias MESHD 1.77%; Brain stroke MESHD stroke HP 0.33%. Mean age TRANS 61 years. Conclusions: This study showed that there are several cardiovascular complications associated with SARS-CoV-2, that the main one is the acute cardiac injury MESHD, which causes several instabilities in the cardiopulmonary system, and that it is associated with mortality.

    Chest CT features of COVID-19 MESHD in the region of Abu Dhabi, UAE- A single institute study

    Authors: Ghufran Saeed; Abeer Al Helali; Safaa Almazrouei; Asad Shah; Luai Ahmed; Charles Nadeau-Routhier; Robert Knotts; Roi Bar-Cohen; Chirag Barbhaiya; Anthony Aizer; Douglas Holmes; Scott Bernstein; Michael Spinelli; David Park; Larry Chinitz; Lior Jankelosn; Kimberly Jones-Beatty; William Christopher Golden; Andrew J. Satin; Jeanne S. Sheffield; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Irina Burd

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.14.20229096 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to investigate high resolution CT features of COVID-19 MESHD infection in Abu Dhabi, UAE, and to compare the diagnostic performance SERO of CT scan with RT-PCR test. METHODS: Data of consecutive patients who were suspected to have COVID-19 MESHD infection and presented to our hospital, was collected from March 2, 2020, until April 12, 2020. All patients underwent RT-PCR test; out of which 53.8% had chest CT scan done. Using RT-PCR as a standard reference, the sensitivity SERO and specify of CT scan was calculated. We also analyzed the most common imaging findings in patients with positive RT-PCR results. RESULTS: The typical HRCT findings were seen in 50 scans (65.8%) out of total positive ones; 44 (77.2%) with positive RT-PCR results and 6 (31.6%) with negative results. The peripheral disease distribution was seen in 86%, multilobe involvement in 70%, bilateral in 82%, and posterior in 82% of the 50 scans. The ground glass opacities were seen in 50/74 (89.3%) of positive RT-PCR group. The recognized GGO patterns in these scans were: rounded 50%, linear 38%, and crazy-paving 24%. Using RT-PCR as a standard of reference, chest HRCT scan revealed sensitivity SERO of 68.8% and specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: The commonest HRCT findings in patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP were peripheral, posterior, bilateral, multilobe rounded ground glass opacities.

    Corticosteroids are associated with increased survival in elderly TRANS presenting severe SARS-Cov2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Laure Gallay; Viet-Thi Tran; Elodie Perrodeau; Nicolas Vignier; Matthieu Mahevas; Francesca Bisio; Emmanuel Forestier; Xavier Lescure; Nikki Turner; Priscilla Campbell-Stokes; Michelle Balm; Hazel C Dobinson; Cameron C Grant; Shelley James; Nayyereh Aminisani; Jacqui Ralston; Wendy Gunn; Judy Bucacao; Jessica Danielewicz; Tessa Moncrieff; Andrea McNeill; Lisa Lopez; Ben Waite; Tomasz Kiedrzynski; Hannah Schrader; Rebekah Gray; Kayla Cook; Danielle Currin; Chaune Engelbrecht; Whitney Tapurau; Leigh Emmerton; Maxine Martin; Michael G Baker; Susan Taylor; Adrian Trenholme; Conroy Wong; Shirley Lawrence; Colin McArthur; Alicia Stanley; Sally Roberts; Fahimeh Ranama; Jenny Bennett; Chris Mansell; Meik Dilcher; Anja Werno; Jennifer Grant; Antje van der Linden; Ben Youngblood; Paul G Thomas; Richard J Webby

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20226886 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    To assess the effectiveness of corticosteroids among elderly TRANS patients with COVID-19 MESHD pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP requiring oxygen. Design Comparative observational study based on routine care data. Baseline characteristics of patients were balanced using propensity-score inverse probability of treatment weighting. Setting Geriatric and infectious diseases wards from 36 hospitals in France and Luxembourg. Participants Adults TRANS [≥] 80 years old PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD or typical CT-scan images, requiring oxygen [≥] 3L/min and with an inflammatory syndrome MESHD (C-reactive protein [≥] 40mg/L). Measurements The primary outcome was overall survival at day 14. The secondary outcome was the proportion of patients discharged from hospital to home/rehabilitation on day 14. Adverse events were abstracted from electronic health records. Results Among the 267 patients included in the analysis, 96 were assigned to the treatment group. Median age TRANS was 86, interquartile range 83 to 90 and 95% had a SARS-CoV-2 PCR-confirmed diagnosis. Use of corticosteroids was significantly associated with an increased survival (weighted hazard ratio [wHR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.97). There was no significant difference between the treatment and control groups regarding the proportion of patients discharged to home/rehabilitation at day 14 (wRR 1.11, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.81). Twenty-two (16.7%) patients receiving corticosteroids developed adverse events while only 11 (6.4%) from the control group did. Conclusions Corticosteroids were associated with a significant increase the day-14 overall survival of patients over 80 years old hospitalized for severe COVID-19 MESHD.

    Detection of COVID-19 MESHD Disease from Chest X-Ray Images: A Deep Transfer Learning Framework

    Authors: Shadman Sakib; Md. Abu Bakr Siddique; Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman Khan; Nowrin Yasmin; Anas Aziz; Madiha Chowdhury; Ihtyaz Kader Tasawar

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.08.20227819 Date: 2020-11-12 Source: medRxiv

    The world economy as well as public health have been facing a devastating effect caused by the disease termed Coronavirus ( COVID-19 MESHD). A significant step of COVID-19 MESHD affected patient's treatment is the faster and accurate detection of the disease which is the motivation of this study. In this paper, the implementation of a deep transfer learning-based framework using a pre-trained network (ResNet-50) for detecting COVID-19 MESHD from the chest X-rays was done. Our dataset consists of 2905 chest X-ray images of three categories: COVID-19 MESHD affected (219 cases), Viral Pneumonia MESHD Pneumonia HP affected (1345 cases), and Normal Chest X-rays (1341 cases). The implemented neural network demonstrates significant performance SERO in classifying the cases with an overall accuracy of 96%. Most importantly, the model has shown significantly good performance SERO over the current research-based methods in detecting the COVID-19 MESHD cases in the test dataset (Precision = 1.00, Recall SERO = 1.00, F1-score = 1.00, and Specificity = 1.00). Therefore, our proposed approach can be adapted as a reliable method for faster and accurate COVID-19 MESHD affected case detection.

    The repurposed drugs suramin and quinacrine inhibit cooperatively in vitro SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro

    Authors: Raphael J Eberle; Danilo S Olivier; Marcos S Amaral; Dieter Willbold; Raghuvir K Arni; Monika A Coronado; Andrea Benedetti; Jan Larmann; Markus A Weigand; Sean McGrath; Claudia Denkinger; Stefan Baral; Jeff Kwong; Deepali Kumar; Atul Humar; Adrienne Chan; Seham Noureldin; Joshua Booth; Rachel Hong; David Smookler; Wesam Aleyadeh; Anjali Patel; Bethany Barber; Julia Casey; Ryan Hiebert; Henna Mistry; Ingrid Choong; Colin Hislop; Deanna Santer; D. Lorne Tyrrell; Jeffrey S. Glenn; Adam J. Gehring; Harry LA Janssen; Bettina Hansen

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.11.378018 Date: 2020-11-12 Source: bioRxiv

    Since the first report of a new pneumonia disease MESHD pneumonia disease HP in December 2019 (Wuhan, China) up to now WHO reported more than 50 million confirmed cases TRANS and more than one million losses, globally. The causative agent of COVID-19 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide resulting in a pandemic of unprecedented magnitude. To date, no clinically safe drug or vaccine is available and the development of molecules to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD is imminent. A well-known strategy to identify molecules with inhibitory potential against SARS-CoV-2 proteins is the repurposing of clinically developed drugs, e.g., anti-parasitic drugs. The results described in this study demonstrate the inhibitory potential of quinacrine and suramin against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (3CLpro). Quinacrine and suramin molecules present a competitive and non-competitive mode of inhibition, respectively, with IC50 and KD values in low M range. Using docking and molecular dynamics simulations we identified a possible binding mode and the amino acids involved in these interactions. Our results suggested that suramin in combination with quinacrine showed promising synergistic efficacy to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The identification of effective, synergistic drug combinations could lead to the design of better treatments for the COVID-19 MESHD disease. Drug repositioning offers hope to the SARS-CoV-2 control.

    Recombinant ACE2 Expression is Required for SARS-CoV-2 to Infect Primary Human Endothelial Cells and Induce Inflammatory and Procoagulative Responses

    Authors: Jonas Nascimento Conde; William R. Schutt; Elena Gorbunova; Erich R. Mackow; Suprabhat Mukherjee; Kianna M. Nguyen; Ming H. Ho; Jung-Eun Shin; Jared Feldman; Blake M. Hauser; Timothy M. Caradonna; Laura M. Wingler; Aaron G. Schmidt; Debora S. Marks; Jonathan Abraham; Andrew C. Kruse; Chang C. Liu

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.377606 Date: 2020-11-11 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 MESHD, an acute respiratory distress HP respiratory distress MESHD syndrome ( ARDS MESHD) characterized by pulmonary edema HP pulmonary edema MESHD, viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, multiorgan dysfunction, coagulopathy and inflammation MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors to infect and damage ciliated epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract. In alveoli, gas exchange occurs across an epithelial-endothelial barrier that ties respiration to endothelial cell (EC) regulation of edema HP edema MESHD, coagulation MESHD and inflammation MESHD. How SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates MESHD vascular functions to cause ARDS MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients remains an enigma focused on dysregulated EC responses. Whether SARS-CoV-2 directly or indirectly affects functions of the endothelium remains to be resolved and critical to understanding SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and therapeutic targets. We demonstrate that primary human ECs lack ACE2 receptors at protein and RNA levels, and that SARS-CoV-2 is incapable of directly infecting ECs derived from pulmonary, cardiac, brain, umbilical vein or kidney tissues. In contrast, pulmonary ECs transduced with recombinant ACE2 receptors are infected by SARS-CoV-2 and result in high viral titers (~1x107/ml), multinucleate syncytia MESHD and EC lysis. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of ACE2-expressing ECs elicits procoagulative and inflammatory responses observed in COVID-19 MESHD patients. The inability of SARS-CoV-2 to directly infect and lyse ECs without ACE2 expression explains the lack of vascular hemorrhage MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients and indicates that the endothelium is not a primary target of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. These findings are consistent with SARS-CoV-2 indirectly activating EC programs that regulate thrombosis MESHD and endotheliitis MESHD in COVID-19 MESHD patients, and focus strategies on therapeutically targeting epithelial and inflammatory responses that activate the endothelium or initiate limited ACE2 independent EC infection MESHD.

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